scispace - formally typeset

Journal ArticleDOI

Impaired innate interferon induction in severe therapy resistant atopic asthmatic children.

01 Jul 2013-Mucosal Immunology (Nature Publishing Group)-Vol. 6, Iss: 4, pp 797-806

TL;DR: It is shown that compared with non-allergic healthy control children, bronchial epithelial cells cultured ex vivo from severe therapy resistant atopic asthmatic children have profoundly impaired interferon-β and interferons-λ mRNA and protein in response to rhinovirus (RV) and polyIC stimulation, and this is a feature of STRA.

AbstractDeficient type I interferon-β and type III interferon-λ induction by rhinoviruses has previously been reported in mild/moderate atopic asthmatic adults. No studies have yet investigated if this occurs in severe therapy resistant asthma (STRA). Here, we show that compared with non-allergic healthy control children, bronchial epithelial cells cultured ex vivo from severe therapy resistant atopic asthmatic children have profoundly impaired interferon-β and interferon-λ mRNA and protein in response to rhinovirus (RV) and polyIC stimulation. Severe treatment resistant asthmatics also exhibited increased virus load, which negatively correlated with interferon mRNA levels. Furthermore, uninfected cells from severe therapy resistant asthmatic children showed lower levels of Toll-like receptor-3 mRNA and reduced retinoic acid inducible gene and melanoma differentiation-associated gene 5 mRNA after RV stimulation. These data expand on the original work, suggesting that the innate anti-viral response to RVs is impaired in asthmatic tissues and demonstrate that this is a feature of STRA.

Topics: Interferon (50%)

...read more

Content maybe subject to copyright    Report

Citations
More filters

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Results from in-depth molecular studies of mouse models in light of the results from the first clinical trials targeting key cytokines in humans are discussed and the extraordinary heterogeneity of asthma is described.
Abstract: Asthma is a common disease that affects 300 million people worldwide. Given the large number of eosinophils in the airways of people with mild asthma, and verified by data from murine models, asthma was long considered the hallmark T helper type 2 (T(H)2) disease of the airways. It is now known that some asthmatic inflammation is neutrophilic, controlled by the T(H)17 subset of helper T cells, and that some eosinophilic inflammation is controlled by type 2 innate lymphoid cells (ILC2 cells) acting together with basophils. Here we discuss results from in-depth molecular studies of mouse models in light of the results from the first clinical trials targeting key cytokines in humans and describe the extraordinary heterogeneity of asthma.

1,057 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
16 Apr 2019-Immunity
TL;DR: The cytokine networks driving asthma are reviewed, placing these in cellular context and incorporating insights from cytokine-targeting therapies in the clinic, to argue that the development of new and improved therapeutics will require understanding the diverse mechanisms underlying the spectrum of asthma pathologies.
Abstract: Asthma is a chronic inflammatory airway disease associated with type 2 cytokines interleukin-4 (IL-4), IL-5, and IL-13, which promote airway eosinophilia, mucus overproduction, bronchial hyperresponsiveness (BHR), and immunogloubulin E (IgE) synthesis. However, only half of asthma patients exhibit signs of an exacerbated Type 2 response. "Type 2-low" asthma has different immune features: airway neutrophilia, obesity-related systemic inflammation, or in some cases, few signs of immune activation. Here, we review the cytokine networks driving asthma, placing these in cellular context and incorporating insights from cytokine-targeting therapies in the clinic. We discuss established and emerging paradigms in the context of the growing appreciation of disease heterogeneity and argue that the development of new and improved therapeutics will require understanding the diverse mechanisms underlying the spectrum of asthma pathologies.

261 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: It is found that deficiency in signaling via type I interferon receptor led to deregulated activation of group 2 innate lymphoid cells (ILC2 cells) and infection-associated type 2 immunopathology.
Abstract: Viral respiratory tract infections are the main causative agents of the onset of infection-induced asthma and asthma exacerbations that remain mechanistically unexplained. Here we found that deficiency in signaling via type I interferon receptor led to deregulated activation of group 2 innate lymphoid cells (ILC2 cells) and infection-associated type 2 immunopathology. Type I interferons directly and negatively regulated mouse and human ILC2 cells in a manner dependent on the transcriptional activator ISGF3 that led to altered cytokine production, cell proliferation and increased cell death. In addition, interferon-γ (IFN-γ) and interleukin 27 (IL-27) altered ILC2 function dependent on the transcription factor STAT1. These results demonstrate that type I and type II interferons, together with IL-27, regulate ILC2 cells to restrict type 2 immunopathology.

218 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: There is an urgent need to further investigate the interrelationship between environmental and genetic determinants to identify high risk groups and key modifiable exposures and to define the role of environmental exposures in the development of asthma in both children and adults.
Abstract: Asthma is a globally significant non-communicable disease with major public health consequences for both children and adults, including high morbidity, and mortality in severe cases. We have summarized the evidence on asthma trends, environmental determinants, and long-term impacts while comparing these epidemiological features across childhood asthma and adult asthma. While asthma incidence and prevalence are higher in children, morbidity, and mortality are higher in adults. Childhood asthma is more common in boys while adult asthma is more common in women, and the reversal of this sex difference in prevalence occurs around puberty suggesting sex hormones may play a role in the etiology of asthma. The global epidemic of asthma that has been observed in both children and adults is still continuing, especially in low to middle income countries, although it has subsided in some developed countries. As a heterogeneous disease, distinct asthma phenotypes, and endotypes need to be adequately characterized to develop more accurate and meaningful definitions for use in research and clinical settings. This may be facilitated by new clustering techniques such as latent class analysis, and computational phenotyping methods are being developed to retrieve information from electronic health records using natural language processing (NLP) algorithms to assist in the early diagnosis of asthma. While some important environmental determinants that trigger asthma are well-established, more work is needed to define the role of environmental exposures in the development of asthma in both children and adults. There is increasing evidence that investigation into possible gene-by-environment and environment-by-environment interactions may help to better uncover the determinants of asthma. Therefore, there is an urgent need to further investigate the interrelationship between environmental and genetic determinants to identify high risk groups and key modifiable exposures. For children, asthma may impair airway development and reduce maximally attained lung function, and these lung function deficits may persist into adulthood without additional progressive loss. Adult asthma may accelerate lung function decline and increase the risk of fixed airflow obstruction, with the effect of early onset asthma being greater than late onset asthma. Therefore, in managing asthma, our focus going forward should be firmly on improving not only short-term symptoms, but also the long-term respiratory and other health outcomes.

206 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: It is suggested that inhaled IFN-β is a potential treatment for virus-induced deteriorations of asthma in difficult-to-treat people with asthma and supports the need for further, adequately powered, trials in this population.
Abstract: Rationale: Ex vivo, bronchial epithelial cells from people with asthma are more susceptible to rhinovirus infection caused by deficient induction of the antiviral protein, IFN-β. Exogenous IFN-β restores antiviral activity. Objectives: To compare the efficacy and safety of inhaled IFN-β with placebo administered to people with asthma after onset of cold symptoms to prevent or attenuate asthma symptoms caused by respiratory viruses. Methods: A total of 147 people with asthma on inhaled corticosteroids (British Thoracic Society Steps 2–5), with a history of virus-associated exacerbations, were randomized to 14-day treatment with inhaled IFN-β (n = 72) or placebo (n = 75) within 24 hours of developing cold symptoms and were assessed clinically, with relevant samples collected to assess virus infection and antiviral responses. Measurements and Main Results: A total of 91% of randomized patients developed a defined cold. In this modified intention-to-treat population, asthma symptoms did not get clinically significantly worse (mean change in six-item Asthma Control Questionnaire <0.5) and IFN-β treatment had no significant effect on this primary endpoint, although it enhanced morning peak expiratory flow recovery (P = 0.033), reduced the need for additional treatment, and boosted innate immunity as assessed by blood and sputum biomarkers. In an exploratory analysis of the subset of more difficult-to-treat, Step 4-5 people with asthma (n = 27 IFN-β; n = 31 placebo), Asthma Control Questionnaire-6 increased significantly on placebo; this was prevented by IFN-β (P = 0.004). Conclusions: Although the trial did not meet its primary endpoint, it suggests that inhaled IFN-β is a potential treatment for virus-induced deteriorations of asthma in difficult-to-treat people with asthma and supports the need for further, adequately powered, trials in this population. Clinical trial registered with www.clinicaltrials.gov (NCT 01126177).

185 citations


Cites background from "Impaired innate interferon inductio..."

  • ...A similar defect exists in asthmatic airway macrophages (8) and airway cells of children with asthma (9, 10)....

    [...]


References
More filters

Journal ArticleDOI
13 May 1995-BMJ
TL;DR: This study supports the hypothesis that upper respiratory viral infections are associated with 80-85% of asthma exacerbations in school age children.
Abstract: Objective: To study the association between upper and lower respiratory viral infections and acute exacerbations of asthma in schoolchildren in the community. Design: Community based 13 month longitudinal study using diary card respiratory symptom and peak expiratory flow monitoring to allow early sampling for viruses. Subjects: 108 Children aged 9-11 years who had reported wheeze or cough, or both, in a questionnaire. Setting: Southampton and surrounding community. Main outcome measures: Upper and lower respiratory viral infections detected by polymerase chain reaction or conventional methods, reported exacerbations of asthma, computer identified episodes of respiratory tract symptoms or peak flow reductions. Results: Viruses were detected in 80% of reported episodes of reduced peak expiratory flow, 80% of reported episodes of wheeze, and in 85% of reported episodes of upper respiratory symptoms, cough, wheeze, and a fall in peak expiratory flow. The median duration of reported falls in peak expiratory flow was 14 days, and the median maximum fall in peak expiratory flow was 81 1/min. The most commonly identified virus type was rhinovirus. Conclusions: This study supports the hypothesis that upper respiratory viral infections are associated with 80-85% of asthma exacerbations in school age children. Key messages Key messages In this study common cold viruses were found in 80-85% of reported exacerbations of asthma in children Rhinoviruses, which cause most common colds, accounted for two thirds of viruses detected Analysis of diary cards also showed large numbers of similar but less severe episodes that may also be viral in origin

1,824 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
28 Apr 2011-Nature
TL;DR: It is shown that different viruses are targeted by unique sets of ISGs, and that each viral species is susceptible to multiple antiviral genes, which together encompass a range of inhibitory activities.
Abstract: The type I interferon response protects cells against invading viral pathogens. The cellular factors that mediate this defence are the products of interferon-stimulated genes (ISGs). Although hundreds of ISGs have been identified since their discovery more than 25 years ago, only a few have been characterized with respect to antiviral activity. For most ISG products, little is known about their antiviral potential, their target specificity and their mechanisms of action. Using an overexpression screening approach, here we show that different viruses are targeted by unique sets of ISGs. We find that each viral species is susceptible to multiple antiviral genes, which together encompass a range of inhibitory activities. To conduct the screen, more than 380 human ISGs were tested for their ability to inhibit the replication of several important human and animal viruses, including hepatitis C virus, yellow fever virus, West Nile virus, chikungunya virus, Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus and human immunodeficiency virus type-1. Broadly acting effectors included IRF1, C6orf150 (also known as MB21D1), HPSE, RIG-I (also known as DDX58), MDA5 (also known as IFIH1) and IFITM3, whereas more targeted antiviral specificity was observed with DDX60, IFI44L, IFI6, IFITM2, MAP3K14, MOV10, NAMPT (also known as PBEF1), OASL, RTP4, TREX1 and UNC84B (also known as SUN2). Combined expression of pairs of ISGs showed additive antiviral effects similar to those of moderate type I interferon doses. Mechanistic studies uncovered a common theme of translational inhibition for numerous effectors. Several ISGs, including ADAR, FAM46C, LY6E and MCOLN2, enhanced the replication of certain viruses, highlighting another layer of complexity in the highly pleiotropic type I interferon system.

1,661 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: A few common alleles are associated with disease risk at all ages and suggest a role for communication of epithelial damage to the adaptive immune system and activation of airway inflammation in asthma.
Abstract: A b s t r ac t Background Susceptibility to asthma is influenced by genes and environment; implicated genes may indicate pathways for therapeutic intervention. Genetic risk factors may be useful in identifying subtypes of asthma and determining whether intermediate phenotypes, such as elevation of the total serum IgE level, are causally linked to disease. Methods We carried out a genomewide association study by genotyping 10,365 persons with physician-diagnosed asthma and 16,110 unaffected persons, all of whom were matched for ancestry. We used random-effects pooled analysis to test for association in the overall study population and in subgroups of subjects with childhood-onset asthma (defined as asthma developing before 16 years of age), later-onset asthma, severe asthma, and occupational asthma. Results We observed associations of genomewide significance between asthma and the following single-nucleotide polymorphisms: rs3771166 on chromosome 2, implicating IL1RL1/IL18R1 (P =3×10 −9 ); rs9273349 on chromosome 6, implicating HLA-DQ (P = 7×10 −14 ); rs1342326 on chromosome 9, flanking IL33 (P = 9×10 −10 ); rs744910 on chromosome 15 in SMAD3 (P = 4×10 −9 ); and rs2284033 on chromosome 22 in IL2RB (P = 1.1×10 −8 ). Association with the ORMDL3/GSDMB locus on chromosome 17q21 was specific to childhood-onset disease (rs2305480, P = 6×10 −23 ). Only HLA-DR showed a significant genomewide association with the total serum IgE concentration, and loci strongly associated with IgE levels were not associated with asthma. Conclusions Asthma is genetically heterogeneous. A few common alleles are associated with disease risk at all ages. Implicated genes suggest a role for communication of epithelial damage to the adaptive immune system and activation of airway inflammation. Variants at the ORMDL3/GSDMB locus are associated only with childhood-onset disease. Elevation of total serum IgE levels has a minor role in the development of asthma. (Funded by the European Commission and others.)

1,597 citations


"Impaired innate interferon inductio..." refers background in this paper

  • ...Array studies(22) have not found that these pattern recognition receptors are poorly expressed in asthma, and large genotyping studies have not highlighted any single-nucleotide polymorphisms associated with asthma for these genes.(41,42) These receptors also activate signaling pathways that are also common for pro-inflammatory cytokines,(18) which are not consistently reduced in studies where impaired IFN are observed....

    [...]


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The identification of a ligand-receptor system that, upon engagement, leads to the establishment of an antiviral state and may contribute to antiviral or other defenses by a mechanism similar to, but independent of, type I IFNs.
Abstract: We report here the identification of a ligand-receptor system that, upon engagement, leads to the establishment of an antiviral state. Three closely positioned genes on human chromosome 19 encode distinct but paralogous proteins, which we designate interferon-lambda1 (IFN-lambda1), IFN-lambda2 and IFN-lambda3 (tentatively designated as IL-29, IL-28A and IL-28B, respectively, by HUGO). The expression of IFN-lambda mRNAs was inducible by viral infection in several cell lines. We identified a distinct receptor complex that is utilized by all three IFN-lambda proteins for signaling and is composed of two subunits, a receptor designated CRF2-12 (also designated as IFN-lambdaR1) and a second subunit, CRF2-4 (also known as IL-10R2). Both receptor chains are constitutively expressed on a wide variety of human cell lines and tissues and signal through the Jak-STAT (Janus kinases-signal transducers and activators of transcription) pathway. This receptor-ligand system may contribute to antiviral or other defenses by a mechanism similar to, but independent of, type I IFNs.

1,595 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In patients who have persistent symptoms of asthma despite treatment with inhaled glucocorticoids, the addition of formoterol to budesonid therapy or the use of a higher dose of budesonide may be beneficial.
Abstract: Background The role of long-acting, inhaled β2-agonists in treating asthma is uncertain. In a double-blind study, we evaluated the effects of adding inhaled formoterol to both lower and higher doses of the inhaled glucocorticoid budesonide. Methods After a four-week run-in period of treatment with budesonide (800 μg twice daily), 852 patients being treated with glucocorticoids were randomly assigned to one of four treatments given twice daily by means of a dry-powder inhaler (Turbuhaler): 100 μg of budesonide plus placebo, 100 μg of budesonide plus 12 μg of formoterol, 400 μg of budesonide plus placebo, or 400 μg of budesonide plus 12 μg of formoterol. Terbutaline was permitted as needed. Treatment continued for one year; we compared the frequency of exacerbations of asthma, symptoms, and lung function in the four groups. A severe exacerbation was defined by the need for oral glucocorticoids or a decrease in the peak flow to more than 30 percent below the base-line value on two consecutive days. Results T...

1,486 citations


Related Papers (5)