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Proceedings ArticleDOI: 10.1109/ICGCE.2013.6823439

Implementation of single precision floating point multiplier using Karatsuba algorithm

01 Nov 2013-pp 254-256
Abstract: This paper presents an efficient floating point multiplier using Karatsuba algorithm Digital signal processing algorithms and media applications use a large number of multiplications, which is both time and power consuming We have used IEEE 754 format for binary representation of the floating point numbers Verilog HDL is used to implement Karatsuba multiplication algorithm which is technology independent pipelined design This multiplier implements the significant multiplication along with sign bit and exponent computations Three stage pipelining is being used in the design with the latency of 8 clock cycles In this design, the mantissa bits are divided into three parts of particular bit width in such a way so that the multiplication can be done using the standard multipliers available in FPGA cyclone II device family and synthesized using Altera-Quartus II

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Citations
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Proceedings ArticleDOI: 10.1109/SPICES.2015.7091534
23 Apr 2015-
Abstract: Most of the scientific operation involve floating point computations. It is necessary to implement faster multipliers occupying less area and consuming less power. Multipliers play a critical role in any digital design. Even though various multiplication algorithms have been in use, the performance of Vedic multipliers has not drawn a wider attention. Vedic mathematics involves application of 16 sutras or algorithms. One among these, the Urdhva tiryakbhyam sutra for multiplication has been considered in this work. An IEEE-754 based Vedic multiplier has been developed to carry out both single precision and double precision format floating point operations and its performance has been compared with Booth and Karatsuba based floating point multipliers. Xilinx FPGA has been made use of while implementing these algorithms and a resource utilization and timing performance based comparison has also been made.

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14 Citations


Open accessProceedings ArticleDOI: 10.1109/ICSPCOM.2015.7150666
S Arish1, Rajender Kumar Sharma1Institutions (1)
09 Jul 2015-
Abstract: Floating point multiplication is a crucial operation in high power computing applications such as image processing, signal processing etc. And also multiplication is the most time and power consuming operation. This paper proposes an efficient method for IEEE 754 floating point multiplication which gives a better implementation in terms of delay and power. A combination of Karatsuba algorithm and Urdhva-Tiryagbhyam algorithm (Vedic Mathematics) is used to implement unsigned binary multiplier for mantissa multiplication. The multiplier is implemented using Verilog HDL, targeted on Spartan-3E and Virtex-4 FPGA.

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Topics: Karatsuba algorithm (68%), Multiplication algorithm (66%), IEEE floating point (60%) ...read more

14 Citations


Proceedings ArticleDOI: 10.1109/GCCT.2015.7342650
S Arish1, Rajender Kumar Sharma1Institutions (1)
23 Apr 2015-
Abstract: Binary multiplication is an important operation in many high power computing applications and floating point multiplier designs. And also multiplication is the most time, area and power consuming operation. This paper proposes an efficient method for unsigned binary multiplication which gives a better implementation in terms of delay and area. A combination of Karatsuba algorithm and Urdhva-Tiryagbhyam algorithm (Vedic Mathematics) is used to implement the proposed unsigned binary multiplier. Karatsuba algorithm is best suited for higher bits and Urdhva-Tiryagbhyam algorithm is best for lower bit multiplication. A new algorithm by combining both helps to reduce the drawbacks of both. The multiplier is implemented using Verilog HDL, targeted on Spartan-3E and Virtex-4 FPGA.

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Topics: Karatsuba algorithm (72%), Multiplication algorithm (65%), Binary multiplier (63%) ...read more

9 Citations


Proceedings ArticleDOI: 10.1109/ICCICCT.2016.7987995
K V Gowreesrinivas1, P. Samundiswary1Institutions (1)
01 Dec 2016-
Abstract: Floating-point arithmetic plays major role in computer systems. Many of the digital signal processing applications use floating-point algorithms for execution of the floating-point computations and every operating system is answerable practically for floating-point special cases like underflow and overflow. The single precision floating point arithmetic operations are multiplication, division, addition and subtraction among all these multiplication is extensively used and involves composite arithmetic functions. The single precision (32-bit) floating point number split into three parts, Sign part, and Exponent part and Mantissa part. The most significant bit of the number is a sign bit and it is a 1-bit length. Next 8-bits represent the exponent part of the number and next 23-bits represent the mantissa part of the number. Mantissa part needs large 24-bit multiplication. The performance of the single-precision floating point number mostly based on the occupied area and delay of the multiplier. In this paper, a novel approach for single-precision floating multiplier is developed by using Urdhva Tiryagbhyam technique and different adders to decrease the complexity of mantissa multiplication. This requires less hardware for multiplication compared to that conventional multipliers and used different regular adders like carry select, carry skip adders and parallel prefix adders for exponent addition. Further, the performance parameters comparison was done in terms of area and delay. All modules are coded by using Verilog HDL and simulated with Xilinx ISE tool.

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Topics: Double-precision floating-point format (67%), Floating-point unit (64%), Minifloat (61%) ...read more

7 Citations


Open accessProceedings ArticleDOI: 10.1109/SPIN.2015.7095315
S Arish1, Rajender Kumar Sharma1Institutions (1)
Abstract: Floating point multiplication is one of the crucial operations in many application domains such as image processing, signal processing etc. But every application requires different working features. Some need high precision, some need low power consumption, low latency etc. But IEEE-754 format is not really flexible for these specifications and also design is complex. Optimal run-time reconfigurable hardware implementations may need the use of custom floating-point formats that do not necessarily follow IEEE specified sizes. In this paper, we present a run-time-reconfigurable floating point multiplier implemented on FPGA with custom floating point format for different applications. This floating point multiplier can have 6 modes of operations depending on the accuracy or application requirement. With the use of optimal design with custom IPs (Intellectual Properties), a better implementation is done by truncating the inputs before multiplication. And a combination of Karatsuba algorithm and Urdhva-Tiryagbhyam algorithm (Vedic Mathematics) is used to implement unsigned binary multiplier. This further increases the efficiency of the multiplier.

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Topics: Floating point (60%), Binary multiplier (57%), Karatsuba algorithm (56%) ...read more

4 Citations


References
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Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1145/103162.103163
David E. Goldberg1Institutions (1)
Abstract: Floating-point arithmetic is considered as esoteric subject by many people. This is rather surprising, because floating-point is ubiquitous in computer systems: Almost every language has a floating-point datatype; computers from PCs to supercomputers have floating-point accelerators; most compilers will be called upon to compile floating-point algorithms from time to time; and virtually every operating system must respond to floating-point exceptions such as overflow. This paper presents a tutorial on the aspects of floating-point that have a direct impact on designers of computer systems. It begins with background on floating-point representation and rounding error, continues with a discussion of the IEEE floating point standard, and concludes with examples of how computer system builders can better support floating point.

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Topics: IEEE floating point (68%), Minifloat (66%), IEEE 754-1985 (63%) ...read more

1,282 Citations


Open accessPosted Content
Yoonjin Kim1, Mary Kiemb1, Chulsoo Park1, Jinyong Jung1  +1 moreInstitutions (1)
Abstract: Coarse-grained reconfigurable architectures aim to achieve both goals of high performance and flexibility. However, existing reconfigurable array architectures require many resources without considering the specific application domain. Functional resources that take long latency and/or large area can be pipelined and/or shared among the processing elements. Therefore the hardware cost and the delay can be effectively reduced without any performance degradation for some application domains. We suggest such reconfigurable array architecture template and design space exploration flow for domain-specific optimization. Experimental results show that our approach is much more efficient both in performance and area compared to existing reconfigurable architectures.

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91 Citations


Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1109/92.311646
Barry Fagin1, C. Renard2Institutions (2)
Abstract: We present empirical results describing the implementation of an IEEE Standard 754 compliant floating-point adder/multiplier using field programmable gate arrays. The use of FPGA's permits fast and accurate quantitative evaluation of a variety of circuit design tradeoffs for addition and multiplication. PPGA's also permit accurate assessments of the area and time costs associated with various features of the IEEE floating-point standard, including rounding and gradual underflow. These costs are analyzed, along with the effects of architectural correlation, a phenomenon that occurs when the cost of combining architectural features exceeds the sum of separate implementation. We conclude with an assessment of the strengths and weaknesses of using FPGA's for floating-point arithmetic. >

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Topics: Floating point (59%), Arithmetic underflow (58%), Adder (57%) ...read more

91 Citations


Proceedings ArticleDOI: 10.1109/DATE.2005.260
Yoonjin Kim1, Mary Kiemb1, Chulsoo Park1, Jinyong Jung1  +1 moreInstitutions (1)
07 Mar 2005-
Abstract: Coarse-grained reconfigurable architectures aim to achieve goals of both high performance and flexibility. However, existing reconfigurable array architectures require many resources without considering the specific application domain. Functional resources that take long latency and/or large area can be pipelined and/or shared among the processing elements. Therefore, the hardware cost and the delay can be effectively reduced without any performance degradation for some application domains. We suggest such a reconfigurable array architecture template and a design space exploration flow for domain-specific optimization. Experimental results show that our approach is much more efficient, in both performance and area, compared to existing reconfigurable architectures.

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Topics: Design space exploration (54%), Application domain (51%), Pipeline (computing) (51%) ...read more

85 Citations


Proceedings ArticleDOI: 10.1109/SIECPC.2011.5876905
24 Apr 2011-
Abstract: In this paper we describe an efficient implementation of an IEEE 754 single precision floating point multiplier targeted for Xilinx Virtex-5 FPGA. VHDL is used to implement a technology-independent pipelined design. The multiplier implementation handles the overflow and underflow cases. Rounding is not implemented to give more precision when using the multiplier in a Multiply and Accumulate (MAC) unit. With latency of three clock cycles the design achieves 301 MFLOPs. The multiplier was verified against Xilinx floating point multiplier core.

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Topics: IEEE floating point (60%), CPU multiplier (60%), Multiplier (economics) (60%) ...read more

78 Citations


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