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Journal ArticleDOI

Improvement and validation of a model for photovoltaic array performance

01 Jan 2006-Solar Energy (Pergamon)-Vol. 80, Iss: 1, pp 78-88

TL;DR: The five-parameter model is of interest because it requires only a small amount of input data available from the manufacturer and therefore it provides a valuable tool for energy prediction, and could be improved if manufacturer’s data included information at two radiation levels.
Abstract: Manufacturers of photovoltaic panels typically provide electrical parameters at only one operating condition. Photovoltaic panels operate over a large range of conditions so the manufacturer’s information is not sufficient to determine their overall performance. Designers need a reliable tool to predict energy production from a photovoltaic panel under all conditions in order to make a sound decision on whether or not to incorporate this technology. A model to predict energy production has been developed by Sandia National Laboratory, but it requires input data that are normally not available from the manufacturer. The five-parameter model described in this paper uses data provided by the manufacturer, absorbed solar radiation and cell temperature together with semi-empirical equations, to predict the current–voltage curve. This paper indicates how the parameters of the five-parameter model are determined and compares predicted current–voltage curves with experimental data from a building integrated photovoltaic facility at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) for four different cell technologies (single crystalline, poly crystalline, silicon thin film, and triple-junction amorphous). The results obtained with the Sandia model are also shown. The predictions from the five-parameter model are shown to agree well with both the Sandia model results and the NIST measurements for all four cell types over a range of operating conditions. The five-parameter model is of interest because it requires only a small amount of input data available from the manufacturer and therefore it provides a valuable tool for energy prediction. The predictive capability could be improved if manufacturer’s data included information at two radiation levels.
Topics: NIST (53%), Photovoltaic system (52%)

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Improvement and Validation
of a Model for Photovoltaic
Array Performance
By Widalys De Soto
A thesis submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of:
Master of Science
Mechanical Engineering
Solar Energy Laboratory
University of Wisconsin-Madison
2004

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iii
Abstract
Improvement and Validation of a Model for Photovoltaic
Array Performance
by Widalys De Soto
under the supervision of Dr. William Beckman and Dr. Sanford Klein
The use of photovoltaic cells has increased in the last few decades as their
manufacturing cost has decreased and as people have become more concerned about
energy use. Designers need a reliable tool to predict energy production resulting from
building integrated photovoltaic panels in order to make a sound decision on whether or
not to incorporate this technology into a building. A few models that predict energy
production have been developed, but they require a large amount of input data that are
normally not available during the design phase. The 5-Parameter model investigated in
this research uses the data provided by the manufacturers and semi-empirical correlation
equations to predict the energy production for specified cell parameters and operating
conditions. Data were obtained from a building integrated photovoltaic facility at the
National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), where four different cell
technologies were tested. These data were used to verify the accuracy of the energy
production predictions, therefore validating the model suggested in this study. The
model was analyzed for these four different cell technologies and compared with
different existing models, showing acceptable and sometimes even better results than the
existing models that require more input information. Because the model only requires a

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small amount of input data available from the manufacturer, it provides a valuable tool
for energy prediction.

v
Acknowledgements
I would like to thank my family for their economical and emotional support,
especially my parents who always encouraged me to pursue at least an MS Degree.
Thanks to my mom for always studying with us and helping us develop good studying
habits and to my dad for encouraging me to study engineering.
Thank you also to my beloved husband for his words of support when classes
were getting though and I doubted I would get good grades. Thanks for always making
me believe in myself and my potential.
A very big thank you to my advisors Professors Klein and Beckman for all they
taught me, for their patience in starting from the beginning because before I came here I
didn’t know anything about solar energy and now, although I’m not an expert (like them),
I can say that at least I understand how it works. It’s amazing the amount of information
I have learned in such a short period of time, mostly, thanks to them.
I would also like to thank Michaël Kummert for all his help in teaching me how to
use and program in TRNSYS. Without his help I would still be staring angrily at the
computer, trying to find my mistakes. Thank you also for arranging all the data I needed
in one file rather than in the more than 4000 files that I originally had, which would have
taken me a year to go through.
Thank you to Mark Davis from the National Institute of Standards and
Technology (NIST) for providing all the data we used to validate our models and for
answering all my questions.

Citations
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Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: This paper proposes a method of modeling and simulation of photovoltaic arrays. The main objective is to find the parameters of the nonlinear I-V equation by adjusting the curve at three points: open circuit, maximum power, and short circuit. Given these three points, which are provided by all commercial array data sheets, the method finds the best I-V equation for the single-diode photovoltaic (PV) model including the effect of the series and parallel resistances, and warranties that the maximum power of the model matches with the maximum power of the real array. With the parameters of the adjusted I-V equation, one can build a PV circuit model with any circuit simulator by using basic math blocks. The modeling method and the proposed circuit model are useful for power electronics designers who need a simple, fast, accurate, and easy-to-use modeling method for using in simulations of PV systems. In the first pages, the reader will find a tutorial on PV devices and will understand the parameters that compose the single-diode PV model. The modeling method is then introduced and presented in details. The model is validated with experimental data of commercial PV arrays.

3,406 citations


Cites background from "Improvement and validation of a mod..."

  • ...Some values for a are found in [42] based on empirical analyses....

    [...]

  • ...The diode saturation current I0 and its dependence on the temperature may be expressed by as shown [42], [43], [45]–[48]:...

    [...]

  • ...depends linearly on the solar irradiation and is also influenced by the temperature according to the following equation [30], [42]–[44]:...

    [...]

  • ...12 eV for the polycrystalline Si at 25 ◦C [23], [42]), and I0,n is the nominal saturation current:...

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Journal ArticleDOI
Girish Kumar Singh1Institutions (1)
01 May 2013-Energy
Abstract: The various forms of solar energy – solar heat, solar photovoltaic, solar thermal electricity, and solar fuels offer a clean, climate-friendly, very abundant and in-exhaustive energy resource to mankind. Solar power is the conversion of sunlight into electricity, either directly using photovoltaic (PV), or indirectly using concentrated solar power (CSP). The research has been underway since very beginning for the development of an affordable, in-exhaustive and clean solar energy technology for longer term benefits. This paper, therefore, reviews the progress made in solar power generation research and development since its inception. Attempts are also made to highlight the current and future issues involved in the generation of quality and reliable solar power technology for future applications. A list of 121 research publications on the subject is also appended for a quick reference.

633 citations


Cites background from "Improvement and validation of a mod..."

  • ...A fourth piece of information can be obtained by setting the derivative of the power at the maximum power point to zero [41]....

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  • ...The electric power generated by a solar PV array fluctuates depending on the operating conditions and field factors such as the sun’s geometric location, irradiation levels and ambient temperature [40,41]....

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Proceedings ArticleDOI
04 Dec 2009-
TL;DR: An easy and accurate method of modeling photovoltaic arrays using information from the datasheet is presented and the model is validated with experimental data.
Abstract: This paper presents an easy and accurate method of modeling photovoltaic arrays. The method is used to obtain the parameters of the array model using information from the datasheet. The photovoltaic array model can be simulated with any circuit simulator. The equations of the model are presented in details and the model is validated with experimental data. Finally, simulation examples are presented. This paper is useful for power electronics designers and researchers who need an effective and straightforward way to model and simulate photovoltaic arrays.

618 citations


Cites background from "Improvement and validation of a mod..."

  • ...Some values for a are found in [32] based on empirical analysis....

    [...]

  • ...12 eV for the polycrystalline Si at 25 C [11, 32]), and I0,n is the nominal saturation current:...

    [...]


Journal ArticleDOI
Jinqing Peng1, Lin Lu1, Hongxing Yang1Institutions (1)
Abstract: This paper aims to examine the sustainability and environmental performance of PV-based electricity generation systems by conducting a thorough review of the life cycle assessment (LCA) studies of five common photovoltaic (PV) systems, i.e., mono-crystalline (mono-Si), multi-crystalline (multi-Si), amorphous silicon (a-Si), CdTe thin film (CdTe) and CIS thin film (CIS), and some advanced PV systems. The results show that, among the five common PV systems, the CdTe PV system presents the best environmental performance in terms of energy payback time (EPBT) and greenhouse gases (GHG) emission rate due to its low life-cycle energy requirement and relatively high conversion efficiency. Meanwhile, the mono-Si PV system demonstrates the worst because of its high energy intensity during the solar cells’ production process. The EPBT and GHG emission rate of thin film PV systems are within the range of 0.75–3.5 years and 10.5–50 g CO 2 -eq./kW h, respectively. In general, the EPBT of mono-Si PV systems range from 1.7 to 2.7 years with GHG emission rate from 29 to 45 g CO 2 -eq./kW h, which is an order of magnitude smaller than that of fossil-based electricity. This paper also reviews the EPBT and GHG emission rates of some advanced PV systems, such as high-concentration, heterojunction and dye-sensitized technologies. The EBPT of high-concentration PV system is lower, ranging from 0.7 to 2.0 years, but the CO 2 emission rate of dye-sensitized PV system is higher than the ones of other PV systems at the moment. The LCA results show that PV technologies are already proved to be very sustainable and environmental-friendly in the state of the art. With the emerging of new manufacturing technologies, the environmental performance of PV technologies is expected to be further improved in the near future. In addition, considering the existing limitations in the previous LCA studies, a few suggestions are recommended.

473 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
Ali Naci Celik1, Nasır Acikgoz1Institutions (1)
01 Jan 2007-Applied Energy
Abstract: This article presents the modelling and experimental verification of the operating current of a 120 W of mono-crystalline photovoltaic module using four- and five-parameter analytical models. The southern part of Turkey, where the experimental system is mounted, is particularly well suited to photovoltaic installations. The operating current of the photovoltaic module, calculated from the models, is validated based on a series of experimental measurements. As well as the current and voltage of the photovoltaic module, the environmental variables such as ambient temperature and solar irradiance were measured and used for validation of the operating current. The photovoltaic cell models considered in this article are drawn from the equivalent electrical circuit that includes light-generated current, diode reverse saturation current, and series and shunt resistances. The simplified four-parameter model assumes the shunt resistance as infinite and thus neglects it. After determining the model parameters, the operating current is calculated using both models and compared to the measured current produced by the photovoltaic module. It is shown that the complete five-parameter model predicts the operating current better than the simplified four-parameter model, especially around solar noon, when most of the power is produced.

377 citations


References
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6,419 citations


"Improvement and validation of a mod..." refers background in this paper

  • ...Schroder (1998) indicates that the shunt resistance is approximately inversely proportional to the short-circuit current (and thus radiation) at very low light intensities....

    [...]



Book
01 Jan 2003-
Abstract: Photons In, Electrons Out: Basic Principles of PV Electrons and Holes in Semiconductors Generation and Recombination Junctions Analysis of the p-n Junction Monocrystalline Solar Cells Thin Film Solar Cells Managing Light Over the Limit: Strategies for Higher Efficiency.

2,161 citations


Additional excerpts

  • ...1 (Duffie and Beckman, 1991; Nelson, 2003)....

    [...]


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