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Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1080/07391102.2020.1734092

In silico search of triple mutant T790M/C797S allosteric inhibitors to conquer acquired resistance problem in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC): a combined approach of structure-based virtual screening and molecular dynamics simulation.

04 Mar 2021-Journal of Biomolecular Structure & Dynamics (Taylor & Francis)-Vol. 39, Iss: 4, pp 1491-1505
Abstract: Third generation EGFR inhibitor osimertinib was approved as the first-line treatment for EGFR T790M mutation-positive Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer (NSCLC) patients in 2017. However, EGFR tertiary Cys...

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Topics: Osimertinib (60%), non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) (60%), T790M (54%) ... read more
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11 results found


Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/J.EJMECH.2020.112995
Jie He1, Zhihui Zhou1, Xin Sun1, Zunhua Yang2  +3 moreInstitutions (2)
Abstract: Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) is a receptor for epithelial growth factor (EGF) cell proliferation and signaling, which is related to the inhibition of tumor cell proliferation, angiogenesis, tumor invasion, metastasis, and apoptosis. Thus, it has become an important target for the treatment of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). The first to the third-generation EGFR inhibitors have demonstrated powerful efficacy and brought a prospect to patients. Unfortunately, after 9-15 months of treatment, they all developed resistance without exception. As for the resistance of third-generation inhibitors, no major breakthrough has been made in this field. In this review, we discussed the recent advances in medicinal chemistry of fourth-generation EGFR-TKIs, as well as further discussed the clinical challenges and future prospects of treating patients with EGFR mutations resistant to third-generation EGFR-TKIs.

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7 Citations


Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1080/07391102.2020.1844801
Iqrar Ahmad, Matin Shaikh, Sanjay J. Surana, Arabinda Ghosh1  +1 moreInstitutions (1)
Abstract: The third-generation EGFR (epidermal growth factor receptor) inhibitors selectively and irreversibly target EGFR-T790M and other activating EGFR mutations. Osimertinib is the only FDA-approved thir...

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Topics: Osimertinib (76%), EGFR inhibitors (58%), non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) (57%) ... read more

7 Citations


Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1007/S40203-021-00086-X
01 Jan 2021-
Abstract: Since the last 4 decades, Bedaquiline has been the first drug discovered as a new kind of anti-tubercular agent and received FDA approval in December 2012 to treat pulmonary multi-drug resistance tuberculosis (MDR-TB). It demonstrates excellent efficacy against MDR-TB by effectively inhibiting mycobacterial ATP synthase. In addition to these apparent assets of Bedaquiline, potential disadvantages of Bedaquiline include inhibition of the hERG (human Ether-a-go-related gene; KCNH2), potassium channel (concurrent risk of cardiac toxicity), and risk of phospholipidosis due to its more lipophilic nature. To assist the effective treatment of MDR-TB, highly active Bedaquiline analogs that display a better safety profile are urgently needed. A structure-based virtual screening approach was used to address the toxicity problems associated with Bedaquiline. Among the virtually screened compound, CID 15947587 had significant docking affinity (− 5.636 kcal/mol) and highest binding free energy (ΔG bind − 85.2703 kcal/mol) towards the Mycobacterial ATP synthase enzyme with insignificant cardiotoxicity and lipophilicity. During MD simulation studies (50 ns), the molecule optimizes its conformation to fit better the active receptor site justifying the binding affinity. The obtained results showed that CID15947587 could be a useful template for further optimizing the MDR-TB inhibitor.

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Topics: Bedaquiline (66%)

6 Citations


Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/J.BIOORG.2021.105133
Abstract: Novel chemotherapeutic agents against multidrug resistant-tuberculosis (MDR-TB) are urgently needed at this juncture to save the life of TB-infected patients. In this work, we have synthesized and characterized novel isatin hydrazones 4(a-o) and their thiomorpholine tethered analogues 5(a-o). All the synthesized compounds were initially screened for their anti-mycobacterial activity against the H37Rv strain of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) under level-I testing. Remarkably, five compounds 4f, 4h, 4n, 5f and 5m (IC50 = 1.9 µM to 9.8 µM) were found to be most active, with 4f (IC50 = 1.9 µM) indicating highest inhibition of H37Rv. These compounds were further evaluated at level-II testing against the five drug-resistant strains such as isoniazid-resistant strains (INH-R1 and INH-R2), rifampicin-resistant strains (RIF-R1 and RIF-R2) and fluoroquinolone-resistant strain (FQ-R1) of MTB. Interestingly, 4f and 5f emerged as the most potent compounds with IC50 of 3.6 µM and 1.9 µM against RIF-R1 MTB strain, followed by INH-R1 MTB strain with IC50 of 3.5 µM and 3.4 µM, respectively. Against FQ-R1 MTB strain, the lead compounds 4f and 5f displayed excellent inhibition at IC50 5.9 µM and 4.9 µM, respectively indicating broad-spectrum of activity. Further, molecular docking, ADME pharmacokinetic and molecular dynamics simulations of the compounds were performed against the DNA gyrase B and obtained encouraging results.

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Topics: Thiomorpholine (51%)

1 Citations


Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1021/ACS.JMEDCHEM.1C00876
Abstract: The pyrimidine core-containing compound Osimertinib is the only epidermal growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitor (EGFR-TKI) from the third generation that has been approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration to target threonine 790 methionine (T790M) resistance while sparing the wild-type epidermal growth factor receptor (WT EGFR). It is nearly 200-fold more selective toward the mutant EGFR as compared to the WT EGFR. A tertiary cystein 797 to serine 797 (C797S) mutation in the EGFR kinase domain has hampered Osimertinib treatment in patients with advanced EGFR-mutated non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). This C797S mutation is presumed to induce a tertiary-acquired resistance to all current reversible and irreversible EGFR TKIs. This review summarizes the molecular mechanisms of resistance to Osimertinib as well as different strategies for overcoming the EGFR-dependent and EGFR-independent mechanisms of resistance, new challenges, and a future direction.

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Topics: Osimertinib (77%), T790M (69%), Epidermal growth factor receptor (55%)

1 Citations


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33 results found


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.3322/CAAC.21262
Abstract: Cancer constitutes an enormous burden on society in more and less economically developed countries alike. The occurrence of cancer is increasing because of the growth and aging of the population, as well as an increasing prevalence of established risk factors such as smoking, overweight, physical inactivity, and changing reproductive patterns associated with urbanization and economic development. Based on GLOBOCAN estimates, about 14.1 million new cancer cases and 8.2 million deaths occurred in 2012 worldwide. Over the years, the burden has shifted to less developed countries, which currently account for about 57% of cases and 65% of cancer deaths worldwide. Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer death among males in both more and less developed countries, and has surpassed breast cancer as the leading cause of cancer death among females in more developed countries; breast cancer remains the leading cause of cancer death among females in less developed countries. Other leading causes of cancer death in more developed countries include colorectal cancer among males and females and prostate cancer among males. In less developed countries, liver and stomach cancer among males and cervical cancer among females are also leading causes of cancer death. Although incidence rates for all cancers combined are nearly twice as high in more developed than in less developed countries in both males and females, mortality rates are only 8% to 15% higher in more developed countries. This disparity reflects regional differences in the mix of cancers, which is affected by risk factors and detection practices, and/or the availability of treatment. Risk factors associated with the leading causes of cancer death include tobacco use (lung, colorectal, stomach, and liver cancer), overweight/obesity and physical inactivity (breast and colorectal cancer), and infection (liver, stomach, and cervical cancer). A substantial portion of cancer cases and deaths could be prevented by broadly applying effective prevention measures, such as tobacco control, vaccination, and the use of early detection tests.

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Topics: Causes of cancer (67%), Cancer (66%), Breast cancer (59%) ... read more

21,062 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.3322/CAAC.21254
Abstract: Each year the American Cancer Society estimates the numbers of new cancer cases and deaths that will occur in the United States in the current year and compiles the most recent data on cancer incidence, mortality, and survival. Incidence data were collected by the National Cancer Institute (Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results [SEER] Program), the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (National Program of Cancer Registries), and the North American Association of Central Cancer Registries. Mortality data were collected by the National Center for Health Statistics. A total of 1,658,370 new cancer cases and 589,430 cancer deaths are projected to occur in the United States in 2015. During the most recent 5 years for which there are data (2007-2011), delay-adjusted cancer incidence rates (13 oldest SEER registries) declined by 1.8% per year in men and were stable in women, while cancer death rates nationwide decreased by 1.8% per year in men and by 1.4% per year in women. The overall cancer death rate decreased from 215.1 (per 100,000 population) in 1991 to 168.7 in 2011, a total relative decline of 22%. However, the magnitude of the decline varied by state, and was generally lowest in the South (∼15%) and highest in the Northeast (≥20%). For example, there were declines of 25% to 30% in Maryland, New Jersey, Massachusetts, New York, and Delaware, which collectively averted 29,000 cancer deaths in 2011 as a result of this progress. Further gains can be accelerated by applying existing cancer control knowledge across all segments of the population.

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Topics: Cancer Death Rate (64%), Mortality rate (60%), Cancer (54%) ... read more

10,414 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1056/NEJMOA040938
Abstract: BACKGROUND Most patients with non-small-cell lung cancer have no response to the tyrosine kinase inhibitor gefitinib, which targets the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR). However, about 10 percent of patients have a rapid and often dramatic clinical response. The molecular mechanisms underlying sensitivity to gefitinib are unknown. METHODS We searched for mutations in the EGFR gene in primary tumors from patients with non-small-cell lung cancer who had a response to gefitinib, those who did not have a response, and those who had not been exposed to gefitinib. The functional consequences of identified mutations were evaluated after the mutant proteins were expressed in cultured cells. RESULTS Somatic mutations were identified in the tyrosine kinase domain of the EGFR gene in eight of nine patients with gefitinib-responsive lung cancer, as compared with none of the seven patients with no response (P<0.001). Mutations were either small, in-frame deletions or amino acid substitutions clustered around the ATP-binding pocket of the tyrosine kinase domain. Similar mutations were detected in tumors from 2 of 25 patients with primary non-small-cell lung cancer who had not been exposed to gefitinib (8 percent). All mutations were heterozygous, and identical mutations were observed in multiple patients, suggesting an additive specific gain of function. In vitro, EGFR mutants demonstrated enhanced tyrosine kinase activity in response to epidermal growth factor and increased sensitivity to inhibition by gefitinib. CONCLUSIONS A subgroup of patients with non-small-cell lung cancer have specific mutations in the EGFR gene, which correlate with clinical responsiveness to the tyrosine kinase inhibitor gefitinib. These mutations lead to increased growth factor signaling and confer susceptibility to the inhibitor. Screening for such mutations in lung cancers may identify patients who will have a response to gefitinib.

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10,359 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1056/NEJMOA0909530
Abstract: In the planned interim analysis of data for the first 200 patients, progression-free survival was significantly longer in the gefitinib group than in the standard-chemotherapy group (hazard ratio for death or disease progression with gefitinib, 0.36; P<0.001), resulting in early termination of the study. The gefitinib group had a significantly longer median progression-free survival (10.8 months, vs. 5.4 months in the chemotherapy group; hazard ratio, 0.30; 95% confidence interval, 0.22 to 0.41; P<0.001), as well as a higher response rate (73.7% vs. 30.7%, P<0.001). The median overall survival was 30.5 months in the gefitinib group and 23.6 months in the chemotherapy group (P = 0.31). The most common adverse events in the gefitinib group were rash (71.1%) and elevated amino transferase levels (55.3%), and in the chemotherapy group, neutropenia (77.0%), anemia (64.6%), appetite loss (56.6%), and sensory neuropathy (54.9%). One patient receiving gefitinib died from interstitial lung disease. CONCLUSIONS First-line gefitinib for patients with advanced non–small-cell lung cancer who were selected on the basis of EGFR mutations improved progression-free survival, with acceptable toxicity, as compared with standard chemotherapy. (UMIN-CTR number, C000000376.)

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Topics: Gefitinib (60%), Lung cancer (53%), Hazard ratio (52%) ... read more

4,362 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1107/S0907444904011679
Abstract: The small-molecule topology generator PRODRG is described, which takes input from existing coordinates or various two-dimensional formats and automatically generates coordinates and molecular topologies suitable for X-ray refinement of protein–ligand complexes. Test results are described for automatic generation of topologies followed by energy minimization for a subset of compounds from the Cambridge Structural Database, which shows that, within the limits of the empirical GROMOS87 force field used, structures with good geometries are generated. X-ray refinement in X-­PLOR/CNS, REFMAC and SHELX using PRODRG-generated topologies produces results comparable to refinement with topologies from the standard libraries. However, tests with distorted starting coordinates show that PRODRG topologies perform better, both in terms of ligand geometry and of crystallographic R factors.

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3,965 Citations