# In situ measurement of Hall effect, magnetoresistance, resistivity, and TCR of bismuth films

01 Aug 1977-Journal of Applied Physics (American Institute of Physics)-Vol. 48, Iss: 8, pp 3455-3461

TL;DR: In this paper, in situ measurements of Hall effect, magnetoresistance, resistivity, and temperature coefficient of resistivity of bismuth films (700-2600 A) were carried out in a specially designed evacuation chamber.

Abstract: In situ measurements of Hall effect, magnetoresistance, resistivity, and temperature coefficient of resistivity of bismuth films (700–2600 A) were carried out in a specially designed evacuation chamber. The films were deposited on a glass substrate at 150°C and at a pressure of ∼10−6 Torr. The values of the mean free path and specular scattering parameter obtained were 14100 A and 0.5, respectively. The effect of the grain boundary on the electrical resistivity was also accounted for in the light of the Mayadas‐Shatzkes theory.

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TL;DR: In this paper, the electrical resistivity and temperature coefficient of polycrystalline aluminium films (500-1700 AA) were measured in situ at temperatures of 50, 100 and 140 degrees C. The effect of grain boundary scattering was analyzed using the Mayadas-Shatzkes theory.

Abstract: The electrical resistivity and temperature coefficient of the resistivity of polycrystalline aluminium films (500-1700 AA) deposited on to a glass substrate were measured in situ at temperatures of 50, 100 and 140 degrees C. The effect of grain boundary scattering was analysed using the Mayadas-Shatzkes theory (1970). It is observed that the Mayadas-Shatzkes equation reproduces the experimental observation quite faithfully with R=0.28 and p=0, which indicates that the contribution from grain boundary scattering should be quite appreciable.

29 citations

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TL;DR: An ultrahigh vacuum (UHV) chamber equipped with a fixture for in situ four-point Van Der Pauw conductivity and Hall effect measurements has been constructed and attached to a multichamber thin film synthesis and characterization system as mentioned in this paper.

Abstract: An ultrahigh vacuum (UHV) chamber equipped with a fixture for in situ four-point Van Der Pauw conductivity and Hall effect measurements has been constructed and attached to a multichamber thin film synthesis and characterization system. The combined systems allow for film synthesis and characterization of microstructure, chemical composition, morphology, and electronic transport properties without air exposure. The four-point measurement fixture features spring-loaded probes for electrical contacts and temperature measurement and a sample docking mechanism designed to minimize probe damage to the films. The electronics were designed for measurement of high resistance samples. Measurements can be made at sample temperatures from 25 to 450 °C in selected gas environments from UHV to atmospheric pressure. The design and performance of the system are reported, and representative results on the electronic transport properties of n-type Si (100) and tungsten oxide films on sapphire are presented.

27 citations

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TL;DR: In this article, the thickness and temperature dependences of electrical and thermal transport coefficients (e.g. electrical conductivity, thermoelectric power, thermal conductivity) of Bi1-xSbx films are described by a non-degenerated two-band model, considering the anisotropic elliptical band structure (many-valley model).

Abstract: The thickness and temperature dependences of electrical and thermal transport coefficients (e.g. electrical conductivity, thermoelectric power, thermal conductivity) of Bi1–xSbx films are described by a non-degenerated two-band model, considering the anisotropic elliptical band structure (many-valley model) of bulk Bi1–xSbx. The transport coefficients are measured in the temperature range 80 to 400 K on films with thicknesses 20 to 400 nm and the results are interpreted and discussed using the deduced relations.
Die Schichtdicken- und Temperatura bhangigkeit elektrischer und thermischer Transportkoeffi-zienten (z. B. der elektrischen Leitfahigkeit, der Thermokraft, der Warmeleitfahigkeit) von Bi1–xSbx-Schichten wird im Rahmen eines nicht entarteten Zweiband-Modells unter Berucksichtigung der anisotropen elliptischen Bandstruktur (many valley model) von massivem Bi1–xSbx beschrieben. Die Transportkoeff izienten werden im Temperaturbereich 80 bis 400 K an Schichten von 20 bis 400 nm Dicke gemessen, und die Ergebnisse werden mit den abgeleiteten Beziehungen interpretiert und diskutiert.

26 citations

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Minia University

^{1}TL;DR: In this article, Bismuth thin films in the thickness range from 10 to 200 nm were deposited on glass substrates by thermal evaporation and investigated by electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction.

24 citations

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TL;DR: In this paper, the Boltzmann transport equation was used to define an effective relaxation time for thin metallic films subjected to a transverse magnetic field, and analytical expressions were derived for the Hall coefficient and conductivity in the case of nearly specular scattering on external surfaces.

Abstract: Defining an effective relaxation time and then using the Boltzmann transport equation, analytical expressions have been derived, in the case of nearly specular scattering on external surfaces (p>or=0.5), for the Hall coefficient and conductivity in thin metallic films subjected to a transverse magnetic field. The results for moderately high magnetic field agree well with previous theoretical works; at low magnetic field the Hall coefficient in thin films is greater than the bulk value RH0 and becomes identical with RH0 in strong magnetic field. The theoretical predictions agree well with experimental data on copper and potassium thin films.

21 citations

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Royal Society

^{1}TL;DR: The mean free path of electrons in metals has been studied in this paper, where the authors show that electrons follow a straight line along the path of the electron in the metal atom.

Abstract: (2001). The mean free path of electrons in metals. Advances in Physics: Vol. 50, No. 6, pp. 499-537.

2,273 citations

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IBM

^{1}TL;DR: In this paper, the total resistivity of a thin metal film is calculated from a model in which three types of electron scattering mechanisms are simultaneously operative: an isotropic background scattering (due to the combined effects of phonons and point defects), scattering due to a distribution of planar potentials (grain boundaries), and scattering by the external surfaces.

Abstract: In this paper, the total resistivity of a thin metal film is calculated from a model in which three types of electron scattering mechanisms are simultaneously operative: an isotropic background scattering (due to the combined effects of phonons and point defects), scattering due to a distribution of planar potentials (grain boundaries), and scattering due to the external surfaces. The intrinsic or bulk resistivity is obtained by solving a Boltzmann equation in which both grain-boundary and background scattering are accounted for. The total resistivity is obtained by imposing boundary conditions due to the external surfaces (as in the Fuchs theory) on this Boltzmann equation. Interpretation of published data on grain-boundary scattering in bulk materials in terms of the calculated intrinsic resistivity, and of thin-film data in terms of the calculated total resistivity suggests that (i) the grain-boundary reflection coefficient in Al is \ensuremath{\approx} 0.15, while it is somewhat higher in Cu; (ii) the observed thickness dependence of the resistivity in thin films is due to grain-boundary scattering as well as to the Fuchs size effect; and (iii) the common observation that single-crystal films possess lower resistivities than polycrystalline films may be accounted for by grain-boundary effects rather than by differences in the nature of surface scattering.

1,842 citations

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01 Jan 1938TL;DR: In this paper, the conductivity of thin films of the alkali metals has been measured in the H. W. Wills Physical Laboratory, Bristol and the experimental results were compared with a formula derived on the basis of this hypothesis.

Abstract: The conductivity of thin films of the alkali metals has recently been measured in the H. W. Wills Physical Laboratory, Bristol*. It was found that as the thickness of the film is decreased to that of a few atomic layers the conductivity drops below that of the bulk metal. In the papers quoted the hypothesis was put forward that this effect is due to the shortening of the mean free paths of the conduction electrons of the metal by collisions with the boundaries of the film. The experimental results were compared with a formula derived on the basis of this hypothesis. This formula was, however, obtained subject to a number of simplifying assumptions, and it is the first purpose of this paper to obtain a more accurate formula. I also compare this formula with experiment, and make certain deductions about the surfaces of thin films.

1,812 citations

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555 citations

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TL;DR: In this article, the Boltzmann equation was re-examined from a kinetic theory standpoint, and the same expressions are obtained by this method, usually rather more simply, while the physical picture is considerably clarified.

Abstract: A thin film or wire of metal has a lower electrical conductivity than the bulk material if the thickness is comparable with or smaller than the electronic mean free path. Previous workers have obtained expressions for the magnitude of the effect by integrating the Boltzmann equation and imposing the appropriate boundary conditions. The problem is re-examined from a kinetic theory standpoint, and it is shown that the same expressions are obtained by this method, usually rather more simply, while the physical picture is considerably clarified. The method is applied to an evaluation of the conductivity of a thin wire with a magnetic field along the axis, and it is found that the resistivity should decrease as the magnetic field is increased; it should be possible to derive the mean free path and velocity of the conduction electrons by comparison of theory and experiment. The theory has been confirmed by experimental measurements on sodium; estimates of electronic velocity and mean free path are obtained which are in fair agreement with the values given by the free-electron theory.

209 citations