In Vitro Measurement of Sphingolipid Intermembrane Transport Illustrated by GLTP Superfamily Members.
01 Jan 2019-Methods of Molecular Biology (Methods Mol Biol)-Vol. 1949, pp 237-256
TL;DR: Methodological approaches for measuring in vitro transfer of sphingolipids (SLs) between membranes rely on Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET) that enables continuous assessment of fluorophore-labeled SL transfer in real time between lipid donor and acceptor vesicles.
Abstract: Herein, we describe methodological approaches for measuring in vitro transfer of sphingolipids (SLs) between membranes. The approaches rely on direct tracking of the lipid. Typically, direct tracking involves lipid labeling via attachment of fluorophores or introduction of radioactivity. Members of the GlycoLipid Transfer Protein (GLTP) superfamily are used to illustrate two broadly applicable methods for direct lipid tracking. One method relies on Forster resonance energy transfer (FRET) that enables continuous assessment of fluorophore-labeled SL transfer in real time between lipid donor and acceptor vesicles. The second method relies on tracking of radiolabeled SL transfer by separation of lipid donor and acceptor vesicles at discrete time points. The assays are readily adjustable for assessing lipid transfer (1) between various model membrane assemblies (vesicles, micelles, bicelles, nanodiscs), (2) involving other lipid types by other lipid transfer proteins, (3) with protein preparations that are either crudely or highly purified, and (4) that is spontaneous and occurs in the absence of protein.
29 Jun 2021
TL;DR: An updated metabolism/degradation map is presented and the structures of plant sphingolipids are summarized and recent progress in understanding the functions of sphingoipids in plant development and stress responses are reviewed.
Abstract: Sphingolipids, which comprise membrane systems together with other lipids, are ubiquitous in cellular organisms. They show a high degree of diversity across plant species and vary in their structures, properties, and functions. Benefiting from the development of lipidomic techniques, over 300 plant sphingolipids have been identified. Generally divided into free long-chain bases (LCBs), ceramides, glycosylceramides (GlcCers) and glycosyl inositol phosphoceramides (GIPCs), plant sphingolipids exhibit organized aggregation within lipid membranes to form raft domains with sterols. Accumulating evidence has revealed that sphingolipids obey certain trafficking and distribution rules and confer unique properties to membranes. Functional studies using sphingolipid biosynthetic mutants demonstrate that sphingolipids participate in plant developmental regulation, stimulus sensing, and stress responses. Here, we present an updated metabolism/degradation map and summarize the structures of plant sphingolipids, review recent progress in understanding the functions of sphingolipids in plant development and stress responses, and review sphingolipid distribution and trafficking in plant cells. We also highlight some important challenges and issues that we may face during the process of studying sphingolipids.
TL;DR: In this article, the authors investigated the mechanisms used by CPTP to target the trans-Golgi and plasma membrane using fluorescence energy transfer (FRET) and showed that certain phosphoinositides (phosphatidylinositol 4,5 bisphosphate (PI-(4,5)P2) and phosphatidalylinosophosphate 4,4-π 2 ) increased CPTP transfer activity, whereas others (PI-3P and PI-4P) did not.
Abstract: Ceramide-1-phosphate transfer proteins (CPTPs) are members of the glycolipid transfer protein (GLTP) superfamily that shuttle ceramide-1-phosphate (C1P) between membranes. CPTPs regulate cellular sphingolipid homeostasis in ways that impact programmed cell death and inflammation. CPTP downregulation specifically alters C1P levels in the plasma and trans-Golgi membranes, stimulating proinflammatory eicosanoid production and autophagy-dependent inflammasome-mediated cytokine release. However, the mechanisms used by CPTP to target the trans-Golgi and plasma membrane are not well understood. Here, we monitored C1P intervesicular transfer using fluorescence energy transfer (FRET) and showed that certain phosphoinositides (phosphatidylinositol 4,5 bisphosphate (PI-(4,5)P2) and phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate (PI-4P)) increased CPTP transfer activity, whereas others (phosphatidylinositol 3-phosphate (PI-3P) and PI) did not. PIPs that stimulated CPTP did not stimulate GLTP, another superfamily member. Short-chain PI-(4,5)P2, which is soluble and does not remain membrane-embedded, failed to activate CPTP. CPTP stimulation by physiologically relevant PI-(4,5)P2 levels surpassed that of phosphatidylserine (PS), the only known non-PIP stimulator of CPTP, despite PI-(4,5)P2 increasing membrane equilibrium binding affinity less effectively than PS. Functional mapping of mutations that led to altered FRET lipid transfer and assessment of CPTP membrane interaction by surface plasmon resonance indicated that di-arginine motifs located in the α-6 helix and the α3-α4 helix regulatory loop of the membrane-interaction region serve as PI-(4,5)P2 headgroup-specific interaction sites. Haddock modeling revealed specific interactions involving the PI-(4,5)P2 headgroup that left the acyl chains oriented favorably for membrane embedding. We propose that PI-(4,5)P2 interaction sites enhance CPTP activity by serving as preferred membrane targeting/docking sites that favorably orient the protein for function.
TL;DR: The bicelle-dilution based assay is sufficiently robust, sensitive, and stable for application, not only to purified LTPs, but also for LTP activity detection in crude cytosolic fractions of cell homogenates.
Abstract: In vitro assessment of lipid intermembrane transfer activity by cellular proteins typically involves measurement of either radiolabeled or fluorescently labeled lipid trafficking between vesicle model membranes. Use of bilayer vesicles in lipid transfer assays usually comes with inherent challenges because of complexities associated with the preparation of vesicles and their rather short "shelf life". Such issues necessitate the laborious task of fresh vesicle preparation to achieve lipid transfer assays of high quality, precision, and reproducibility. To overcome these limitations, we have assessed model membrane generation by bicelle dilution for monitoring the transfer rates and specificity of various BODIPY-labeled sphingolipids by different glycolipid transfer protein (GLTP) superfamily members using a sensitive fluorescence resonance energy transfer approach. Robust, protein-selective sphingolipid transfer is observed using donor and acceptor model membranes generated by dilution of 0.5 q-value mixtures. The sphingolipid transfer rates are comparable to those observed between small bilayer vesicles produced by sonication or ethanol injection. Among the notable advantages of using bicelle-generated model membranes are (i) easy and straightforward preparation by means that avoid lipid fluorophore degradation and (ii) long "shelf life" after production (≥6 days) and resilience to freeze-thaw storage. The bicelle-dilution-based assay is sufficiently robust, sensitive, and stable for application, not only to purified LTPs but also for LTP activity detection in crude cytosolic fractions of cell homogenates.
TL;DR: This paper summarizes exclusively scalable techniques and focuses on strengths and limitations in respect to industrial applicability and regulatory requirements concerning liposomal drug formulations based on FDA and EMEA documents.
Abstract: Liposomes, sphere-shaped vesicles consisting of one or more phospholipid bilayers, were first described in the mid-60s. Today, they are a very useful reproduction, reagent, and tool in various scientific disciplines, including mathematics and theoretical physics, biophysics, chemistry, colloid science, biochemistry, and biology. Since then, liposomes have made their way to the market. Among several talented new drug delivery systems, liposomes characterize an advanced technology to deliver active molecules to the site of action, and at present, several formulations are in clinical use. Research on liposome technology has progressed from conventional vesicles to ‘second-generation liposomes’, in which long-circulating liposomes are obtained by modulating the lipid composition, size, and charge of the vesicle. Liposomes with modified surfaces have also been developed using several molecules, such as glycolipids or sialic acid. This paper summarizes exclusively scalable techniques and focuses on strengths, respectively, limitations in respect to industrial applicability and regulatory requirements concerning liposomal drug formulations based on FDA and EMEA documents.
01 Jan 1980
TL;DR: This research attacked the mode of action of phosphatidylcholine-like deposits in response to the presence of ribonucleic acid by exploiting its role as a “spatially aggregating substance” in the response to EMT.
Abstract: IAbbreviations used in this article are as follows: AraC= l -,B-d arabinofuranosyl cytosine, Chol=cholesterol, DNA=deoxyribonucleic acid, DMPA=dimyristoyl phos phatidic acid, DMPC = dimyristoyl phosphatidylcholine, DMPE = dimyristoyl phos phatidylethanolamine, DOPC = dioleoyl phosphatidylcholine, DOPE = dioleoyl phos phatidylethanolamine, DPPA=dipaJmitoyl phosphatidic acid, DPPC=dipaJmitoyl phos phatidylcholine, DPPG = dipaJmitoyl phosphatidylglycerol, DPPS;= dipalmitoyl phos phatidylserine, DSPC = distearoyl phosphatidylcholine, EPC = egg phosphatidylcholine, EDTA=ethylene diamine tetracetic acid, HDL=high density lipoprotein, HPLC=high performance liquid chromatography, LUV = large unilamellar vesicle, MLV = multilamellar vesicle, NT A = nitrilotriacetic acid, NMR = nuclear magnetic resonance, PA phosphatidic acid, PC = phosphatidylcholine, PE = phosphatidylethanolamine, PO = phosphatidylglycerol, PS = phosphatidylserine, REV = reverse-phase evaporation vesicle, RNA = ribonucleic acid, SUV=small unilameUar vesicle, Tc=transition temperature. 2Present address: Department of Physiology, Tufts University School of Medicine, Boston, Massachusetts 02111.
TL;DR: This work reviews recent insights into the molecular basis of this regulatory network and considers examples in which malfunction of its components leads to system failure and disease.
Abstract: The lipid composition of cellular organelles is tailored to suit their specialized tasks. A fundamental transition in the lipid landscape divides the secretory pathway in early and late membrane territories, allowing an adaptation from biogenic to barrier functions. Defending the contrasting features of these territories against erosion by vesicular traffic poses a major logistical problem. To this end, cells evolved a network of lipid composition sensors and pipelines along which lipids are moved by non-vesicular mechanisms. We review recent insights into the molecular basis of this regulatory network and consider examples in which malfunction of its components leads to system failure and disease.
TL;DR: In this article, modified and new methods for liposome preparation have been reviewed and classified with the objective of updating the reader to recent developments in liposomes production technology.
Abstract: Liposomes are bilayer vesicles which have found use, among other applications, as drug delivery vehicles. Conventional techniques for liposome preparation and size reduction remain popular as these are simple to implement and do not require sophisticated equipment. However, issues related to scale-up for industrial production and scale-down for point-of-care applications have motivated improvements to conventional processes and have also led to the development of novel routes to liposome formation. In this article, these modified and new methods for liposome preparation have been reviewed and classified with the objective of updating the reader to recent developments in liposome production technology.