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Journal ArticleDOI

In vitro study of the effect of different ionophore antibiotics and of certain derivatives on rumen fermentation and on protein nitrogen degradation.

01 Jan 1989-Reproduction Nutrition Development (EDP Sciences)-Vol. 29, Iss: 3, pp 247-257

TL;DR: Of the compounds tested and presenting a potential 'growth-promoting action' at least comparable to that of monensin, and which demonstrated lower toxicity on mice, three molecules appeared to present a zootechnical interest as feed additives for growing cattle.

AbstractThe decrease in methanogenesis observed in the presence of monensin was also found with cationomycin and lysocellin. With the exception of lysocellin, which greatly reduced protein degradation of peanut meal, and of nigericin, which had no effect on this parameter, the 2 other molecules presented the same action as monensin. The negative effect of monensin on microbial ammonia uptake was demonstrated with the same intensity in the presence of cationomycin; it was slightly higher with nigericin and particularly accentuated with lonomycin and lysocellin. Three ester derivatives of monensin (monensin acetate, monensin propionate and monensin butyrate) had a similar action to that of monensin on the orientation of rumen fermentations. The monensin isobutyrate derivative appeared to be more active than monensin and only weakly altered microbial ammonia uptake. The oxolonomycin and hydroxolonomycin derivatives behaved identically to lonomycin with respect to microbial metabolism and protein nitrogen degradation. Unlike the molecules from which they derive, the deacylated cationomycin and nigericic acid had no effect on the orientation of rumen fermentations. Of the compounds tested and presenting a potential ’growthpromoting action’ at least comparable to that of monensin, and which demonstrated lower toxicity on mice, three molecules (oxolonomycin, lysocellin and cationomycin) appeared to present a zootechnical interest as feed additives for growing cattle.

Topics: Monensin (66%), Nigericin (59%), Protein degradation (54%)

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Citations
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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: It can be concluded that drastic inhibition of methane production is not unequivocally successful as a result of several factors, such as: instantaneous inhibition often followed by restoration of methanogenesis due to adaptation of the microbes or degradation of the additive, toxicity for the host animal, negative effects on overall digestion and productive performance.
Abstract: During the last decades, considerable research on methane production in the rumen and its inhibition has been carried out. Initially, as methane production represents a significant loss of gross energy in the feed (2–15%), the ultimate goal of such intervention in rumen fermentation was an increase in feed efficiency. A second reason favouring research on methane inhibition is its role in the global warming phenomenon and in the destruction of the ozone layer. In this review, the authors describe briefly several interventions for reducing methane emission by ruminants. The objective can be reached by intervention at the dietary level by ration manipulation (composition, feeding level) or by the use of additives or supplements. Examples of additives are polyhalogenated compounds, ionophores and other antibiotics. Supplementation of the ration with lipids also lowered methanogenesis. More biotechnological interventions, e.g., defaunation, probiotics and introduction of reductive acetogenesis in the rumen, are also mentioned. It can be concluded that drastic inhibition of methane production is not unequivocally successful as a result of several factors, such as: instantaneous inhibition often followed by restoration of methanogenesis due to adaptation of the microbes or degradation of the additive, toxicity for the host animal, negative effects on overall digestion and productive performance. Therefore, methanogenesis and its inhibition cannot be considered as a separate part of rumen fermentation and its consequences on the animal should be taken into account.

241 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Modification of the rumen microbial population is now considered as a possible approach to rumen manipulation by scientists and the effects on digestion of the elimination of ciliate protozoa (defaunation) are presented.
Abstract: Different methods of optimizing feed conversion into nutrients in the rumen are now available to scientists. But the rumen must be considered as an integrated system and this makes it difficult to rationalize manipulation. The observed result of any treatment is a combination of several interactive reactions. Any change to one component of the system has several uncontrolled effects on other components. The positive effects aimed for are sometimes associated with undesirable effects. Numerous chemical additives have been studied during the last two decades among which ionophore antibiotics represent the most important group. The interest of non-ionophore antibiotics, methane inhibitors, and compounds inhibiting proteases or deaminases, has also been considered during the last years. The observed effects of these chemical additives on animals, and their possible mode of action on rumen microbes and on animal metabolism, are discussed. However, the risks of the presence of residues in meat and milk are questioned by consumers. Microbial activity in the rumen can be altered by feeding animals with large amounts of certain food constituents (fats, starch) or minerals (buffer substances). The responses in the rumen to these dietary conditions are analyzed in terms of the digestive effects on plant cell wall degradation and microbial protein synthesis. Modification of the rumen microbial population is now considered as a possible approach to rumen manipulation by scientists. The effects on digestion of the elimination of ciliate protozoa (defaunation) are presented. The feasibility of these objectives, from a practical standpoint, is discussed. Finally, there is an overview of the effects of the addition of live yeasts (Saccharomyces cerevisciae), or fungi (Aspergillus orizae), used as probiotics. A possible mode of action of probiotics on the rumen ecosystem is suggested.

72 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The effects of two ionophore antibiotics, lasalocid and cationomycin, on the rumen microbial activity (cell-wall constituents degradation, fermentation and microbial biomass production) were studied using in vitro semi-continuous fermentors (RUSITEC).
Abstract: The effects of two ionophore antibiotics, lasalocid and cationomycin, on the rumen microbial activity (cell-wall constituents degradation, fermentation and microbial biomass production) were studied using in vitro semi-continuous fermentors (RUSITEC). The rumen contents inoculated in the control (T), lasalocid (L) and cationomycin (C) reaction vessels were taken from sheep adapted on a hay pelleted diet (fescue hay 70%, manioc 18%, soya-bean meal 12%) and, respectively, not supplemented and supplemented with 33 ppm lasalocid and 33 ppm cationomycin. After a 48-h incubation, the cellulose of filter paper was less degraded (−12%) in the fermentors with lasalocid and cationomycin, but only cationomycin reduced the cell-wall constituents' degradation of the experimental diets (−20%). These additives did not modify the quantity of volatile fatty acids produced, but enhanced the part of propionic (C3) and reduced those of butyric (C4) and acetic (C2) acids (C2:C3 ratios: T = 2.74; L = 1.86; C = 1.65), and inhibited methanogenesis (CO2:CH4 ratios: T = 3.38; L = 4.58; C = 5.68). They reduced the non-adherent microbial biomass (removed by centrifugation) and modified its composition (lower DAPA content). Cationomycin showed the same effect on rumen metabolism as lasalocid, but with a greater amplitude.

12 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: A study of the toxicity of epinigericin towards the ciliate Tetrahymena pyriformis showed that this molecule stopped cell division, increased cell volume and led to a more basic intracellular pH.
Abstract: A study of the toxicity of epinigericin, an antibiotic ionophor, towards the ciliate Tetrahymena pyriformis showed that this molecule stopped cell division, increased cell volume and led to a more basic intracellular pH. The action of epinigericin was probably linked to its function as an ionophor. The ionic selectivity of this molecule is still not known. The raising of the intracellular pH of ciliates by this antibiotic may be linked to its toxic action and its ion-transport mechanism in Tetrahymena. *** DIRECT SUPPORT *** AG903066 00009

6 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Results showed different durations of cell division inhibition which increased in the following order: epigrisorixin Tetrahymena, between nigericin/grisorxin and between each antibiotic and its epimer, may be due respectively to structural differences at carbons 30 and 28.
Abstract: Summary Structure-activity relationship of four ionophorous antibiotics, nigericin (C 29 -CH{in2OH)and grisorixin (C 29 -CH 3 ) and their respective epimers, epinigericin and epigrisorixin where the methyl is in axial position on C 28 , was investigated. Toxicity studies of these antibiotics (10 mg/l) were carried out with respect to the population time course of. T. pyriformis in the exponential growth phase, and DNA and RNA synthesis. Results showed different durations of cell division inhibition which increased in the following order: epigrisorixin Tetrahymena , between nigericin/grisorixin and between each antibiotic and its epimer, may be due respectively to structural differences at carbons 30 and 28.

3 citations


References
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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The ionophore monensin is used as a model to examine the modes of action important in manipulating rumen function and increased animal production appears to occur as a result of these several system mode of action, which probably act in concert.
Abstract: The ionophore monensin is used as a model to examine the modes of action important in manipulating rumen function. Several system modes of action probably result from the basic mode of action of the ionophore modifying the movement of ions across the membranes of rumen microbes. While there are many biological responses reported in the literature for monensin, they can be consolidated into seven categories or system modes of action. The modification of volatile fatty acid production is one widely recognized category of great importance. Modified feed intake should also be considered to be important. The third system mode of action, change in gas production, probably contributes only a limited savings in energy. Modified digestibilities are probably quite variable as a mode of action, but may be a significant factor. The change in protein utilization appears to result from several factors that are occurring simultaneously. Modification of rumen fill and rate of passage may be important in causing some of the previously mentioned system modes of action to occur. A seventh category inclusive of several monensin responses that are more indirect to the rumen, or sporadic in nature, is included. Increased animal production from the use of monensin appears to occur as a result of these several system modes of action, which probably act in concert. It is impossible to accurately assess a quantitative contribution of each of these categories at the present time.

306 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: The effect of Monensin (Rumensin, Eli Lilly & Co.) in incubations with mixed rumen microorganisms metabolizing carbohydrate or protein substrates was investigated. Monensin partly inhibited methanogenesis and increased propionate production, although the effect was not always statistically significant. Incubations with substrates specific for methane bacteria suggest that inhibition of methanogenesis by Monensin was not due to a specific toxic action on the methanogenic flora, but rather to an inhibition of hydrogen production from formate. Total and net microbial growth were considerably decreased by addition of Monensin, although the amount of substrate fermented was not altered, resulting in lowered values of microbial growth efficiency. In incubations with casein, Monensin lowered protein degradation in line with a lowered ammonia production, whereas a slight accumulation of alpha-amino nitrogen was observed. The results suggest that besides an influence of Monensin on the rumen carbohydrate fermentation pattern, another reason for the beneficial effects observed in vivo might be decreased food protein degradation in the rumen, altering the final site of protein digestion in the animal. Also, the possibility of a decrease in rumen microbial growth efficiency has to be considered when using Monensin as a food additive.

264 citations


Journal ArticleDOI

177 citations


"In vitro study of the effect of dif..." refers background in this paper

  • ...fermenters induced an increase in the proportion of propionic acid, at the expense of that of acetic acid, both in in vitro (Chalupa, 1980; Stanier and Davies, 1981) and in vivo experiments (Chalupa, 1977; Jouany and Senaud, 1978)....

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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: A method is described for the determination of protein degradation based on measurements of ammonia concentration and gas production when a feedingstuff was incubated with rumen fluid in vitro.
Abstract: A method is described for the determination of protein degradation based on measurements of ammonia concentration and gas production (Menke et al. 1979) when a feedingstuff was incubated with rumen fluid in vitro. NH3 liberated during incubation is in part used for microbial protein synthesis. Production of carbon dioxide and methane can be regarded as a measure of energy available for protein synthesis. The ratio, gas production: incorporation of NH3-nitrogen was estimated by addition of starch to the substrate. The response in gas production was linear in the range 0-200 mg starch, when starch was added to 0-200 mg feedingstuff dry matter and 30 ml rumen fluid-medium mixture. Linear regression between NH3-N concentration (y, mg) and gas production (x, ml) yielded an intercept (bo) representing that amount of NH3-N which would be released when no fermentable carbohydrates were available and consequently no bacterial protein synthesis took place. The difference between this intercept bo and NH3-N content in the blank (rumen fluid without substrate added) indicated the amount of NH3 liberated from protein and other N-containing compounds of the feeding-stuff incubated. In vitro-degradable N (IVDN) was calculated as a proportion of total N by the equation: (formula; see text).

101 citations