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Journal ArticleDOI

In vitro susceptibility of viridans streptococci to leaf extracts of Mangifera Indica.

08 Jul 2007-Indian Journal of Microbiology (Springer-Verlag)-Vol. 47, Iss: 2, pp 160-163

TL;DR: Methanol extract was found to have better action against Viridans streptococci than water extract and minimum inhibitory concentration of methanol extract for all isolates were <50 mg/mL.

AbstractThe susceptibility of Viridans streptococci to leaf extracts of Mangifera indica was studied on 53 clinical isolates from 39 patients. All the isolates were found to be susceptible to both water and methanol extract of M. indica leaves. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of methanol extract for all isolates were <50 mg/mL and MIC of water extract for all isolates were <200 mg/mL. Methanol extract was found to have better action against Viridans streptococci than water extract.

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Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: The present study was performed to estimate elementals and to determine bioactivities namely anticariogenic, antioxidant, pancreatic lipase inhibitory and cytotoxic activity of Chrysophyllum roxburghii leaves. Elemental analysis revealed that calcium and manganese were present in high concentration among principal and trace elements respectively. Preliminary phytochemical analysis revealed the presence of tannins, alkaloids and terpenoids in the extract. Total phenolic content was found to be 179.05mg Gallic acid equivalents/g of extract. The methanol extract caused a dose dependent inhibition of Streptomyces mutans isolates. All the isolates tested were found to be sensitive to extract. In DPPH assay, the extract exhibited marked dose dependent scavenging activity against DPPH free radical with an IC50 value of 3.54ig/ml. In Ferric reducing assay, the absorbance of the reaction mixture was found to increase with the concentration of extract which is suggestive of reducing power. The activity of chicken pancreatic lipase was affected by the extract and the effect was concentration dependent. Higher inhibition of enzyme (>50%) was observed at extract concentration 50mg/ml. In cytotoxic study, the lethality was found to be directly proportional to extract concentration. Highest mortality (>80%) of shrimps was observed at extract concentration 1000µg/ml. LC 50 of extract was 83.04µg/ml. The bioactivities of the extract could be attributed to the presence of secondary metabolites in the plant material. The plant material could be used as a source of important elements required for the body. In suitable form, the plant could be used in the prevention and treatment of dental caries, oxidative damage, obesity and cancer.

4 citations


Cites background from "In vitro susceptibility of viridans..."

  • ...It has been experimentally shown that plants and their products exhibit marked inhibitory activity against cariogenic flora (Fani and Kohanteb, 2007; Jose and Beegum, 2007; Ferrazzano et al., 2009; Almeida et al., 2012; Vivek et al., 2013)....

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Journal Article
TL;DR: Among plant extracts, stem extract of Coscinium fenestratum, rhizome extract of Curcuma aromatica and leaf extract of Polyalthia longifolia were shown to inhibit cariogenic isolates to marked extent.
Abstract: The aim of the present study was to screen the inhibitory efficacy of extracts of eleven plants against clinical isolates of Streptococcus mutans by Agar well diffusion method. Among plant extracts, stem extract of Coscinium fenestratum , rhizome extract of Curcuma aromatica and leaf extract of Polyalthia longifolia were shown to inhibit cariogenic isolates to marked extent. Least inhibitory activity was displayed by leaf extract of Emblica officinalis . The plant extracts employed in this study can be potential sources of development of anticaries agents.

4 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
07 Sep 2021
Abstract: Introduction and Aim: Toothpastes are the most common preventive means in oral health care. Many commercially available dentifrices claim to have antimicrobial properties, but little research has been conducted to investigate these claims. Therefore, this study was conducted to evaluate the efficacy of different toothpaste formulations in reducing the oral microbial load. Methodology: A total of six types of tooth pastes-4 herbal and 2 non-herbal- were assigned to a group of 20 subjects each, who used it for a period of six weeks. During the course of the study, at the end of 1st, 3rd and 6th week, subgingival plaque samples collected were subjected to microbial analysis. Results: Microbial analysis identified colonies of organisms such as S. mitis, S. mutans, S. salivarius, Peptostreptococcus species, Prevotella species and Lactobacillus species. Colony forming units (cfu) calculated indicated a reduction in microbial load from 1st to 6th week of use of different tooth paste formulations. However statistical analysis of the results did not show significant differences between the groups (p>0.005). Conclusion: The selected tooth paste formulations were effective in controlling the microbial load and therefore contributing to maintain good oral hygiene. However, practicing appropriate oral hygiene measures & brushing technique is of utmost importance in maintaining good oral health than the effectiveness of various ingredients in the toothpastes used.

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Journal ArticleDOI

2,468 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: This study shows that P BP2B genes from many penicillin‐resistant isolates of S. pneumoniae contain blocks of nucleotides originating from Streptococcus mitis, and in several instances it would appear that this material alone is sufficient to produce a low affinity PBP2B.
Abstract: Penicillin-resistant strains of Streptococcus pneumoniae possess forms of penicillin-binding proteins (PBPs) that have a low affinity for penicillin compared to those from penicillin-sensitive strains. PBP genes from penicillin-resistant isolates are very variable and have a mosaic structure composed of blocks of nucleotides that are similar to those found in PBP genes from penicillin-sensitive isolates and blocks that differ by up to 21%. These chromosomally encoded mosaic genes have presumably arisen following transformation and homologous recombination with PBP genes from a number of closely related species. This study shows that PBP2B genes from many penicillin-resistant isolates of S. pneumoniae contain blocks of nucleotides originating from Streptococcus mitis. In several instances it would appear that this material alone is sufficient to produce a low affinity PBP2B. In other examples PBP2B genes possess blocks of nucleotides from S. mitis and at least one additional unidentified species. Mosaic structure was also found in the PBP2B genes of penicillin-sensitive isolates of S. mitis or S. pneumoniae. These mosaics did not confer penicillin resistance but nevertheless reveal something of the extent to which localized recombination occurs in these naturally transformable streptococci.

257 citations


Book ChapterDOI
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Book
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TL;DR: This edition offers new and revised chapters on topics including biosafety, molecular diagnostic methods, mycoplasma and retroviruses, as well as introductory sections addressing mechanisms of the pathogenicity of micro-organisms and the principles of microscopy and staining.
Abstract: This volume offers comprehensive coverage of bacteriology, mycology, parasitology and virology, in addition to an introductory section addressing mechanisms of the pathogenicity of micro-organisms, laboratory safety, instrumentation and methods and the principles of microscopy and staining. This edition offers new and revised chapters on topics including biosafety, molecular diagnostic methods, mycoplasma and retroviruses.

179 citations