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Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/J.CELL.2021.02.019

In vivo CD8+ T cell CRISPR screening reveals control by Fli1 in infection and cancer.

04 Mar 2021-Cell (Elsevier)-Vol. 184, Iss: 5
Abstract: Summary Improving effector activity of antigen-specific T cells is a major goal in cancer immunotherapy. Despite the identification of several effector T cell (TEFF)-driving transcription factors (TFs), the transcriptional coordination of TEFF biology remains poorly understood. We developed an in vivo T cell CRISPR screening platform and identified a key mechanism restraining TEFF biology through the ETS family TF, Fli1. Genetic deletion of Fli1 enhanced TEFF responses without compromising memory or exhaustion precursors. Fli1 restrained TEFF lineage differentiation by binding to cis-regulatory elements of effector-associated genes. Loss of Fli1 increased chromatin accessibility at ETS:RUNX motifs, allowing more efficient Runx3-driven TEFF biology. CD8+ T cells lacking Fli1 provided substantially better protection against multiple infections and tumors. These data indicate that Fli1 safeguards the developing CD8+ T cell transcriptional landscape from excessive ETS:RUNX-driven TEFF cell differentiation. Moreover, genetic deletion of Fli1 improves TEFF differentiation and protective immunity in infections and cancer.

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9 results found


Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/J.CELL.2021.02.021
Hongling Huang1, Peipei Zhou1, Jun Wei1, Lingyun Long1  +12 moreInstitutions (1)
04 Mar 2021-Cell
Abstract: How early events in effector T cell (TEFF) subsets tune memory T cell (TMEM) responses remains incompletely understood. Here, we systematically investigated metabolic factors in fate determination of TEFF and TMEM cells using in vivo pooled CRISPR screening, focusing on negative regulators of TMEM responses. We found that amino acid transporters Slc7a1 and Slc38a2 dampened the magnitude of TMEM differentiation, in part through modulating mTORC1 signaling. By integrating genetic and systems approaches, we identified cellular and metabolic heterogeneity among TEFF cells, with terminal effector differentiation associated with establishment of metabolic quiescence and exit from the cell cycle. Importantly, Pofut1 (protein-O-fucosyltransferase-1) linked GDP-fucose availability to downstream Notch-Rbpj signaling, and perturbation of this nutrient signaling axis blocked terminal effector differentiation but drove context-dependent TEFF proliferation and TMEM development. Our study establishes that nutrient uptake and signaling are key determinants of T cell fate and shape the quantity and quality of TMEM responses.

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9 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/J.GGEDIT.2021.100008
01 Dec 2021-
Abstract: Clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR) screens emerged as the gold standard technology in genetic screening in recent years. Most CRISPR screens are conducted in vitro, although current technologies fail to completely recapitulate the in vivo physiological environment. Direct in vivo screening - where cells are targeted within their natural niche - is emerging as a powerful approach to unravel biological processes in intact tissues and organs, taking into account complex cellular interactions, immune response, extracellular matrix, and tissue architecture. Several recent studies have demonstrated the capacity of in vivo screens to identify unique genetic dependencies left uncovered by in vitro screens. Together with new single cell readout techniques, in vivo CRISPR screens will continue to fuel progress towards identifying genetic elements controlling development, health, and disease.

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Topics: CRISPR (58%)

5 Citations


Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/J.MOLCEL.2021.07.018
Zhendong Cao1, Krista A. Budinich1, Hua Huang1, Diqiu Ren1  +22 moreInstitutions (4)
02 Sep 2021-Molecular Cell
Abstract: Summary The transformed state in acute leukemia requires gene regulatory programs involving transcription factors and chromatin modulators. Here, we uncover an IRF8-MEF2D transcriptional circuit as an acute myeloid leukemia (AML)-biased dependency. We discover and characterize the mechanism by which the chromatin "reader" ZMYND8 directly activates IRF8 in parallel with the MYC proto-oncogene through their lineage-specific enhancers. ZMYND8 is essential for AML proliferation in vitro and in vivo and associates with MYC and IRF8 enhancer elements that we define in cell lines and in patient samples. ZMYND8 occupancy at IRF8 and MYC enhancers requires BRD4, a transcription coactivator also necessary for AML proliferation. We show that ZMYND8 binds to the ET domain of BRD4 via its chromatin reader cassette, which in turn is required for proper chromatin occupancy and maintenance of leukemic growth in vivo. Our results rationalize ZMYND8 as a potential therapeutic target for modulating essential transcriptional programs in AML.

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Topics: Chromatin (57%), Myeloid leukemia (57%), Enhancer (56%) ... read more

3 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1084/JEM.20201730
Abstract: In response to infection, T cells adopt a range of differentiation states, creating numerous heterogeneous subsets that exhibit different phenotypes, functions, and migration patterns. This T cell heterogeneity is a universal feature of T cell immunity, needed to effectively control pathogens in a context-dependent manner and generate long-lived immunity to those pathogens. Here, we review new insights into differentiation state dynamics and population heterogeneity of CD8+ T cells in acute and chronic viral infections and cancer and highlight the parallels and distinctions between acute and chronic antigen stimulation settings. We focus on transcriptional and epigenetic networks that modulate the plasticity and terminal differentiation of antigen-specific CD8+ T cells and generate functionally diverse T cell subsets with different roles to combat infection and cancer.

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Topics: T cell (62%), Cytotoxic T cell (60%), CD8 (54%) ... read more

2 Citations


Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/J.IT.2021.03.003
Abstract: CRISPR-Cas9 technologies have transformed the study of genetic pathways governing cellular differentiation and function. Recent advances have adapted these methods to immune cells, which has accelerated the pace of functional genomics in immunology and enabled new avenues for the design of cellular immunotherapies for cancer. In this review, we summarize recent developments in CRISPR-Cas9 technology and discuss how they have been leveraged to discover and manipulate novel genetic regulators of the immune system. We envision that these results will provide a valuable resource to aid in the design, implementation, and interpretation of CRISPR-Cas9-based screens in immunology and immuno-oncology.

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1 Citations


References
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109 results found


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1093/BIOINFORMATICS/BTP352
Heng Li1, Bob Handsaker2, Alec Wysoker2, T. J. Fennell2  +5 moreInstitutions (4)
01 Aug 2009-Bioinformatics
Abstract: Summary: The Sequence Alignment/Map (SAM) format is a generic alignment format for storing read alignments against reference sequences, supporting short and long reads (up to 128 Mbp) produced by different sequencing platforms. It is flexible in style, compact in size, efficient in random access and is the format in which alignments from the 1000 Genomes Project are released. SAMtools implements various utilities for post-processing alignments in the SAM format, such as indexing, variant caller and alignment viewer, and thus provides universal tools for processing read alignments. Availability: http://samtools.sourceforge.net Contact: [email protected]

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Topics: Variant Call Format (62%), Stockholm format (61%), FASTQ format (56%) ... read more

35,747 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1186/S13059-014-0550-8
05 Dec 2014-Genome Biology
Abstract: In comparative high-throughput sequencing assays, a fundamental task is the analysis of count data, such as read counts per gene in RNA-seq, for evidence of systematic changes across experimental conditions. Small replicate numbers, discreteness, large dynamic range and the presence of outliers require a suitable statistical approach. We present DESeq2, a method for differential analysis of count data, using shrinkage estimation for dispersions and fold changes to improve stability and interpretability of estimates. This enables a more quantitative analysis focused on the strength rather than the mere presence of differential expression. The DESeq2 package is available at http://www.bioconductor.org/packages/release/bioc/html/DESeq2.html .

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Topics: MRNA Sequencing (54%), Integrator complex (51%), Count data (50%) ... read more

29,675 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1038/NMETH.1923
01 Apr 2012-Nature Methods
Abstract: As the rate of sequencing increases, greater throughput is demanded from read aligners. The full-text minute index is often used to make alignment very fast and memory-efficient, but the approach is ill-suited to finding longer, gapped alignments. Bowtie 2 combines the strengths of the full-text minute index with the flexibility and speed of hardware-accelerated dynamic programming algorithms to achieve a combination of high speed, sensitivity and accuracy.

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27,973 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1093/BIOINFORMATICS/BTQ033
Aaron R. Quinlan1, Ira M. Hall1Institutions (1)
15 Mar 2010-Bioinformatics
Abstract: Motivation: Testing for correlations between different sets of genomic features is a fundamental task in genomics research. However, searching for overlaps between features with existing webbased methods is complicated by the massive datasets that are routinely produced with current sequencing technologies. Fast and flexible tools are therefore required to ask complex questions of these data in an efficient manner. Results: This article introduces a new software suite for the comparison, manipulation and annotation of genomic features in Browser Extensible Data (BED) and General Feature Format (GFF) format. BEDTools also supports the comparison of sequence alignments in BAM format to both BED and GFF features. The tools are extremely efficient and allow the user to compare large datasets (e.g. next-generation sequencing data) with both public and custom genome annotation tracks. BEDTools can be combined with one another as well as with standard UNIX commands, thus facilitating routine genomics tasks as well as pipelines that can quickly answer intricate questions of large genomic datasets. Availability and implementation: BEDTools was written in C++. Source code and a comprehensive user manual are freely available at http://code.google.com/p/bedtools

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Topics: Software suite (52%), Source code (50%)

14,088 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1186/GB-2008-9-9-R137
Yong Zhang1, Tao Liu1, Clifford A. Meyer1, Jérôme Eeckhoute2  +8 moreInstitutions (5)
17 Sep 2008-Genome Biology
Abstract: We present Model-based Analysis of ChIP-Seq data, MACS, which analyzes data generated by short read sequencers such as Solexa's Genome Analyzer. MACS empirically models the shift size of ChIP-Seq tags, and uses it to improve the spatial resolution of predicted binding sites. MACS also uses a dynamic Poisson distribution to effectively capture local biases in the genome, allowing for more robust predictions. MACS compares favorably to existing ChIP-Seq peak-finding algorithms, and is freely available.

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Topics: Peak calling (54%), Chromatin binding (51%)

9,966 Citations


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YearCitations
20219