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Journal ArticleDOI

Incidence and clinical importance of perioperative histamine release: randomised study of volume loading and antihistamines after induction of anaesthesia

16 Apr 1994-The Lancet (Elsevier)-Vol. 343, Iss: 8903, pp 933-940

TL;DR: The histamine-related disturbances under anaesthesia were remarkable for their severity (even with small rises in histamine concentrations), for the prevalence of bradycardia, and for the absence of skin signs.

AbstractAlthough histamine release is recognised as a common event during anaesthesia and surgery, few clinicians judge the resultant cardiorespiratory disturbances serious enough to warrant prophylaxis with antihistamines. We have assessed the incidence and importance of histamine release in a randomised 2 x 2 factorial study. 240 patients representing a routine throughput of major general surgery were studied during a standardised induction of anaesthesia and preoperative loading of the circulation with either Ringer solution or Haemaccel-35, with or without antihistamine prophylaxis with dimetindene (H1) plus cimetidine (H2). Cardiorespiratory disturbances were graded as detectable, clinically relevant, or life-threatening from observers' records of the anaesthesia and the actions taken by the anaesthetists. Disturbances that were accompanied by significant rises in plasma histamine were further designated histamine-related, and those that were not were designated histamine-unrelated. Anaesthetists, observers, and designators were blinded to whether or not the patients had received antihistamines and to which solution was used for circulatory volume loading. Clinically relevant or life-threatening histamine-related disturbances occurred in 8% of the patients who after induction of anaesthesia received Ringer without antihistamines, in 26% of those who received Haemaccel without antihistamines, and in 2% or less of those who received antihistamines (p < or = 0.0001). There were 4 life-threatening histamine-related disturbances, all in patients who received Haemaccel without antihistamines (p < 0.01). Histamine-unrelated disturbances occurred in 16% overall, with no obvious effect of Haemaccel or antihistamines. The histamine-related disturbances under anaesthesia were remarkable for their severity (even with small rises in histamine concentrations), for the prevalence of bradycardia, and for the absence of skin signs. Their likelihood and severity were increased in patients with tumours. The results of the trial make a case for routine prophylaxis with antihistamines as part of anaesthetic management.

Topics: Antihistamine (62%), Haemaccel (55%)

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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Since no specific treatment has been shown reliably to prevent the occurrence of anaphylaxis, allergy assessment must be performed in all high-risk patients and the need for proper epidemiological studies and the relative complexity of allergy investigation should be underscored.
Abstract: Anaphylactic reactions to anaesthetic and associated agents used during the perioperative period have been reported with increasing frequency in most developed countries. Any drug administered in the perioperative period can potentially produce life-threatening immune-mediated anaphylaxis. Most published reports on the incidence of anaphylaxis come from France, Australia, the UK and New Zealand. These reflect an active policy of systematic clinical and/or laboratory investigation of suspected immune-mediated reactions. The estimated incidence of anaphylaxis ranges from 1:10,000 to 1:20,000. Muscle relaxants (69.1%) and latex (12.1%) were the most frequently involved drugs according to the most recent French epidemiological survey. Clinical symptoms do not afford an easy distinction between immune-mediated anaphylactic reactions and anaphylactoid reactions resulting from direct non-specific histamine release. Moreover, when restricted to a single clinical symptom, anaphylaxis can easily be misdiagnosed. Pre- and postoperative investigation must be performed to confirm the nature of the reaction, the responsibility of the suspected drugs and to provide precise recommendations for future anaesthetic procedures. These include plasma histamine, tryptase and specific IgE concentration determination at the time of the reaction and at skin tests 6 weeks later. In addition, since no specific treatment has been shown reliably to prevent the occurrence of anaphylaxis, allergy assessment must be performed in all high-risk patients. Treatment of anaphylaxis is aimed at interrupting contact with the responsible antigen, inhibiting mediator production and release, and modulating the effects of released mediators. It must be initiated as quickly as possible and relies on widely accepted principles. Finally, the need for proper epidemiological studies and the relative complexity of allergy investigation should be underscored. They represent an incentive for further development of allergo-anaesthesiology clinical networks to provide expert advice for anaesthetists and allergologists.

192 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: A reexposure to aprotinin in patients with a high risk of bleeding is justified, because the benefits of aProtinin treatment outweigh the relative risk of a serious allergic reaction.
Abstract: The efficacy of aprotinin to reduce intraoperative bleeding tendency in cardiac operations has been demonstrated in several studies. Aprotinin is a polybasic polypeptide and has antigenic properties. Anaphylactic reactions to aprotinin have been described. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the prevalence of adverse reactions to reexposure to high-dose aprotinin. The clinical outcome of all patients undergoing heart operations in our institution between 1988 and 1995 with at least two exposures to aprotinin was investigated. There were 248 reexposures to aprotinin in 240 patients: 101 adult and 147 pediatric cases. The total aprotinin doses were 4.9 × 106 (interquartile range 2 × 106) KIU (adults) and 1.3 × 106 (interquartile range 1.2 × 106) KIU (pediatric patients). The time between the first and second aprotinin exposures was 344 (interquartile range 1039) days. Seven adverse reactions to aprotinin were found (2.8%). The severity of the reaction ranged from mild (no intervention) to severe (longer-lasting circulatory depression despite vasopressor therapy). All patients survived the event. Patients with an interval less than 6 months since the previous exposure had a statistically higher incidence of adverse reactions than patients with a longer interval (5/111 or 4.5% vs 2/137 or 1.5%, p < 0.05). Two patients reacted to a test dose of 10,000 KIU aprotinin. Pretreatment with antihistaminics was done in 60% of the patients. We recommend the following procedure for reexposure with high-dose aprotinin: (1) delay of the first bolus injection of aprotinin until the surgeon is ready to begin cardiopulmonary bypass, (2) test dose of 10,000 KIU aprotinin in all patients with aprotinin treatment, (3) H1/H2 blockade in known or possible reexposures, and (4) avoidance of reexposure within the first 6 months after the previous exposure to aprotinin. With these precautions a reexposure to aprotinin in patients with a high risk of bleeding is justified, because the benefits of aprotinin treatment outweigh the relative risk of a serious allergic reaction. (J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 1997;113:194-201)

162 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: A small‐volume resuscitatioin using hypertonic solutions encompasses the rapid infusion of a small dose of 7.2–7.5% NaCl/colloid solution for initial therapy of severe hypovolemia and shock associated with trauma.
Abstract: Background: The concept of small-volume resuscitatioin (SVR) using hypertonic solutions encompasses the rapid infusion of a small dose (4 ml per kg body weight, i.e. approximately 250 ml in an adult patient) of 7.2–7.5% NaCl/colloid solution. Originally, SVR was aimed for initial therapy of severe hypovolemia and shock associated with trauma. Methods: The present review focusses on the findings concerning the working mechanisms responsible for the rapid onset of the circulatory effect, the impact of the colloid component on microcirculatory resuscitation, and describes the indications for its application in the preclinical scenario as well as perioperatively and in intensive care medicine. Results: With respect to the actual data base of clinical trials SVR seems to be superior to conventional volume therapy with regard to faster normalization of microvascular perfusion during shock phases and early resumption of organ function. Particularly patients with head trauma in association with systemic hypotension appear to benefit. Besides, potential indications for this concept include cardiac and cardiovascular surgery (attenuation of reperfusion injury during declamping phase) and burn injury. The review also describes disadvantaages and potential adverse effects of SVR: Conclusion: Small-volume resuscitation by means of hypertonic NaCl/colloid solutions stands for one of the most innovative concepts for primary resuscitation from trauma and shock established in the past decade. Today the spectrum of potential indications envolves not only prehospital trauma care, but also perioperative and intensive care therapy.

125 citations


Journal Article
TL;DR: Gelofusine is a well-known and generally used blood volume substitute that can be applied safely without the induction of toxicity, and evaluation of this compound for its potential to reduce the kidney uptake of radiolabeled peptides in patients is warranted.
Abstract: 111In-Diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid-octreotide generally is used for the scintigraphic imaging of neuroendocrine and other somatostatin receptor–positive tumors. On the basis of the successful targeting of octreotide, radiolabeled somatostatin analogs, such as 90Y-(1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane-N,N′,N′′,N′′′-tetraacetic acid [DOTA])0-Tyr3-octreotide and 177Lu-DOTA0-Tyr3-octreotate, were developed for peptide receptor radionuclide therapy. However, the maximum tolerated doses of these analogs are limited because of the high and persistent renal uptake that leads to relatively high radiation doses in the kidneys. Renal uptake can be reduced by coinfusion of basic amino acids or polypeptides. However, high doses of basic amino acids can induce severe side effects. It was reported that the infusion of gelatin-based plasma expanders resulted in increased low-molecular-weight proteinuria, suggesting that these plasma expanders interfere with the tubular reabsorption of peptides and proteins. In the present study, we analyzed the effects of several plasma expanders on the renal uptake of 111In-octreotide in rats and mice. Methods: Wistar rats and BALB/c mice were injected with 0.5 or 0.1 mL of plasma expander, respectively. Thereafter, the animals received 111In-octreotide intravenously. Animals were killed at 20 h after the injection of the radiopharmaceutical. Organs were dissected, and the amount of radioactivity in the organs and tissues was measured. Results: The administration of 20 mg of Gelofusine in rats or 4 mg in mice was as effective in reducing the renal uptake of 111In-octreotide as the administration of 80 or 20 mg of lysine in rats or mice, respectively, without reducing 111In-octreotide uptake in receptor-positive organs. Plasma expanders based on starch or dextran had no effect on the renal uptake of 111In-octreotide. Conclusion: The gelatin-based plasma expander Gelofusine significantly reduced the kidney uptake of 111In-octreotide as effectively as did lysine. Because Gelofusine is a well-known and generally used blood volume substitute that can be applied safely without the induction of toxicity, evaluation of this compound for its potential to reduce the kidney uptake of radiolabeled peptides in patients is warranted.

106 citations


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References
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448 citations


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TL;DR: The electrocardiographic changes consistent with ischemia during the 4 day perioperative period were documented and characterized in 100 patients with or at risk for coronary artery disease undergoing noncardiac surgery and postoperative ischemic episodes were the most severe.
Abstract: To determine the incidence and characteristics of perioperative myocardial ischemia, the electrocardiographic (ECG) changes consistent with ischemia during the 4 day perioperative period were documented and characterized in 100 patients with or at risk for coronary artery disease undergoing noncardiac surgery. Using continuous two channel ECG monitoring (leads CC5 and CM5), the frequency and severity of ECG ischemic episodes defined by ST segment depression greater than or equal to 1 mm or elevation greater than or equal to 2 mm during the preoperative (up to 2 days), intraoperative and early postoperative (first 2 days) periods were compared. Preoperatively, 28 patients (28%) exhibited 105 episodes of ischemia; intraoperatively, 27 patients exhibited 39 episodes and postoperatively, 42 patients exhibited 187 episodes. There was no difference between the pre- and intraoperative episode characteristics. However, postoperative ischemic episodes were the most severe. The mean ST change was 1.5, 2 and 2.6 mm for pre-, intra- and postoperative episodes, respectively (p less than 0.0001 postoperative versus pre- or intraoperative); duration of ischemic episodes was 69, 45 and 207 min, respectively (p less than 0.005 postoperative versus preoperative, p less than 0.001 versus intraoperative) and area under the ST curve was 88, 74 and 383 mm.min (p less than 0.009 postoperative versus preoperative, p less than 0.005 versus intraoperative). Ninety-four percent of all postoperative ischemic episodes were silent; 80% of all episodes occurred without acute change (+/- 20% of control) in heart rate and 77% of intraoperative episodes occurred without acute change in blood pressure.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

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TL;DR: Pancuronium is suggested to be the least likely currently available agent to provoke a major anaphylactoid reaction and Predisposing factors in patients sensitive to muscle relaxants were: female sex, previous allergy and atopy.
Abstract: Sixty one patients who had suffered intra-operative anaphylactoid reactions were studied. Intradermal testing identified the causative agent in 84% of cases and, in 75% of these, muscle relaxants were responsible. Predisposing factors in patients sensitive to muscle relaxants were: female sex, previous allergy and atopy. The incidence of previous exposure was considerably higher than that reported in the literature. Pancuronium is suggested to be the least likely currently available agent to provoke a major anaphylactoid reaction.

128 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The average histamine-release response was defined by clinical signs such as tachycardia and mild hypertension, scattered hives such as spots of erythema and wheals, respiratory symptoms in the laryngeal and nasal region, such as cough, narrowness in the throat, stuffy nose and sneezing and by pathological plasma histamine levels (>1 ng/ml.
Abstract: In 2 clinical studies in 40 conscious human volunteers and 164 orthopedic patients histamine-release responses were diagnosed, defined and classified. Polygeline (Haemaccel) in its now outdated formulation [40] was chosen as a clinical histamine releaser. The main interest was not concentrated on the extreme, the “classical” anaphylactic response, but on theaverage histamine-release response found in clinical experiments with so many drugs in the last 10 years. In human volunteers 600 ng/kg histamine was i. v. injected. Indicants for a systemic anaphylactoid reaction with the highest incidence ratio were tachycardia, plasma histamine levels >1 ng/ml, “metallic taste”, flush, congestion of head, “wet eyes” and tears, hypertension and headache. Following polygeline none of these subjects developed a life-threatening reaction, but 12 showed a systemic response, 11 a cutaneous reaction and 17 were non-responders. Indicants for a systemic anaphylactoid reaction with the highest incidence ratio were plasma histamine levels >1 ng/ml, tachycardia, wheals, sensation of heat, narrowness of throat, hypertension, headache and wet eyes or tears. In a prolective, cohort study in the orthopedic patients 3 subjects with life-threatening reactions, 27 with systemic response, 96 with cutaneous reaction and 38 non-responders were included. Indicants with the highest incidence ratio were tachycardia, plasma histamine levels >1 ng/ml, erythema and wheals, cough, flush, stuffy nose and facial oedema. With this trial the indicants for diagnosing a systemic histamine release response in volunteers were validated in patients to a large extent. Thus the average histamine-release response was defined by clinical signs such as tachycardia and mild hypertension, scattered hives such as spots of erythema and wheals, respiratory symptoms in the laryngeal and nasal region, such as cough, narrowness in the throat, stuffy nose and sneezingand by pathological plasma histamine levels (>1 ng/ml). In addition histamine-release responses were differentiated as cutaneous responses, systemic responses and life-threatening responses by clinical and operational criteria and by plasma histamine levels. Using clinical trials and medical decision making procedures the incidence of systemic histamine-release responses in patients higher by two orders of magnitude than in other studies reported hitherto.

110 citations