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Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1007/S11239-021-02413-7

Incidence of Venous Thromboembolism and Mortality in Patients with Initial Presentation of COVID-19.

05 Mar 2021-Journal of Thrombosis and Thrombolysis (Springer US)-Vol. 51, Iss: 4, pp 897-901
Abstract: Venous thromboembolism (VTE) has emerged as an important issue in patients with COVID-19. The purpose of this study is to identify the incidence of VTE and mortality in COVID-19 patients initially presenting to a large health system. Our retrospective study included adult patients (excluding patients presenting with obstetric/gynecologic conditions) across a multihospital health system in the New York Metropolitan Region from March 1-April 27, 2020. VTE and mortality rates within 8 h of assessment were described. In 10,871 adults with COVID-19, 118 patients (1.09%) were diagnosed with symptomatic VTE (101 pulmonary embolism, 17 deep vein thrombosis events) and 28 patients (0.26%) died during initial assessment. Among these 146 patients, 64.4% were males, 56.8% were 60 years or older, 15.1% had a BMI > 35, and 11.6% were admitted to the intensive care unit. Comorbidities included hypertension (46.6%), diabetes (24.7%), hyperlipidemia (14.4%), chronic lung disease (12.3%), coronary artery disease (11.0%), and prior VTE (7.5%). Key medications included corticosteroids (22.6%), statins (21.2%), antiplatelets (20.6%), and anticoagulants (20.6%). Highest D-Dimer was greater than six times the upper limit of normal in 51.4%. Statin and antiplatelet use were associated with decreased VTE or mortality (each p < 0.01). In COVID-19 patients who initially presented to a large multihospital health system, the overall symptomatic VTE and mortality rate was over 1.0%. Statin and antiplatelet use were associated with decreased VTE or mortality. The potential benefits of antithrombotics in high risk COVID-19 patients during the pre-hospitalization period deserves study.

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Topics: Mortality rate (52%)
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9 results found


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/J.JNS.2021.117448
Abstract: Thromboembolism is one of the major complications of coronavirus disease 19 (COVID-19) [1]. Both arterial and venous thromboembolism involving various organs from COVID-19 related coagulopathy have been reported. While arterial ischemic strokes are common, cerebral venous sinus thrombosis (CVT) associated with COVID-19 has been increasingly recognized [2,3]. The true incidence of CVT in COVID-19 patients remains unknown. Various mechanisms of thromboembolism include elevated factor VIII, fibrinogen, D-dimer, prothrombotic microparticles like antiphospholipid antibodies, and inflammatory markers like C-reactive protein and interleukin-6 [4]. In this report, we aimed to determine the rates of CVT and its impact on outcomes in patients with COVID-19.

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3 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1136/OPENHRT-2021-001668
01 Jun 2021-
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Prior diagnosis of heart failure (HF) is associated with increased length of hospital stay (LOS) and mortality from COVID-19. Associations between substance use, venous thromboembolism (VTE) or peripheral arterial disease (PAD) and its effects on LOS or mortality in patients with HF hospitalised with COVID-19 remain unknown. OBJECTIVE: This study identified risk factors associated with poor in-hospital outcomes among patients with HF hospitalised with COVID-19. METHODS: Case-control study was conducted of patients with prior diagnosis of HF hospitalised with COVID-19 at an academic tertiary care centre from 1 January 2020 to 28 February 2021. Patients with HF hospitalised with COVID-19 with risk factors were compared with those without risk factors for clinical characteristics, LOS and mortality. Multivariate regression was conducted to identify multiple predictors of increased LOS and in-hospital mortality in patients with HF hospitalised with COVID-19. RESULTS: Total of 211 patients with HF were hospitalised with COVID-19. Women had longer LOS than men (9 days vs 7 days; p<0.001). Compared with patients without PAD or ischaemic stroke, patients with PAD or ischaemic stroke had longer LOS (7 days vs 9 days; p=0.012 and 7 days vs 11 days, p<0.001, respectively). Older patients (aged 65 and above) had increased in-hospital mortality compared with younger patients (adjusted OR: 1.04; 95% CI 1.00 to 1.07; p=0.036). Prior diagnosis of VTE increased mortality more than threefold in patients with HF hospitalised with COVID-19 (adjusted OR: 3.33; 95% CI 1.29 to 8.43; p=0.011). CONCLUSION: Vascular diseases increase LOS and mortality in patients with HF hospitalised with COVID-19.

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1 Citations


Open accessPosted ContentDOI: 10.1101/2021.07.21.21260963
23 Jul 2021-medRxiv
Abstract: Background Patients with severe COVID-19 seem to have a compromised antiviral response and hyperinflammation. Neutrophils are critical players in COVID-19 pathogenesis. IL-17A plays a major role in protection against extracellular pathogens and neutrophil attraction and activation. We hypothesized that secukinumab, an anti-IL17A monoclonal antibody, could mitigate the deleterious hyperinflammation in COVID-19. Methods BISHOP was an open-label, single-center, phase-II controlled trial. Fifty adults hospitalized Covid-19 patients, confirmed by a positive SARS-CoV-2 RT-PCR, were randomized 1:1 to receive 300mg of secukinumab subcutaneously at day-0 (group A) plus standard of care (SoC: antiviral drugs, antimicrobials, corticosteroids, and/or anticoagulants) or SoC alone (group B). A second dose of 300mg of secukinumab could be administered on day-7, according to staff judgment. The primary endpoint was ventilator-free days at day-28 (VFD-28). Secondary efficacy and safety outcomes were also explored. Findings An intention-to-treat analysis showed no difference in VFD-28: 23.7 (95%CI 19.6-27.8) in group A vs. 23.8 (19.9-27.6) in group B, p=0.62; There was also no difference in hospitalization time, intensive care unit demand, the incidence of circulatory shock, acute kidney injury, fungal or bacterial co-infections, and severe adverse events. Pulmonary thromboembolism was less frequent in group A (4.2% vs. 26.2% p=0.04). There was one death in each group. Viral clearance, defined by the viral load fold change (2-ΔΔCT) in upper airways, between day-0 and day-7, was also similar: 0.17 (0.05-0.56) in group A vs. 0.24 (0.10-0.57) in group B. Interpretation The efficacy of secukinumab in the treatment of Covid19 was not demonstrated. No difference between groups in adverse events and no unexpected events were observed. Funding Novartis Brazil supported this research providing expert input in the development of the project, drug supply, data management, and monitoring.

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Topics: Secukinumab (63%), Adverse effect (50%)

1 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.3390/IJMS22158255
Abstract: Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is the virus responsible for the COVID-19 pandemic. Patients may present as asymptomatic or demonstrate mild to severe and life-threatening symptoms. Although COVID-19 has a respiratory focus, there are major cardiovascular complications (CVCs) associated with infection. The reported CVCs include myocarditis, heart failure, arrhythmias, thromboembolism and blood pressure abnormalities. These occur, in part, because of dysregulation of the Renin–Angiotensin–Aldosterone System (RAAS) and Kinin–Kallikrein System (KKS). A major route by which SARS-CoV-2 gains cellular entry is via the docking of the viral spike (S) protein to the membrane-bound angiotensin converting enzyme 2 (ACE2). The roles of ACE2 within the cardiovascular and immune systems are vital to ensure homeostasis. The key routes for the development of CVCs and the recently described long COVID have been hypothesised as the direct consequences of the viral S protein/ACE2 axis, downregulation of ACE2 and the resulting damage inflicted by the immune response. Here, we review the impact of COVID-19 on the cardiovascular system, the mechanisms by which dysregulation of the RAAS and KKS can occur following virus infection and the future implications for pharmacological therapies.

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1 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/J.JBIOR.2021.100819
Abstract: The Corona Virus Disease-2019 (COVID-19) pandemic is associated with a very high incidence of thrombotic complications. The exact mechanisms for this excess risk for clots have not been elucidated although one of the often-quoted pathophysiological entity is immunothrombosis. Recognition of thrombotic complications early on in this pandemic led to an over-explosion of studies which looked at the benefits of anticoagulation to mitigate this risk. In this review, we examine the rationale for thromboprophylaxis in COVID-19 with particular reference to dosing and discuss what may guide the decision-making process to consider anticoagulation. In addition, we explore the rationale for thrombosis prevention measures in special populations including outpatient setting, pregnant females, children, those with high body mass index and those on extracorporeal membrane oxygenation.

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Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1111/JTH.14817
Ning Tang1, Huan Bai1, Xing Chen1, Jiale Gong1  +2 moreInstitutions (1)
Abstract: Background A relatively high mortality of severe coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is worrying, and the application of heparin in COVID-19 has been recommended by some expert consensus because of the risk of disseminated intravascular coagulation and venous thromboembolism. However, its efficacy remains to be validated. Methods Coagulation results, medications, and outcomes of consecutive patients being classified as having severe COVID-19 in Tongji hospital were retrospectively analyzed. The 28-day mortality between heparin users and nonusers were compared, as was a different risk of coagulopathy, which was stratified by the sepsis-induced coagulopathy (SIC) score or D-dimer result. Results There were 449 patients with severe COVID-19 enrolled into the study, 99 of them received heparin (mainly with low molecular weight heparin) for 7 days or longer. D-dimer, prothrombin time, and age were positively, and platelet count was negatively, correlated with 28-day mortality in multivariate analysis. No difference in 28-day mortality was found between heparin users and nonusers (30.3% vs 29.7%, P = .910). But the 28-day mortality of heparin users was lower than nonusers in patients with SIC score ≥4 (40.0% vs 64.2%, P = .029), or D-dimer >6-fold of upper limit of normal (32.8% vs 52.4%, P = .017). Conclusions Anticoagulant therapy mainly with low molecular weight heparin appears to be associated with better prognosis in severe COVID-19 patients meeting SIC criteria or with markedly elevated D-dimer.

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Topics: Low molecular weight heparin (62%), Coagulopathy (54%), Blood coagulation test (53%) ... read more

2,289 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/J.JACC.2020.04.031
Abstract: Coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19), a viral respiratory illness caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome-coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2), may predispose patients to thrombotic disease, both in the venous and arterial circulations, because of excessive inflammation, platelet activation, endothelial dysfunction, and stasis. In addition, many patients receiving antithrombotic therapy for thrombotic disease may develop COVID-19, which can have implications for choice, dosing, and laboratory monitoring of antithrombotic therapy. Moreover, during a time with much focus on COVID-19, it is critical to consider how to optimize the available technology to care for patients without COVID-19 who have thrombotic disease. Herein, the authors review the current understanding of the pathogenesis, epidemiology, management, and outcomes of patients with COVID-19 who develop venous or arterial thrombosis, of those with pre-existing thrombotic disease who develop COVID-19, or those who need prevention or care for their thrombotic disease during the COVID-19 pandemic.

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Topics: Platelet activation (54%), Antithrombotic (54%)

1,581 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.7326/M20-2003
Abstract: Background The new coronavirus, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), has caused more than 210 000 deaths worldwide However, little is known about the causes of death and the virus's pathologic features Objective To validate and compare clinical findings with data from medical autopsy, virtual autopsy, and virologic tests Design Prospective cohort study Setting Autopsies performed at a single academic medical center, as mandated by the German federal state of Hamburg for patients dying with a polymerase chain reaction-confirmed diagnosis of COVID-19 Patients The first 12 consecutive COVID-19-positive deaths Measurements Complete autopsy, including postmortem computed tomography and histopathologic and virologic analysis, was performed Clinical data and medical course were evaluated Results Median patient age was 73 years (range, 52 to 87 years), 75% of patients were male, and death occurred in the hospital (n = 10) or outpatient sector (n = 2) Coronary heart disease and asthma or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease were the most common comorbid conditions (50% and 25%, respectively) Autopsy revealed deep venous thrombosis in 7 of 12 patients (58%) in whom venous thromboembolism was not suspected before death; pulmonary embolism was the direct cause of death in 4 patients Postmortem computed tomography revealed reticular infiltration of the lungs with severe bilateral, dense consolidation, whereas histomorphologically diffuse alveolar damage was seen in 8 patients In all patients, SARS-CoV-2 RNA was detected in the lung at high concentrations; viremia in 6 of 10 and 5 of 12 patients demonstrated high viral RNA titers in the liver, kidney, or heart Limitation Limited sample size Conclusion The high incidence of thromboembolic events suggests an important role of COVID-19-induced coagulopathy Further studies are needed to investigate the molecular mechanism and overall clinical incidence of COVID-19-related death, as well as possible therapeutic interventions to reduce it Primary funding source University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf

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Topics: Cause of death (58%), Autopsy (54%), Pulmonary embolism (54%) ... read more

1,203 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1111/JTH.14830
Songping Cui1, Shuo Chen1, Xiunan Li1, Shi Liu2  +1 moreInstitutions (2)
Abstract: Background Three months ago, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) broke out in Wuhan, China, and spread rapidly around the world. Severe novel coronavirus pneumonia (NCP) patients have abnormal blood coagulation function, but their venous thromboembolism (VTE) prevalence is still rarely mentioned. Objectives To determine the incidence of VTE in patients with severe NCP. Methods In this study, 81 severe NCP patients in the intensive care unit (ICU) of Union Hospital (Wuhan, China) were enrolled. The results of conventional coagulation parameters and lower limb vein ultrasonography of these patients were retrospectively collected and analyzed. Results The incidence of VTE in these patients was 25% (20/81), of which 8 patients with VTE events died. The VTE group was different from the non-VTE group in age, lymphocyte counts, activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT), D-dimer, etc. If 1.5 µg/mL was used as the D-dimer cut-off value to predicting VTE, the sensitivity was 85.0%, the specificity was 88.5%, and the negative predictive value (NPV) was 94.7%. Conclusions The incidence of VTE in patients with severe NCP is 25% (20/81), which may be related to poor prognosis. The significant increase of D-dimer in severe NCP patients is a good index for identifying high-risk groups of VTE.

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Topics: Blood coagulation test (54%)

1,070 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/J.JCV.2020.104362
Abstract: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) or severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), a novel coronavirus strain disease, has recently emerged in China and rapidly spread worldwide. This novel strain is highly transmittable and severe disease has been reported in up to 16% of hospitalized cases. More than 600,000 cases have been confirmed and the number of deaths is constantly increasing. COVID-19 hospitalized patients, especially those suffering from severe respiratory or systemic manifestations, fall under the spectrum of the acutely ill medical population, which is at increased venous thromboembolism risk. Thrombotic complications seem to emerge as an important issue in patients infected with COVID-19. Preliminary reports on COVID-19 patients' clinical and laboratory findings include thrombocytopenia, elevated D-dimer, prolonged prothrombin time, and disseminated intravascular coagulation. As the pandemic is spreading and the whole picture is yet unknown, we highlight the importance of coagulation disorders in COVID-19 infected patients and review relevant data of previous coronavirus epidemics caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 1 (SARS-CoV-1) and the Middle East Respiratory Syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV).

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Topics: Coronavirus (66%), Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (64%), Population (51%) ... read more

499 Citations


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