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Journal ArticleDOI

Income inequality, trust and homicide in 33 countries.

01 Apr 2011-European Journal of Public Health (Oxford University Press)-Vol. 21, Iss: 2, pp 241-246
TL;DR: Results were consistent with psychosocial explanations of links between income inequality and homicide; however, the causal relationship between inequality, trust and homicide remains unclear given the cross-sectional design of this study.
Abstract: Background: Theories of why income inequality correlates with violence suggest that inequality erodes social capital and trust, or inhibits investment into public services and infrastructure. Past research sensed the importance of these causal paths but few have examined them using tests of statistical mediation. Methods: We explored links between income inequality and rates of homicide in 33 countries and then tested whether this association is mediated by an indicator of social capital (interpersonal trust) or by public spending on health and education. Survey data on trust were collected from 48 641 adults and matched to country data on per capita income, income inequality, public expenditures on health and education and rate of homicides. Results: Between countries, income inequality correlated with trust ( r = −0.64) and homicide ( r = 0.80) but not with public expenditures. Trust also correlated with homicides ( r = −0.58) and partly mediated the association between income inequality and homicide, whilst public expenditures did not. Multilevel analysis showed that income inequality related to less trust after differences in per capita income and sample characteristics were taken into account. Conclusion: Results were consistent with psychosocial explanations of links between income inequality and homicide; however, the causal relationship between inequality, trust and homicide remains unclear given the cross-sectional design of this study. Societies with large income differences and low levels of trust may lack the social capacity to create safe communities.

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Citations
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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: A literature review within an epidemiological causal framework and inferred the likelihood of a causal relationship between income inequality and health (including violence) by considering the evidence as a whole is inferred.

1,217 citations


Cites background from "Income inequality, trust and homici..."

  • ...psychosocial pathways from income inequality to healthy life expectancy, mortality, mental health and homicide rates conclude that psychosocial factors, such as social capital and trust, mediate the relationship, whereas neo-material factors, such as public expenditure on health or social services, have little or no explanatory role (Elgar, 2010; Elgar and Aitken, 2011; Layte, 2012)....

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  • ...…health and homicide rates conclude that psychosocial factors, such as social capital and trust, mediate the relationship, whereas neo-material factors, such as public expenditure on health or social services, have little or no explanatory role (Elgar, 2010; Elgar and Aitken, 2011; Layte, 2012)....

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01 Jan 2016
TL;DR: Findings from the 2013/2014 survey are presented, which collected data from almost 220 000 young people in 42 countries in Europe and North America and focuses on social context, health outcomes, health behaviours and risk behaviours relevant to young people’s health and well-being.
Abstract: Health Behaviour in School-aged Children (HBSC), a WHO collaborative cross-national study, has provided information about the health, well-being, social environment and health behaviour of 11-, 13and 15-year-old boys and girls for over 30 years. This latest international report from the study presents findings from the 2013/2014 survey, which collected data from almost 220 000 young people in 42 countries in Europe and North America. The data focus on social context (relations with family, peers and school), health outcomes (subjective health, injuries, obesity and mental health), health behaviours (patterns of eating, toothbrushing and physical activity) and risk behaviours (use of tobacco, alcohol and cannabis, sexual behaviour, fighting and bullying) relevant to young people’s health and well-being. New items on family and peer support, migration, cyberbullying and serious injuries are also reflected in the report.

461 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The case is made that a cluster of behaviours is associated with lower socioeconomic status (SES), which is called “the behavioural constellation of deprivation,” and it is proposed that the relatively limited control associated with higher SES curtails the extent to which people can expect to realise deferred rewards, leading to more present-oriented behaviour in a range of domains.
Abstract: Socioeconomic differences in behaviour are pervasive and well documented, but their causes are not yet well understood. Here, we make the case that a cluster of behaviours is associated with lower socioeconomic status (SES), which we call “the behavioural constellation of deprivation.” We propose that the relatively limited control associated with lower SES curtails the extent to which people can expect to realise deferred rewards, leading to more present-oriented behaviour in a range of domains. We illustrate this idea using the specific factor of extrinsic mortality risk, an important factor in evolutionary theoretical models. We emphasise the idea that the present-oriented behaviours of the constellation are a contextually appropriate response to structural and ecological factors rather than a pathology or a failure of willpower. We highlight some principles from evolutionary theoretical models that can deepen our understanding of how socioeconomic inequalities can become amplified and embedded. These principles are that (1) small initial disparities can lead to larger eventual inequalities, (2) feedback loops can embed early-life circumstances, (3) constraints can breed further constraints, and (4) feedback loops can operate over generations. We discuss some of the mechanisms by which SES may influence behaviour. We then review how the contextually appropriate response perspective that we have outlined fits with other findings about control and temporal discounting. Finally, we discuss the implications of this interpretation for research and policy.

209 citations


Cites result from "Income inequality, trust and homici..."

  • ...…(related to the intensity of male-male conflict for status) were good predictors of violence--a finding subsequently supported by studies from various other authors (Daly et al., 2001; Elgar & Aitken, 2011; Jacobs & Richardson, 2008; Pickett, Mookherjee, & Wilkinson, 2005; Wilson & Daly, 1997)....

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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The results indicate that the main effects of inequality manifest via resources at the individual and societal level, however, independent of these resources, higher inequality is associated with lower civic participation and inequality magnifies the relationship between income and participation.

162 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors suggest that human beings have two contrasting evolved social strategies: one that is adaptive to living in a dominance hierarchy and the other appropriate to more egalitarian societies based on reciprocity and cooperation.
Abstract: There is now substantial evidence that larger income differences in a society increase the prevalence of most of the health and social problems that tend to occur more frequently lower down the social ladder. The pathways through which human beings are sensitive to inequality are however less clear. This paper outlines the explanatory theory that we think best fits the growing but incomplete body of evidence available. Inequality appears to have its most fundamental effects on the quality of social relations—with implications affecting the prevalence of a number of psychopathologies. We suggest that human beings have two contrasting evolved social strategies: one that is adaptive to living in a dominance hierarchy and the other appropriate to more egalitarian societies based on reciprocity and cooperation. Although both strategies are used in all societies, we hypothesise that the balance between them changes with the extent of material inequality.

161 citations


Cites background from "Income inequality, trust and homici..."

  • ...(Elgar, 2010; Elgar & Aitken, 2011; Kawachi, Kennedy, Lochner, & Prothrow-Stith, 1997; Rothstein & Uslaner, 2005; E. Uslaner, 2002) Indicators of women’s status and equality are generally better, (Kawachi, Kennedy, Gupta, & Prothrow-Stith, 1999; R. Wilkinson & K. Pickett, 2009) and a large…...

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  • ...(Daly, Wilson, & Vasdev, 2001; Elgar & Aitken, 2011; F. J. Elgar et al., 2013; Fajnzylber, Lederman, & Loayza, 2002; Hsieh & Pugh, 1993; Krahn, Hartnagel, & Gartrell, 1986; Rufrancos, Power, Pickett, & Wilkinson, 2013) Children’s life chances and trajectories are also affected by income inequality....

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  • ...(Elgar, 2010; Elgar & Aitken, 2011) If inequality does increase the social evaluative threat, participation in community life may atrophy partly because social contact becomes more stressful....

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References
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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: This article seeks to make theorists and researchers aware of the importance of not using the terms moderator and mediator interchangeably by carefully elaborating the many ways in which moderators and mediators differ, and delineates the conceptual and strategic implications of making use of such distinctions with regard to a wide range of phenomena.
Abstract: In this article, we attempt to distinguish between the properties of moderator and mediator variables at a number of levels. First, we seek to make theorists and researchers aware of the importance of not using the terms moderator and mediator interchangeably by carefully elaborating, both conceptually and strategically, the many ways in which moderators and mediators differ. We then go beyond this largely pedagogical function and delineate the conceptual and strategic implications of making use of such distinctions with regard to a wide range of phenomena, including control and stress, attitudes, and personality traits. We also provide a specific compendium of analytic procedures appropriate for making the most effective use of the moderator and mediator distinction, both separately and in terms of a broader causal system that includes both moderators and mediators.

80,095 citations

Book
01 Jan 2000
TL;DR: Putnam as mentioned in this paper showed that changes in work, family structure, age, suburban life, television, computers, women's roles and other factors are isolating Americans from each other in a trend whose reflection can clearly be seen in British society.
Abstract: BOWLING ALONE warns Americans that their stock of "social capital", the very fabric of their connections with each other, has been accelerating down. Putnam describes the resulting impoverishment of their lives and communities. Drawing on evidence that includes nearly half a million interviews conducted over a quarter of a century in America, Putnam shows how changes in work, family structure, age, suburban life, television, computers, women's roles and other factors are isolating Americans from each other in a trend whose reflection can clearly be seen in British society. We sign 30 percent fewer petitions than we did ten years ago. Membership in organisations- from the Boy Scouts to political parties and the Church is falling. Ties with friends and relatives are fraying: we're 35 percent less likely to visit our neighbours or have dinner with our families than we were thirty years ago. We watch sport alone instead of with our friends. A century ago, American citizens' means of connecting were at a low point after decades of urbanisation, industrialisation and immigration uprooted them from families and friends. That generation demonstrated a capacity for renewal by creating the organisations that pulled Americans together. Putnam shows how we can learn from them and reinvent common enterprises that will make us secure, productive, happy and hopeful.

24,532 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: A Monte Carlo study compared 14 methods to test the statistical significance of the intervening variable effect and found two methods based on the distribution of the product and 2 difference-in-coefficients methods have the most accurate Type I error rates and greatest statistical power.
Abstract: A Monte Carlo study compared 14 methods to test the statistical significance of the intervening variable effect. An intervening variable (mediator) transmits the effect of an independent variable to a dependent variable. The commonly used R. M. Baron and D. A. Kenny (1986) approach has low statistical power. Two methods based on the distribution of the product and 2 difference-in-coefficients methods have the most accurate Type I error rates and greatest statistical power except in 1 important case in which Type I error rates are too high. The best balance of Type I error and statistical power across all cases is the test of the joint significance of the two effects comprising the intervening variable effect.

8,629 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The Commission on Social Determinants of Health (CSDH) as mentioned in this paper was created to marshal the evidence on what can be done to promote health equity and to foster a global movement to achieve it.

7,335 citations

Book
01 Jan 1942

3,336 citations

Trending Questions (1)
What is the effect of income inequality to the rates of rebellion incidents in developing countries?

The effect of income inequality on rates of rebellion incidents in developing countries is not mentioned in the provided information.