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Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/J.CELL.2021.01.049

Increased stem cell proliferation in atherosclerosis accelerates clonal hematopoiesis

04 Mar 2021-Cell (Elsevier)-Vol. 184, Iss: 5
Abstract: Clonal hematopoiesis, a condition in which individual hematopoietic stem cell clones generate a disproportionate fraction of blood leukocytes, correlates with higher risk for cardiovascular disease. The mechanisms behind this association are incompletely understood. Here, we show that hematopoietic stem cell division rates are increased in mice and humans with atherosclerosis. Mathematical analysis demonstrates that increased stem cell proliferation expedites somatic evolution and expansion of clones with driver mutations. The experimentally determined division rate elevation in atherosclerosis patients is sufficient to produce a 3.5-fold increased risk of clonal hematopoiesis by age 70. We confirm the accuracy of our theoretical framework in mouse models of atherosclerosis and sleep fragmentation by showing that expansion of competitively transplanted Tet2-/- cells is accelerated under conditions of chronically elevated hematopoietic activity. Hence, increased hematopoietic stem cell proliferation is an important factor contributing to the association between cardiovascular disease and clonal hematopoiesis.

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Topics: Hematopoietic stem cell proliferation (69%), Hematopoietic stem cell (60%), Stem cell (59%) ... read more
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27 results found


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1038/S41573-021-00198-1
Abstract: Atherosclerosis, a dominant and growing cause of death and disability worldwide, involves inflammation from its inception to the emergence of complications. Targeting inflammatory pathways could therefore provide a promising new avenue to prevent and treat atherosclerosis. Indeed, clinical studies have now demonstrated unequivocally that modulation of inflammation can forestall the clinical complications of atherosclerosis. This progress pinpoints the need for preclinical investigations to refine strategies for combatting inflammation in the human disease. In this Review, we consider a gamut of attractive possibilities for modifying inflammation in atherosclerosis, including targeting pivotal inflammatory pathways such as the inflammasomes, inhibiting cytokines, manipulating adaptive immunity and promoting pro-resolution mechanisms. Along with lifestyle measures, pharmacological interventions to mute inflammation could complement traditional targets, such as lipids and hypertension, to make new inroads into the management of atherosclerotic risk. The contribution of inflammation to atherosclerosis is substantial, and is just beginning to be understood. In this Review, Soehnlein and Libby discuss how inflammation promotes atherosclerosis and its consequences, and how such processes could be targeted therapeutically. The potential pitfalls of targeting immune processes — namely the increased potential for infections — are also discussed, along with ways to modulate cardiovascular therapies in time and space to make them more effective.

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14 Citations


Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1038/S41569-021-00554-Z
Abstract: Sequencing studies demonstrate a strong clinical association between clonal haematopoiesis driven by acquired mutations and atherosclerotic disease. Previous research supports the idea that this association reflects a direct contribution of some clonal haematopoiesis-related mutations to atherosclerosis. Now, mathematical modelling suggests that atherosclerosis could instead accelerate clonal haematopoiesis.

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4 Citations


Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1093/CVR/CVAB273
Abstract: Calcific aortic valve disease (CAVD), and its clinical manifestation that is calcific aortic valve stenosis, is the leading cause for valve disease within the developed world, with no current pharmacological treatment available to delay or halt its progression. Characterized by progressive fibrotic remodelling and subsequent pathogenic mineralization of the valve leaflets, valve disease affects 2.5% of the western population, thus highlighting the need for urgent intervention. Whilst the pathobiology of valve disease is complex, involving genetic factors, lipid infiltration, and oxidative damage, the immune system is now being accepted to play a crucial role in pathogenesis and disease continuation. No longer considered a passive degenerative disease, CAVD is understood to be an active inflammatory process, involving a multitude of pro-inflammatory mechanisms, with both the adaptive and the innate immune system underpinning these complex mechanisms. Within the valve, 15% of cells evolve from haemopoietic origin, and this number greatly expands following inflammation, as macrophages, T lymphocytes, B lymphocytes, and innate immune cells infiltrate the valve, promoting further inflammation. Whether chronic immune infiltration or pathogenic clonal expansion of immune cells within the valve or a combination of the two is responsible for disease progression, it is clear that greater understanding of the immune systems role in valve disease is required to inform future treatment strategies for control of CAVD development.

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3 Citations


Open accessPosted ContentDOI: 10.1101/2021.08.16.456475
16 Aug 2021-bioRxiv
Abstract: Age-related change in human haematopoiesis causes reduced regenerative capacity1, cytopenias2, immune dysfunction3 and increased risk of blood cancer. The cellular alterations that underpin the abruptness of this functional decline after the age of 70 years remain elusive. We sequenced 3579 genomes from single-cell-derived colonies of haematopoietic stem cell/multipotent progenitors (HSC/MPPs) across 10 haematologically normal subjects aged 0-81 years. HSC/MPPs accumulated 17 mutations/year after birth and lost 30bp/year of telomere length. Haematopoiesis in adults aged 75 showed profoundly decreased clonal diversity. In each elderly subject, 30-60% of haematopoiesis was accounted for by 12-18 independent clones, each contributing 1-34% of blood production. Most clones had begun their expansion before age 40, but only 22% had known driver mutations. Genome-wide selection analysis estimated that 1/34 to 1/12 non-synonymous mutations were drivers, occurring at a constant rate throughout life, affecting a wider pool of genes than identified in blood cancers. Loss of Y chromosome conferred selective benefits on HSC/MPPs in males. Simulations from a simple model of haematopoiesis, with constant HSC population size and constant acquisition of driver mutations conferring moderate fitness benefits, entirely explained the abrupt change in clonal structure in the elderly. Rapidly decreasing clonal diversity is a universal feature of haematopoiesis in aged humans, underpinned by pervasive positive selection acting on many more genes than currently identified.

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Topics: Haematopoiesis (56%)

2 Citations


Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/J.YJMCC.2021.07.004
Abstract: Clonal hematopoiesis of indeterminate potential (CHIP) is the presence of a clonally expanded hematopoietic stem cell caused by a leukemogenic mutation in individuals without evidence of hematologic malignancy, dysplasia, or cytopenia. CHIP is associated with a 0.5-1.0% risk per year of leukemia. Remarkably, it confers a two-fold increase in cardiovascular risk independent of traditional risk factors. Roughly 80% of patients with CHIP have mutations in epigenetic regulators DNMT3A, TET2, ASXL1, DNA damage repair genes PPM1D, TP53, the regulatory tyrosine kinase JAK2, or mRNA spliceosome components SF3B1, and SRSF2. CHIP is associated with a pro-inflammatory state that has been linked to coronary artery disease, myocardial infarction, and venous thromboembolic disease, as well as prognosis among those with aortic stenosis and heart failure. Heritable and acquired risk factors are associated with increased CHIP prevalence, including germline variation, age, unhealthy lifestyle behaviors (i.e. smoking, obesity), inflammatory conditions, premature menopause, HIV and exposure to cancer therapies. This review aims to summarize emerging research on CHIP, the mechanisms underlying its important role in propagating inflammation and accelerating cardiovascular disease, and new studies detailing the role of associated risk factors and co-morbidities that increase CHIP prevalence.

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Topics: Disease (52%)

2 Citations


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61 results found


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/J.CELL.2005.05.026
01 Jul 2005-Cell
Abstract: To improve our ability to identify hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) and their localization in vivo, we compared the gene expression profiles of highly purified HSCs and non-self-renewing multipotent hematopoietic progenitors (MPPs). Cell surface receptors of the SLAM family, including CD150, CD244, and CD48, were differentially expressed among functionally distinct progenitors. HSCs were highly purified as CD150(+)CD244(-)CD48(-) cells while MPPs were CD244(+)CD150(-)CD48(-) and most restricted progenitors were CD48(+)CD244(+)CD150(-). The primitiveness of hematopoietic progenitors could thus be predicted based on the combination of SLAM family members they expressed. This is the first family of receptors whose combinatorial expression precisely distinguishes stem and progenitor cells. The ability to purify HSCs based on a simple combination of SLAM receptors allowed us to identify HSCs in tissue sections. Many HSCs were associated with sinusoidal endothelium in spleen and bone marrow, though some HSCs were associated with endosteum. HSCs thus occupy multiple niches, including sinusoidal endothelium in diverse tissues.

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Topics: Hematopoietic stem cell niche (59%), Stem cell (54%), Progenitor cell (54%) ... read more

2,925 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1056/NEJMOA1408617
Abstract: Background The incidence of hematologic cancers increases with age. These cancers are associated with recurrent somatic mutations in specific genes. We hypothesized that such mutations would be detectable in the blood of some persons who are not known to have hematologic disorders. Methods We analyzed whole-exome sequencing data from DNA in the peripheral-blood cells of 17,182 persons who were unselected for hematologic phenotypes. We looked for somatic mutations by identifying previously characterized single-nucleotide variants and small insertions or deletions in 160 genes that are recurrently mutated in hematologic cancers. The presence of mutations was analyzed for an association with hematologic phenotypes, survival, and cardiovascular events. Results Detectable somatic mutations were rare in persons younger than 40 years of age but rose appreciably in frequency with age. Among persons 70 to 79 years of age, 80 to 89 years of age, and 90 to 108 years of age, these clonal mutations were observed in 9.5% (219 of 2300 persons), 11.7% (37 of 317), and 18.4% (19 of 103), respectively. The majority of the variants occurred in three genes: DNMT3A, TET2, and ASXL1. The presence of a somatic mutation was associated with an increase in the risk of hematologic cancer (hazard ratio, 11.1; 95% confidence interval [CI], 3.9 to 32.6), an increase in all-cause mortality (hazard ratio, 1.4; 95% CI, 1.1 to 1.8), and increases in the risks of incident coronary heart disease (hazard ratio, 2.0; 95% CI, 1.2 to 3.4) and ischemic stroke (hazard ratio, 2.6; 95% CI, 1.4 to 4.8). Conclusions Age-related clonal hematopoiesis is a common condition that is associated with increases in the risk of hematologic cancer and in all-cause mortality, with the latter possibly due to an increased risk of cardiovascular disease. (Funded by the National Institutes of Health and others.)

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Topics: Hazard ratio (55%), Germline mutation (53%)

2,339 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1056/NEJMOA1409405
Abstract: Cancers arise from multiple acquired mutations, which presumably occur over many years. Early stages in cancer development might be present years before cancers become clinically apparent. Methods We analyzed data from whole-exome sequencing of DNA in peripheral-blood cells from 12,380 persons, unselected for cancer or hematologic phenotypes. We identified somatic mutations on the basis of unusual allelic fractions. We used data from Swedish national patient registers to follow health outcomes for 2 to 7 years after DNA sampling. Results Clonal hematopoiesis with somatic mutations was observed in 10% of persons older than 65 years of age but in only 1% of those younger than 50 years of age. Detectable clonal expansions most frequently involved somatic mutations in three genes (DNMT3A, ASXL1, and TET2) that have previously been implicated in hematologic cancers. Clonal hematopoiesis was a strong risk factor for subsequent hematologic cancer (hazard ratio, 12.9; 95% confidence interval, 5.8 to 28.7). Approximately 42% of hematologic cancers in this cohort arose in persons who had clonality at the time of DNA sampling, more than 6 months before a first diagnosis of cancer. Analysis of bone marrow–biopsy specimens obtained from two patients at the time of diagnosis of acute myeloid leukemia revealed that their cancers arose from the earlier clones. Conclusions Clonal hematopoiesis with somatic mutations is readily detected by means of DNA sequencing, is increasingly common as people age, and is associated with increased risks of hematologic cancer and death. A subset of the genes that are mutated in patients with myeloid cancers is frequently mutated in apparently healthy persons; these mutations may represent characteristic early events in the development of hematologic cancers. (Funded by the National Human Genome Research Institute and others.)

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Topics: Cancer (56%), Myeloid (51%), Exome (50%) ... read more

1,895 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/J.IMMUNI.2012.12.001
Simon Yona1, Ki-Wook Kim1, Yochai Wolf1, Alexander Mildner1  +11 moreInstitutions (4)
24 Jan 2013-Immunity
Abstract: Summary Mononuclear phagocytes, including monocytes, macrophages, and dendritic cells, contribute to tissue integrity as well as to innate and adaptive immune defense. Emerging evidence for labor division indicates that manipulation of these cells could bear therapeutic potential. However, specific ontogenies of individual populations and the overall functional organization of this cellular network are not well defined. Here we report a fate-mapping study of the murine monocyte and macrophage compartment taking advantage of constitutive and conditional CX 3 CR1 promoter-driven Cre recombinase expression. We have demonstrated that major tissue-resident macrophage populations, including liver Kupffer cells and lung alveolar, splenic, and peritoneal macrophages, are established prior to birth and maintain themselves subsequently during adulthood independent of replenishment by blood monocytes. Furthermore, we have established that short-lived Ly6C + monocytes constitute obligatory steady-state precursors of blood-resident Ly6C − cells and that the abundance of Ly6C + blood monocytes dynamically controls the circulation lifespan of their progeny.

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Topics: Monocyte (62%), Macrophage (61%), Mononuclear phagocyte system (59%) ... read more

1,799 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1172/JCI28549
Abstract: Monocytes participate critically in atherosclerosis. There are 2 major subsets expressing different chemokine receptor patterns: CCR2(+)CX3CR1(+)Ly-6C(hi) and CCR2(-)CX3CR1(++)Ly-6C(lo) monocytes. Both C-C motif chemokine receptor 2 (CCR2) and C-X(3)-C motif chemokine receptor 1 (CX3CR1) are linked to progression of atherosclerotic plaques. Here, we analyzed mouse monocyte subsets in apoE-deficient mice and traced their differentiation and chemokine receptor usage as they accumulated within atherosclerotic plaques. Blood monocyte counts were elevated in apoE(-/-) mice and skewed toward an increased frequency of CCR2(+)Ly-6C(hi) monocytes in apoE(-/-) mice fed a high-fat diet. CCR2(+)Ly-6C(hi) monocytes efficiently accumulated in plaques, whereas CCR2(-)Ly-6C(lo) monocytes entered less frequently but were more prone to developing into plaque cells expressing the dendritic cell-associated marker CD11c, indicating that phagocyte heterogeneity in plaques is linked to distinct types of entering monocytes. CCR2(-) monocytes did not rely on CX3CR1 to enter plaques. Instead, they were partially dependent upon CCR5, which they selectively upregulated in apoE(-/-) mice. By comparison, CCR2(+)Ly-6C(hi) monocytes unexpectedly required CX3CR1 in addition to CCR2 and CCR5 to accumulate within plaques. In many other inflammatory settings, these monocytes utilize CCR2, but not CX3CR1, for trafficking. Thus, antagonizing CX3CR1 may be effective therapeutically in ameliorating CCR2(+) monocyte recruitment to plaques without impairing their CCR2-dependent responses to inflammation overall.

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Topics: CCR2 (64%), CXCL10 (61%), CCL13 (59%) ... read more

1,135 Citations


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