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Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.3389/FPHAR.2020.578970

Indian Medicinal Plants and Formulations and Their Potential Against COVID-19-Preclinical and Clinical Research

02 Mar 2021-Frontiers in Pharmacology (Frontiers Media SA)-Vol. 11, pp 578970-578970
Abstract: The cases of COVID-19 are still increasing day-by-day worldwide, even after a year of its first occurrence in Wuhan city of China. The spreading of SARS-CoV-2 infection is very fast and different from other SARS-CoV infections possibly due to structural differences in S proteins. The patients with severe diseases may die due to acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) caused by systemic inflammatory reactions due to the excessive release of pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines by the immune effector cells. In India too, it is spreading very rapidly, although the case fatality rate is below 1.50% (https://www.statista.com), which is markedly less than in other countries, despite the dense population and minimal health infrastructure in rural areas. This may be due to the routine use of many immunomodulator medicinal plants and traditional AYUSH formulations by the Indian people. This communication reviews the AYUSH recommended formulations and their ingredients, routinely used medicinal plants and formulations by Indian population as well as other promising Indian medicinal plants, which can be tested against COVID-19. Special emphasis is placed on Indian medicinal plants reported for antiviral, immunomodulatory and anti-allergic/anti-inflammatory activities and they are categorized for prioritization in research on the basis of earlier reports. The traditional AYUSH medicines currently under clinical trials against COVID-19 are also discussed as well as furtherance of pre-clinical and clinical testing of the potential traditional medicines against COVID-19 and SARS-CoV-2. The results of the clinical studies on AYUSH drugs will guide the policymakers from the AYUSH systems of medicines to maneuver their policies for public health, provide information to the global scientific community and could form a platform for collaborative studies at national and global levels. It is thereby suggested that promising AYUSH formulations and Indian medicinal plants must be investigated on a priority basis to solve the current crisis.

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Topics: Population (52%)
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Open accessPosted ContentDOI: 10.1101/2021.05.26.21257890
01 Jan 2021-medRxiv
Abstract: BackgroundThe burden of the COVID-19 pandemic in Peru has led to people seeking alternative treatments as preventives and treatment options such as medicinal plants. This study aimed to assess factors associated with the use of medicinal plants as preventive or treatment of respiratory symptom related to COVID-19 during the pandemic in Cusco, Peru. MethodA web-based cross-sectional study was conducted on general public (20- to 70-year-old) from August 31 to September 20, 2020. Data were collected using a structured questionnaire via Google Forms, it consisted of an 11-item questionnaire that was developed and validated by expert judgment using Aikens V (Aikens V > 0.9). Both descriptive statistics and bivariate followed by multivariable logistic regression analyses were conducted to assess factors associated with the use of medicinal plants for COVID-19 prevention and respiratory symptom treatment during the pandemic. Prevalence ratios (PR) with 95% Confidence Interval (CI), and a P-value of 0.05 was used to determine statistical significance. ResultsA total of 1,747 respondents participated in the study, 80.2% reported that they used medicinal plants as preventives, while 71% reported that they used them to treat respiratory symptoms. At least, 24% of respondents used medicinal plants when presenting with two or more respiratory symptoms, while at least 11% used plants for malaise. For treatment or prevention, the multivariate analysis showed that most respondents used eucalyptus (p < 0.001 for both), ginger (p < 0.022 for both), spiked pepper (p < 0.003 for both), garlic (p = 0.023 for prevention), and chamomile (p = 0.011 for treatment). The respondents with COVID-19 (p < 0.001), at older ages (p = 0.046), and with a family member or friend who had COVID-19 (p < 0.001) used more plants for prevention. However, the respondents with technical or higher education used less plants for treatment (p < 0.001). ConclusionThere was a significant use of medicinal plants for both prevention and treatment, which was associated with several population characteristics and whether respondents had COVID-19.

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Topics: Population (51%)

2 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1007/S13659-021-00317-W
Abstract: For the past 2 years, the coronavirus responsible for the COVID-19 infection has become a world pandemic, ruining the lives and economies of several nations in the world. This has scaled up research on the virus and the resulting infection with the goal of developing new vaccines and therapies. Natural products are known to be a rich source of lead compounds for drug discovery, including against infectious diseases caused by microbes (viruses, bacteria and fungi). In this review article, we conducted a literature survey aimed at identifying natural products with inhibitory concentrations against the coronaviruses or their target proteins, which lie below 10 µM. This led to the identification of 42 compounds belonging to the alkaloid, flavonoid, terpenoid, phenolic, xanthone and saponin classes. The cut off concentration of 10 µM was to limit the study to the most potent chemical entities, which could be developed into therapies against the viral infection to make a contribution towards limiting the spread of the disease.

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Topics: Literature survey (53%)

2 Citations


Open accessPosted ContentDOI: 10.1101/2021.06.12.21258345
Arvind Chopra, Girish Tillu1, Chaudhary K, Reddy G  +13 moreInstitutions (3)
17 Jun 2021-medRxiv
Abstract: ObjectivesTo compare the co-administration of an Ayurvedic drug AYUSH 64 as an adjunct to standard of care (SOC) and SOC for efficacy and safety in the management of COVID-19. DesignMulticentre, parallel efficacy, randomized, controlled, open label, assessor blind, exploratory trial with a convenience sample. Patients followed to complete 12 weeks of study duration. SettingCOVID-19 dedicated non-intensive care wards at 1 government hospital, 1 medical college teaching hospital and 1 medical university teaching hospital Participants140 consenting, eligible, hospitalized adult patients suffering from mild and moderate symptomatic COVID-19 and confirmed by a diagnostic (SARS-CoV-2) RT-PCR assay on nasal and throat swab were randomized to SOC or SOC plus AYUSH 64. To be withdrawn if disease becomes severe. InterventionsTwo tablets of AYUSH 64, 500 mg each, twice daily after meals, and continued till study completion. SOC (symptomatic and supportive) as per national guidelines of India for mild and moderate disease. Main outcome measuresTime period to clinical recovery (CR) from randomization baseline and proportion with CR within 28 days time frame; CR defined in the protocol Results140 patients randomized (70 in each arm); 138 patients with CR qualified for analysis. Both groups were matched at baseline. The mean time to CR from randomization was significantly superior in AYUSH 64 group (95% CI -3.03 to 0.59 days); a higher proportion (69.7%) in the first week (p=0.046, Chi-square). No significant differences observed for COVID-19 related blood assays (such as D-Dimer). AYUSH 64 arm showed significant (p<0.05) superior persistent improvement in general health, quality of life, fatigue, anxiety, stress, sleep and other psychosocial metrics. 1 patient on SOC required critical care. 48 adverse events (AE) reported in each group. Barring three SAE (in SOC), AE were mild and none were drug related. 22 participants (8 on AYUSH) were withdrawn. No deaths were reported. ConclusionsAYUSH 64 hastened recovery, reduced hospitalization and improved overall health in mild and moderate COVID-19 when co-administered with SOC under medical supervision. It was safe and well tolerated. Further studies are warranted. Trial registrationThe Clinical Trials Registry India Number CTRI/2020/06/025557 FundingCCRAS, Ministry of AYUSH, Government of India

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1 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.3389/FPHAR.2021.719308
Guanghua Zhai1, Meifen Li1, Ying Wang1, Jian Wu1Institutions (1)
Abstract: An outbreak of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) occurred in Wuhan, China, at the end of 2019. The World Health Organization named the resulting infectious disease as coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19). Many studies concluded that patients infected with SARS-CoV-2 have different degrees of liver disturbance. However, the relationship between the drugs used for COVID-19 treatment and liver disturbance remains controversial. It is essential to evaluate the potential liver damage caused by various drugs in order to help guide clinical practice. This review analyzed the effect of drugs on hepatic function during the treatment of COVID-19.

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Topics: Coronavirus (53%)

Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.3390/FOODS10102277
26 Sep 2021-Foods
Abstract: Polyphenols are active substances against various types of viral infections. Researchers have characterized methods of how to isolate polyphenols without losing their potential to formulate pharmaceutical products. Researchers have also described mechanisms against common viral infections (i.e., influenza, herpes, hepatitis, rotavirus, coronavirus). Particular compounds have been discussed together with the plants in the biomass in which they occur. Quercetin, gallic acid and epigallocatechin are exemplary compounds that inhibit the growth cycle of viruses. Special attention has been paid to identify plants and polyphenols that can be efficient against coronavirus infections. It has been proven that polyphenols present in the diet and in pharmaceuticals protect us from viral infections and, in case of infection, support the healing process by various mechanisms, i.e., they block the entry into the host cells, inhibit the multiplication of the virus, seal blood vessels and protect against superinfection.

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Topics: Coronavirus (51%)

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Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/J.JAUT.2020.102433
Abstract: Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) is caused by SARS-COV2 and represents the causative agent of a potentially fatal disease that is of great global public health concern. Based on the large number of infected people that were exposed to the wet animal market in Wuhan City, China, it is suggested that this is likely the zoonotic origin of COVID-19. Person-to-person transmission of COVID-19 infection led to the isolation of patients that were subsequently administered a variety of treatments. Extensive measures to reduce person-to-person transmission of COVID-19 have been implemented to control the current outbreak. Special attention and efforts to protect or reduce transmission should be applied in susceptible populations including children, health care providers, and elderly people. In this review, we highlights the symptoms, epidemiology, transmission, pathogenesis, phylogenetic analysis and future directions to control the spread of this fatal disease.

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Topics: Outbreak (56%), Transmission (medicine) (53%), Disease (51%) ... show more

2,899 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1186/S40779-020-00240-0
Yan Rong Guo, Qing Dong Cao1, Zhong Si Hong1, Yuan Yang Tan  +5 moreInstitutions (2)
Abstract: An acute respiratory disease, caused by a novel coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2, previously known as 2019-nCoV), the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has spread throughout China and received worldwide attention. On 30 January 2020, World Health Organization (WHO) officially declared the COVID-19 epidemic as a public health emergency of international concern. The emergence of SARS-CoV-2, since the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) in 2002 and Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) in 2012, marked the third introduction of a highly pathogenic and large-scale epidemic coronavirus into the human population in the twenty-first century. As of 1 March 2020, a total of 87,137 confirmed cases globally, 79,968 confirmed in China and 7169 outside of China, with 2977 deaths (3.4%) had been reported by WHO. Meanwhile, several independent research groups have identified that SARS-CoV-2 belongs to β-coronavirus, with highly identical genome to bat coronavirus, pointing to bat as the natural host. The novel coronavirus uses the same receptor, angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) as that for SARS-CoV, and mainly spreads through the respiratory tract. Importantly, increasingly evidence showed sustained human-to-human transmission, along with many exported cases across the globe. The clinical symptoms of COVID-19 patients include fever, cough, fatigue and a small population of patients appeared gastrointestinal infection symptoms. The elderly and people with underlying diseases are susceptible to infection and prone to serious outcomes, which may be associated with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) and cytokine storm. Currently, there are few specific antiviral strategies, but several potent candidates of antivirals and repurposed drugs are under urgent investigation. In this review, we summarized the latest research progress of the epidemiology, pathogenesis, and clinical characteristics of COVID-19, and discussed the current treatment and scientific advancements to combat the epidemic novel coronavirus.

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Topics: Coronavirus (66%), Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (65%), Disease reservoir (53%) ... show more

2,461 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1002/JMV.25685
Geng Li1, Geng Li2, Yaohuao Fan2, Yanni Lai2  +11 moreInstitutions (4)
Abstract: Coronaviruses (CoVs) are by far the largest group of known positive-sense RNA viruses having an extensive range of natural hosts. In the past few decades, newly evolved Coronaviruses have posed a global threat to public health. The immune response is essential to control and eliminate CoV infections, however, maladjusted immune responses may result in immunopathology and impaired pulmonary gas exchange. Gaining a deeper understanding of the interaction between Coronaviruses and the innate immune systems of the hosts may shed light on the development and persistence of inflammation in the lungs and hopefully can reduce the risk of lung inflammation caused by CoVs. In this review, we provide an update on CoV infections and relevant diseases, particularly the host defense against CoV-induced inflammation of lung tissue, as well as the role of the innate immune system in the pathogenesis and clinical treatment.

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Topics: Acquired immune system (53%), Innate immune system (53%), Immunopathology (52%) ... show more

1,059 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/J.CUB.2020.03.022
Tao Zhang1, Qunfu Wu1, Zhigang Zhang1Institutions (1)
06 Apr 2020-Current Biology
Abstract: An outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by the 2019 novel coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) began in the city of Wuhan in China and has widely spread worldwide. Currently, it is vital to explore potential intermediate hosts of SARS-CoV-2 to control COVID-19 spread. Therefore, we reinvestigated published data from pangolin lung samples from which SARS-CoV-like CoVs were detected by Liu et al. [1]. We found genomic and evolutionary evidence of the occurrence of a SARS-CoV-2-like CoV (named Pangolin-CoV) in dead Malayan pangolins. Pangolin-CoV is 91.02% and 90.55% identical to SARS-CoV-2 and BatCoV RaTG13, respectively, at the whole-genome level. Aside from RaTG13, Pangolin-CoV is the most closely related CoV to SARS-CoV-2. The S1 protein of Pangolin-CoV is much more closely related to SARS-CoV-2 than to RaTG13. Five key amino acid residues involved in the interaction with human ACE2 are completely consistent between Pangolin-CoV and SARS-CoV-2, but four amino acid mutations are present in RaTG13. Both Pangolin-CoV and RaTG13 lost the putative furin recognition sequence motif at S1/S2 cleavage site that can be observed in the SARS-CoV-2. Conclusively, this study suggests that pangolin species are a natural reservoir of SARS-CoV-2-like CoVs.

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Topics: Pangolin (55%), Disease reservoir (53%)

947 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/J.IJANTIMICAG.2020.105938
Abstract: Recently, a novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV), officially known as severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), emerged in China. Despite drastic containment measures, the spread of this virus is ongoing. SARS-CoV-2 is the aetiological agent of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) characterised by pulmonary infection in humans. The efforts of international health authorities have since focused on rapid diagnosis and isolation of patients as well as the search for therapies able to counter the most severe effects of the disease. In the absence of a known efficient therapy and because of the situation of a public-health emergency, it made sense to investigate the possible effect of chloroquine/hydroxychloroquine against SARS-CoV-2 since this molecule was previously described as a potent inhibitor of most coronaviruses, including SARS-CoV-1. Preliminary trials of chloroquine repurposing in the treatment of COVID-19 in China have been encouraging, leading to several new trials. Here we discuss the possible mechanisms of chloroquine interference with the SARS-CoV-2 replication cycle.

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Topics: Coronavirus (59%)

723 Citations


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