scispace - formally typeset

Journal ArticleDOI

Indirect estimation of a discrete-state discrete-time model using secondary data analysis of regression data.

20 Jul 2009-Statistics in Medicine (John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.)-Vol. 28, Iss: 16, pp 2095-2115

TL;DR: This paper presents an approach that allows the use of published regression data in a multi- state model when the published study may have ignored intermediary states in the multi-state model, called the Lemonade Method.

AbstractMulti-state models of chronic disease are becoming increasingly important in medical research to describe the progression of complicated diseases. However, studies seldom observe health outcomes over long time periods. Therefore, current clinical research focuses on the secondary data analysis of the published literature to estimate a single transition probability within the entire model. Unfortunately, there are many difficulties when using secondary data, especially since the states and transitions of published studies may not be consistent with the proposed multi-state model. Early approaches to reconciling published studies with the theoretical framework of a multi-state model have been limited to data available as cumulative counts of progression. This paper presents an approach that allows the use of published regression data in a multi-state model when the published study may have ignored intermediary states in the multi-state model. Colloquially, we call this approach the Lemonade Method since when study data give you lemons, make lemonade. The approach uses maximum likelihood estimation. An example is provided for the progression of heart disease in people with diabetes.

...read more

Content maybe subject to copyright    Report

Citations
More filters

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: A taxonomy based on possible scenarios faced by the analyst when dealing with the available evidence is developed that can help modelers identify the most appropriate methods to use when synthesizing the available data for a given model parameter.
Abstract: Background: The evidence base informing economic evaluation models is rarely derived from a single source. Researchers are typically expected to identify and combine available data to inform the estimation of model parameters for a particular decision problem. The absence of clear guidelines on what data can be used and how to effectively synthesize this evidence base under different scenarios inevitably leads to different approaches being used by different modelers. Objectives: The aim of this article is to produce a taxonomy that can help modelers identify the most appropriate methods to use when synthesizing the available data for a given model parameter. Methods: Thisarticledevelopedataxonomybasedonpossiblescenarios faced by the analyst when dealing with the available evidence. While mainly focusing on clinical effectiveness parameters, this article also discusses strategies relevant to other key input parameters in any economic model (i.e., disease natural history, resource use/costs, and preferences). Results: The taxonomy categorizes the evidence base for health economic modeling according to whether 1) single or multiple data sources are available, 2) individual or aggregate data are available (or both), or 3) individual or multiple decision model parameters are to be estimated from the data. References to examples of the key methodological developments for each entry in the taxonomy together with citations to where such methods have been used in practice are provided throughout. Conclusions: The use of the taxonomy developed in this article hopes to improve the quality of the synthesis of evidence informing decision models by bringing to the attention of health economics modelers recent methodological developments in this field.

41 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: A new computer tool designed for chronic disease modeling is described and the modeling capabilities of this tool were used to model the Michigan model for diabetes.
Abstract: Computers allow describing the progress of a disease using computerized models. These models allow aggregating expert and clinical information to allow researchers and decision makers to forecast disease progression. To make this forecast reliable, good models and therefore good modeling tools are required. This paper will describe a new computer tool designed for chronic disease modeling. The modeling capabilities of this tool were used to model the Michigan model for diabetes. The modeling approach and its advantages such as simplicity, availability, and transparency are discussed.

31 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: A likelihood approach to correctly model the design of clinical studies under the conditions where 1) the theoretical model may include an instantaneous state of distinct interest to the researchers, and 2) the study design may be such that study data can not be used to estimate a single parameter in the theoreticalmodel of interest.
Abstract: With the increasing burden of chronic diseases on the health care system, Markov-type models are becoming popular to predict the long-term outcomes of early intervention and to guide disease management. However, statisticians have not been actively involved in the development of these models. Typically, the models are developed by using secondary data analysis to find a single ''best'' study to estimate each transition in the model. However, due to the nature of secondary data analysis, there frequently are discrepancies between the theoretical model and the design of the studies being used. This paper illustrates a likelihood approach to correctly model the design of clinical studies under the conditions where (1) the theoretical model may include an instantaneous state of distinct interest to the researchers and (2) the study design may be such that study data cannot be used to estimate a single parameter in the theoretical model of interest. For example, a study may ignore intermediary stages of disease. Using our approach, not only can we accommodate the two conditions above, but more than one study may be used to estimate model parameters. In the spirit of ''If life gives you lemon, make lemonade'', we call this method ''Lemonade Method''. Simulation studies are carried out to evaluate the finite sample property of this method. In addition, the method is demonstrated through application to a model of heart disease in diabetes.

16 citations


Dissertation
01 Jan 2012
Abstract: Health care economic evaluations assess the costs and consequences of competing interventions, programmes or services. Such assessments use a decision model, with parameters informed by available evidence. Evidence, however, is rarely derived from a single source, in which case researchers are expected to combine information on multiple sources. This thesis contributes to the methodological debate on the use of evidence, particularly, the use of individual level data (IPD), for cost effectiveness analysis. This thesis defines a taxonomy which summarises the methodological and analytical issues in the use and synthesis of evidence for cost effectiveness modelling. For alternative parameter types (e.g. relative effectiveness, costs) the taxonomy offers guidance on appropriate synthesis methodologies to use and identifies areas where further methodological contributions are needed. The thesis also explores methods of synthesis of IPD and develops novel frameworks which allow both IPD and AD to be jointly modelled, specifically in estimating relative effectiveness. The use of IPD from studies is found desirable, particularly when the estimation of subgroup effects is of interest. An applied decision model of the cost effectiveness of smoke alarm equipment in households with pre-school children is developed within this thesis. This application offers a means to evaluate the impact of using IPD on the cost effectiveness outcomes, compared to the use of AD. The thesis examines the advantages of having access to IPD when quantifying decision uncertainty. Additionally, it discusses the use of IPD in estimating the value of further research. Specifically, a framework is used which allows considering population subgroups. It is argued that the use of IPD allows a more suitable characterisation of decision uncertainty, appropriately allowing for subgroup value of information analysis.

8 citations


PatentDOI
27 Nov 2013
Abstract: A method wherein reference disease models predict progression of disease within given populations, utilizing publically available clinical data and risk equations, to give a birds-eye view of clinical trials by allowing multiple trials to be systematically compared simultaneously via parallel processing/High Performance Computing which allows competition among alternative equations/hypothesis combinations; cross validation; and, then ranks results according to fitness via a fitness engine.

7 citations


References
More filters


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: This paper examines eight published reviews each reporting results from several related trials in order to evaluate the efficacy of a certain treatment for a specified medical condition and suggests a simple noniterative procedure for characterizing the distribution of treatment effects in a series of studies.
Abstract: This paper examines eight published reviews each reporting results from several related trials. Each review pools the results from the relevant trials in order to evaluate the efficacy of a certain treatment for a specified medical condition. These reviews lack consistent assessment of homogeneity of treatment effect before pooling. We discuss a random effects approach to combining evidence from a series of experiments comparing two treatments. This approach incorporates the heterogeneity of effects in the analysis of the overall treatment efficacy. The model can be extended to include relevant covariates which would reduce the heterogeneity and allow for more specific therapeutic recommendations. We suggest a simple noniterative procedure for characterizing the distribution of treatment effects in a series of studies.

29,821 citations


"Indirect estimation of a discrete-s..." refers background in this paper

  • ...likelihood function of unknown parameters k(k) is Normal(k̂(k),R(k)) [17, 18]....

    [...]


Journal Article
Abstract: Background Improved blood-glucose control decreases the progression of diabetic microvascular disease, but the effect on macrovascular complications is unknown. There is concern that sulphonylureas may increase cardiovascular mortality in patients with type 2 diabetes and that high insulin concentrations may enhance atheroma formation. We compared the effects of intensive blood-glucose control with either sulphonylurea or insulin and conventional treatment on the risk of microvascular and macrovascular complications in patients with type 2 diabetes in a randomised controlled trial.Methods 3867 newly diagnosed patients with type 2 diabetes, median age 54 years (IQR 48-60 years), who after 3 months' diet treatment had a mean of two fasting plasma glucose (FPG) concentrations of 6.1-15.0 mmol/L were randomly assigned intensive policy with a sulphonylurea (chlorpropamide, glibenclamide, or. glipizide) or with insulin, or conventional policy with diet. The aim in the intensive group was FPG less than 6 mmol/L. in the conventional group, the aim was the best achievable FPG with diet atone; drugs were added only if there were hyperglycaemic symptoms or FPG greater than 15 mmol/L. Three aggregate endpoints were used to assess differences between conventional and intensive treatment: any diabetes-related endpoint (sudden death, death from hyperglycaemia or hypoglycaemia, fatal or non-fatal myocardial infarction, angina, heart failure, stroke, renal failure, amputation [of at least one digit], vitreous haemorrhage, retinopathy requiring photocoagulation, blindness in one eye,or cataract extraction); diabetes-related death (death from myocardial infarction, stroke, peripheral vascular disease, renal disease, hyperglycaemia or hypoglycaemia, and sudden death); all-cause mortality. Single clinical endpoints and surrogate subclinical endpoints were also assessed. All analyses were by intention to treat and frequency of hypoglycaemia was also analysed by actual therapy.Findings Over 10 years, haemoglobin A(1c) (HbA(1c)) was 7.0% (6.2-8.2) in the intensive group compared with 7.9% (6.9-8.8) in the conventional group-an 11% reduction. There was no difference in HbA(1c) among agents in the intensive group. Compared with the conventional group, the risk in the intensive group was 12% lower (95% CI 1-21, p=0.029) for any diabetes-related endpoint; 10% lower (-11 to 27, p=0.34) for any diabetes-related death; and 6% lower (-10 to 20, p=0.44) for all-cause mortality. Most of the risk reduction in the any diabetes-related aggregate endpoint was due to a 25% risk reduction (7-40, p=0.0099) in microvascular endpoints, including the need for retinal photocoagulation. There was no difference for any of the three aggregate endpoints the three intensive agents (chlorpropamide, glibenclamide, or insulin).Patients in the intensive group had more hypoglycaemic episodes than those in the conventional group on both types of analysis (both p<0.0001). The rates of major hypoglycaemic episodes per year were 0.7% with conventional treatment, 1.0% with chlorpropamide, 1.4% with glibenclamide, and 1.8% with insulin. Weight gain was significantly higher in the intensive group (mean 2.9 kg) than in the conventional group (p<0.001), and patients assigned insulin had a greater gain in weight (4.0 kg) than those assigned chlorpropamide (2.6 kg) or glibenclamide (1.7 kg).Interpretation Intensive blood-glucose control by either sulphonylureas or insulin substantially decreases the risk of microvascular complications, but not macrovascular disease, in patients with type 2 diabetes. None of the individual drugs had an adverse effect on cardiovascular outcomes. All intensive treatment increased the risk of hypoglycaemia.

16,462 citations


Journal Article
TL;DR: The effects of intensive blood-glucose control with either sulphonylurea or insulin and conventional treatment on the risk of microvascular and macrovascular complications in patients with type 2 diabetes in a randomised controlled trial were compared.
Abstract: Background Improved blood-glucose control decreases the progression of diabetic microvascular disease, but the effect on macrovascular complications is unknown. There is concern that sulphonylureas may increase cardiovascular mortality in patients with type 2 diabetes and that high insulin concentrations may enhance atheroma formation. We compared the effects of intensive blood-glucose control with either sulphonylurea or insulin and conventional treatment on the risk of microvascular and macrovascular complications in patients with type 2 diabetes in a randomised controlled trial.Methods 3867 newly diagnosed patients with type 2 diabetes, median age 54 years (IQR 48-60 years), who after 3 months' diet treatment had a mean of two fasting plasma glucose (FPG) concentrations of 6.1-15.0 mmol/L were randomly assigned intensive policy with a sulphonylurea (chlorpropamide, glibenclamide, or. glipizide) or with insulin, or conventional policy with diet. The aim in the intensive group was FPG less than 6 mmol/L. in the conventional group, the aim was the best achievable FPG with diet atone; drugs were added only if there were hyperglycaemic symptoms or FPG greater than 15 mmol/L. Three aggregate endpoints were used to assess differences between conventional and intensive treatment: any diabetes-related endpoint (sudden death, death from hyperglycaemia or hypoglycaemia, fatal or non-fatal myocardial infarction, angina, heart failure, stroke, renal failure, amputation [of at least one digit], vitreous haemorrhage, retinopathy requiring photocoagulation, blindness in one eye,or cataract extraction); diabetes-related death (death from myocardial infarction, stroke, peripheral vascular disease, renal disease, hyperglycaemia or hypoglycaemia, and sudden death); all-cause mortality. Single clinical endpoints and surrogate subclinical endpoints were also assessed. All analyses were by intention to treat and frequency of hypoglycaemia was also analysed by actual therapy.Findings Over 10 years, haemoglobin A(1c) (HbA(1c)) was 7.0% (6.2-8.2) in the intensive group compared with 7.9% (6.9-8.8) in the conventional group-an 11% reduction. There was no difference in HbA(1c) among agents in the intensive group. Compared with the conventional group, the risk in the intensive group was 12% lower (95% CI 1-21, p=0.029) for any diabetes-related endpoint; 10% lower (-11 to 27, p=0.34) for any diabetes-related death; and 6% lower (-10 to 20, p=0.44) for all-cause mortality. Most of the risk reduction in the any diabetes-related aggregate endpoint was due to a 25% risk reduction (7-40, p=0.0099) in microvascular endpoints, including the need for retinal photocoagulation. There was no difference for any of the three aggregate endpoints the three intensive agents (chlorpropamide, glibenclamide, or insulin).Patients in the intensive group had more hypoglycaemic episodes than those in the conventional group on both types of analysis (both p<0.0001). The rates of major hypoglycaemic episodes per year were 0.7% with conventional treatment, 1.0% with chlorpropamide, 1.4% with glibenclamide, and 1.8% with insulin. Weight gain was significantly higher in the intensive group (mean 2.9 kg) than in the conventional group (p<0.001), and patients assigned insulin had a greater gain in weight (4.0 kg) than those assigned chlorpropamide (2.6 kg) or glibenclamide (1.7 kg).Interpretation Intensive blood-glucose control by either sulphonylureas or insulin substantially decreases the risk of microvascular complications, but not macrovascular disease, in patients with type 2 diabetes. None of the individual drugs had an adverse effect on cardiovascular outcomes. All intensive treatment increased the risk of hypoglycaemia.

8,437 citations


22 Sep 1998
TL;DR: The effects of intensive blood-glucose control with either sulphonylurea or insulin and conventional treatment on the risk of microvascular and macrovascular complications in patients with type 2 diabetes in a randomised controlled trial were compared.
Abstract: BACKGROUND Improved blood-glucose control decreases the progression of diabetic microvascular disease, but the effect on macrovascular complications is unknown. There is concern that sulphonylureas may increase cardiovascular mortality in patients with type 2 diabetes and that high insulin concentrations may enhance atheroma formation. We compared the effects of intensive blood-glucose control with either sulphonylurea or insulin and conventional treatment on the risk of microvascular and macrovascular complications in patients with type 2 diabetes in a randomised controlled trial. METHODS 3867 newly diagnosed patients with type 2 diabetes, median age 54 years (IQR 48-60 years), who after 3 months' diet treatment had a mean of two fasting plasma glucose (FPG) concentrations of 6.1-15.0 mmol/L were randomly assigned intensive policy with a sulphonylurea (chlorpropamide, glibenclamide, or glipizide) or with insulin, or conventional policy with diet. The aim in the intensive group was FPG less than 6 mmol/L. In the conventional group, the aim was the best achievable FPG with diet alone; drugs were added only if there were hyperglycaemic symptoms or FPG greater than 15 mmol/L. Three aggregate endpoints were used to assess differences between conventional and intensive treatment: any diabetes-related endpoint (sudden death, death from hyperglycaemia or hypoglycaemia, fatal or non-fatal myocardial infarction, angina, heart failure, stroke, renal failure, amputation [of at least one digit], vitreous haemorrhage, retinopathy requiring photocoagulation, blindness in one eye, or cataract extraction); diabetes-related death (death from myocardial infarction, stroke, peripheral vascular disease, renal disease, hyperglycaemia or hypoglycaemia, and sudden death); all-cause mortality. Single clinical endpoints and surrogate subclinical endpoints were also assessed. All analyses were by intention to treat and frequency of hypoglycaemia was also analysed by actual therapy. FINDINGS Over 10 years, haemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) was 7.0% (6.2-8.2) in the intensive group compared with 7.9% (6.9-8.8) in the conventional group--an 11% reduction. There was no difference in HbA1c among agents in the intensive group. Compared with the conventional group, the risk in the intensive group was 12% lower (95% CI 1-21, p=0.029) for any diabetes-related endpoint; 10% lower (-11 to 27, p=0.34) for any diabetes-related death; and 6% lower (-10 to 20, p=0.44) for all-cause mortality. Most of the risk reduction in the any diabetes-related aggregate endpoint was due to a 25% risk reduction (7-40, p=0.0099) in microvascular endpoints, including the need for retinal photocoagulation. There was no difference for any of the three aggregate endpoints between the three intensive agents (chlorpropamide, glibenclamide, or insulin). Patients in the intensive group had more hypoglycaemic episodes than those in the conventional group on both types of analysis (both p<0.0001). The rates of major hypoglycaemic episodes per year were 0.7% with conventional treatment, 1.0% with chlorpropamide, 1.4% with glibenclamide, and 1.8% with insulin. Weight gain was significantly higher in the intensive group (mean 2.9 kg) than in the conventional group (p<0.001), and patients assigned insulin had a greater gain in weight (4.0 kg) than those assigned chlorpropamide (2.6 kg) or glibenclamide (1.7 kg). INTERPRETATION Intensive blood-glucose control by either sulphonylureas or insulin substantially decreases the risk of microvascular complications, but not macrovascular disease, in patients with type 2 diabetes.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED)

6,846 citations