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Indonesian Journal of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science

TL;DR: A hybrid approach using a machine learning technique called eigenfaces, along with vanilla neural networks is discussed, which proved to be more promising and efficient than its counters.
Abstract: Received Apr 11, 2022 Revised Sep 16, 2022 Accepted Sep 30, 2022 Indigital circuits, energy reduction is the most important parameter in the design of handy and battery-operated devices. Flipflop is an important component in any digital system. By improving the performance of flip-flop, complete system performance is better. This paper addresses the design of D flip-flop using direct current diode-based positive feedback adiabatic logic (DC-DB PFAL) at various frequencies at 45nm technology node. Further, the layout for the proposed design is also presented. The performance analysis is carried out for delay, power dissipation, power delay product and transistor count. Circuit simulation is done by using cadence virtuoso tool at 10 MHz and 100 MHz frequencies. The results show an improvement in power dissipation of 18% with less transistors count compared to exiting designs in the literature.
References
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Proceedings ArticleDOI
01 Dec 2001
TL;DR: A machine learning approach for visual object detection which is capable of processing images extremely rapidly and achieving high detection rates and the introduction of a new image representation called the "integral image" which allows the features used by the detector to be computed very quickly.
Abstract: This paper describes a machine learning approach for visual object detection which is capable of processing images extremely rapidly and achieving high detection rates. This work is distinguished by three key contributions. The first is the introduction of a new image representation called the "integral image" which allows the features used by our detector to be computed very quickly. The second is a learning algorithm, based on AdaBoost, which selects a small number of critical visual features from a larger set and yields extremely efficient classifiers. The third contribution is a method for combining increasingly more complex classifiers in a "cascade" which allows background regions of the image to be quickly discarded while spending more computation on promising object-like regions. The cascade can be viewed as an object specific focus-of-attention mechanism which unlike previous approaches provides statistical guarantees that discarded regions are unlikely to contain the object of interest. In the domain of face detection the system yields detection rates comparable to the best previous systems. Used in real-time applications, the detector runs at 15 frames per second without resorting to image differencing or skin color detection.

18,620 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: A near-real-time computer system that can locate and track a subject's head, and then recognize the person by comparing characteristics of the face to those of known individuals, and that is easy to implement using a neural network architecture.
Abstract: We have developed a near-real-time computer system that can locate and track a subject's head, and then recognize the person by comparing characteristics of the face to those of known individuals. The computational approach taken in this system is motivated by both physiology and information theory, as well as by the practical requirements of near-real-time performance and accuracy. Our approach treats the face recognition problem as an intrinsically two-dimensional (2-D) recognition problem rather than requiring recovery of three-dimensional geometry, taking advantage of the fact that faces are normally upright and thus may be described by a small set of 2-D characteristic views. The system functions by projecting face images onto a feature space that spans the significant variations among known face images. The significant features are known as "eigenfaces," because they are the eigenvectors (principal components) of the set of faces; they do not necessarily correspond to features such as eyes, ears, and noses. The projection operation characterizes an individual face by a weighted sum of the eigenface features, and so to recognize a particular face it is necessary only to compare these weights to those of known individuals. Some particular advantages of our approach are that it provides for the ability to learn and later recognize new faces in an unsupervised manner, and that it is easy to implement using a neural network architecture.

14,562 citations

Book ChapterDOI
01 Jan 2019
TL;DR: In this article, sediment is either loaded as bed-load with particles sliding, saltating, and rolling over the river bed, or as a suspended-load, where particles move with the turbulent water flow away from the bed.
Abstract: Transportation of sediment is an important and frequent phenomenon in rivers. Sediment is mobilized as bed-load with particles sliding, saltating, and rolling over the river bed, or as a suspended-load, where particles move with the turbulent water flow away from the bed.

13,877 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: This survey will present existing methods for Data Augmentation, promising developments, and meta-level decisions for implementing DataAugmentation, a data-space solution to the problem of limited data.
Abstract: Deep convolutional neural networks have performed remarkably well on many Computer Vision tasks. However, these networks are heavily reliant on big data to avoid overfitting. Overfitting refers to the phenomenon when a network learns a function with very high variance such as to perfectly model the training data. Unfortunately, many application domains do not have access to big data, such as medical image analysis. This survey focuses on Data Augmentation, a data-space solution to the problem of limited data. Data Augmentation encompasses a suite of techniques that enhance the size and quality of training datasets such that better Deep Learning models can be built using them. The image augmentation algorithms discussed in this survey include geometric transformations, color space augmentations, kernel filters, mixing images, random erasing, feature space augmentation, adversarial training, generative adversarial networks, neural style transfer, and meta-learning. The application of augmentation methods based on GANs are heavily covered in this survey. In addition to augmentation techniques, this paper will briefly discuss other characteristics of Data Augmentation such as test-time augmentation, resolution impact, final dataset size, and curriculum learning. This survey will present existing methods for Data Augmentation, promising developments, and meta-level decisions for implementing Data Augmentation. Readers will understand how Data Augmentation can improve the performance of their models and expand limited datasets to take advantage of the capabilities of big data.

5,782 citations

Posted Content
TL;DR: The TensorFlow dataflow model is described and the compelling performance that Tensor Flow achieves for several real-world applications is demonstrated.
Abstract: TensorFlow is a machine learning system that operates at large scale and in heterogeneous environments. TensorFlow uses dataflow graphs to represent computation, shared state, and the operations that mutate that state. It maps the nodes of a dataflow graph across many machines in a cluster, and within a machine across multiple computational devices, including multicore CPUs, general-purpose GPUs, and custom designed ASICs known as Tensor Processing Units (TPUs). This architecture gives flexibility to the application developer: whereas in previous "parameter server" designs the management of shared state is built into the system, TensorFlow enables developers to experiment with novel optimizations and training algorithms. TensorFlow supports a variety of applications, with particularly strong support for training and inference on deep neural networks. Several Google services use TensorFlow in production, we have released it as an open-source project, and it has become widely used for machine learning research. In this paper, we describe the TensorFlow dataflow model in contrast to existing systems, and demonstrate the compelling performance that TensorFlow achieves for several real-world applications.

5,542 citations