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Journal ArticleDOI

Induction of Airway Mucus Production By T Helper 2 (Th2) Cells: A Critical Role For Interleukin 4 In Cell Recruitment But Not Mucus Production

Lauren Cohn1, Robert J. Homer1, Anthony Marinov1, John A. Rankin1, Kim Bottomly1 
17 Nov 1997-Journal of Experimental Medicine (The Rockefeller University Press)-Vol. 186, Iss: 10, pp 1737-1747

TL;DR: It is suggested that IL-4 is crucial for Th2 cell recruitment to the lung and for induction of inflammation, but has no direct role in mucus production.

AbstractAirway inflammation is believed to stimulate mucus production in asthmatic patients. Increased mucus secretion is an important clinical symptom and contributes to airway obstruction in asthma. Activated CD4 Th1 and Th2 cells have both been identified in airway biopsies of asthmatics but their role in mucus production is not clear. Using CD4 T cells from mice transgenic for the OVA-specific TCR, we studied the role of Th1 and Th2 cells in airway inflammation and mucus production. Airway inflammation induced by Th2 cells was comprised of eosinophils and lymphocytes; features found in asthmatic patients. Additionally, there was a marked increase in mucus production in mice that received Th2 cells and inhaled OVA, but not in mice that received Th1 cells. However, OVA-specific Th2 cells from IL-4–deficient mice were not recruited to the lung and did not induce mucus production. When this defect in homing was overcome by administration of TNF-α, IL-4 −/− Th2 cells induced mucus as effectively as IL-4 +/+ Th2 cells. These studies establish a role for Th2 cells in mucus production and dissect the effector functions of IL-4 in these processes. These data suggest that IL-4 is crucial for Th2 cell recruitment to the lung and for induction of inflammation, but has no direct role in mucus production.

Topics: Mucus (64%), Interleukin 4 (54%), Inflammation (52%), Adoptive cell transfer (50%)

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Citations
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Journal ArticleDOI
18 Dec 1998-Science
Abstract: The worldwide incidence, morbidity, and mortality of allergic asthma are increasing. The pathophysiological features of allergic asthma are thought to result from the aberrant expansion of CD4 + T cells producing the type 2 cytokines interleukin-4 (IL-4) and IL-5, although a necessary role for these cytokines in allergic asthma has not been demonstrable. The type 2 cytokine IL-13, which shares a receptor component and signaling pathways with IL-4, was found to be necessary and sufficient for the expression of allergic asthma. IL-13 induces the pathophysiological features of asthma in a manner that is independent of immunoglobulin E and eosinophils. Thus, IL-13 is critical to allergen-induced asthma but operates through mechanisms other than those that are classically implicated in allergic responses.

2,470 citations


Journal Article
Abstract: The worldwide incidence, morbidity, and mortality of allergic asthma are increasing. The pathophysiological features of allergic asthma are thought to result from the aberrant expansion of CD4 + T cells producing the type 2 cytokines interleukin-4 (IL-4) and IL-5, although a necessary role for these cytokines in allergic asthma has not been demonstrable. The type 2 cytokine IL-13, which shares a receptor component and signaling pathways with IL-4, was found to be necessary and sufficient for the expression of allergic asthma. IL-13 induces the pathophysiological features of asthma in a manner that is independent of immunoglobulin E and eosinophils. Thus, IL-13 is critical to allergen-induced asthma but operates through mechanisms other than those that are classically implicated in allergic responses.

2,429 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
18 Dec 1998-Science
Abstract: The pathogenesis of asthma reflects, in part, the activity of T cell cytokines. Murine models support participation of interleukin-4 (IL-4) and the IL-4 receptor in asthma. Selective neutralization of IL-13, a cytokine related to IL-4 that also binds to the α chain of the IL-4 receptor, ameliorated the asthma phenotype, including airway hyperresponsiveness, eosinophil recruitment, and mucus overproduction. Administration of either IL-13 or IL-4 conferred an asthma-like phenotype to nonimmunized T cell–deficient mice by an IL-4 receptor α chain–dependent pathway. This pathway may underlie the genetic associations of asthma with both the human 5q31 locus and the IL-4 receptor.

1,863 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The targeted pulmonary expression of IL-13 causes a mononuclear and eosinophilic inflammatory response, mucus cell metaplasia, airway fibrosis, eotaxin production, airways obstruction, and nonspecific AHR in transgene-positive animals.
Abstract: Interleukin (IL)-13 is a pleiotropic cytokine produced in large quantities by activated CD4+ Th2 lymphocytes. To define further its potential in vivo effector functions, the Clara cell 10-kDa protein promoter was used to express IL-13 selectively in the lung, and the phenotype of the resulting transgenic mice was characterized. In contrast to transgene-negative littermates, the lungs of transgene-positive mice contained an inflammatory response around small and large airways and in the surrounding parenchyma. It was mononuclear in nature and contained significant numbers of eosinophils and enlarged and occasionally multinucleated macrophages. Airway epithelial cell hypertrophy, mucus cell metaplasia, the hyperproduction of neutral and acidic mucus, the deposition of Charcot-Leyden‐like crystals, and subepithelial airway fibrosis were also prominently noted. Eotaxin protein and mRNA were also present in large quantities in the lungs of the transgene-positive, but not the transgene-negative, mice. IL-4, IL-5, granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor, and monocyte chemoattractant protein-5 were not similarly detected. Physiological evaluations revealed significant increases in baseline airways resistance and airways hyperresponsiveness (AHR) to methacholine in transgene-positive animals. Thus, the targeted pulmonary expression of IL-13 causes a mononuclear and eosinophilic inflammatory response, mucus cell metaplasia, the deposition of Charcot-Leyden‐like crystals, airway fibrosis, eotaxin production, airways obstruction, and nonspecific AHR. IL-13 may play an important role in the pathogenesis of similar responses in asthma or other Th2-polarized tissue responses. J. Clin. Invest. 103:779-788 (1999).

1,648 citations


Cites background from "Induction of Airway Mucus Productio..."

  • ...Multiple lines of evidence suggest that allergen-specific CD4+ Th2 cells play an essential role in initiating and generating these abnormalities (8, 17, 27)....

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  • ...For example, in experiments using passively transferred in vitro polarized and activated Th2 cells, IL-4 plays an important role in T-cell recruitment from the vascular space and the migration of eosinophils from the lung into the airway, but it cannot account for the ability of Th2 cells to stimulate mucus elaboration or induce AHR to methacholine (17, 18)....

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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Results from in-depth molecular studies of mouse models in light of the results from the first clinical trials targeting key cytokines in humans are discussed and the extraordinary heterogeneity of asthma is described.
Abstract: Asthma is a common disease that affects 300 million people worldwide. Given the large number of eosinophils in the airways of people with mild asthma, and verified by data from murine models, asthma was long considered the hallmark T helper type 2 (T(H)2) disease of the airways. It is now known that some asthmatic inflammation is neutrophilic, controlled by the T(H)17 subset of helper T cells, and that some eosinophilic inflammation is controlled by type 2 innate lymphoid cells (ILC2 cells) acting together with basophils. Here we discuss results from in-depth molecular studies of mouse models in light of the results from the first clinical trials targeting key cytokines in humans and describe the extraordinary heterogeneity of asthma.

1,057 citations


References
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Journal Article
TL;DR: A panel of antigen-specific mouse helper T cell clones was characterized according to patterns of lymphokine activity production, and two types of T cell were distinguished.
Abstract: A panel of antigen-specific mouse helper T cell clones was characterized according to patterns of lymphokine activity production, and two types of T cell were distinguished. Type 1 T helper cells (TH1) produced IL 2, interferon-gamma, GM-CSF, and IL 3 in response to antigen + presenting cells or to Con A, whereas type 2 helper T cells (TH2) produced IL 3, BSF1, and two other activities unique to the TH2 subset, a mast cell growth factor distinct from IL 3 and a T cell growth factor distinct from IL 2. Clones representing each type of T cell were characterized, and the pattern of lymphokine activities was consistent within each set. The secreted proteins induced by Con A were analyzed by biosynthetic labeling and SDS gel electrophoresis, and significant differences were seen between the two groups of T cell line. Both types of T cell grew in response to alternating cycles of antigen stimulation, followed by growth in IL 2-containing medium. Examples of both types of T cell were also specific for or restricted by the I region of the MHC, and the surface marker phenotype of the majority of both types was Ly-1+, Lyt-2-, L3T4+, Both types of helper T cell could provide help for B cells, but the nature of the help differed. TH1 cells were found among examples of T cell clones specific for chicken RBC and mouse alloantigens. TH2 cells were found among clones specific for mouse alloantigens, fowl gamma-globulin, and KLH. The relationship between these two types of T cells and previously described subsets of T helper cells is discussed.

7,377 citations


"Induction of Airway Mucus Productio..." refers background in this paper

  • ...The lower limit of sensitivity for each of the ELISAs was 0.6 ng/ml (IFNg ), 5 pg/ml (IL-4), 0.010 ng/ml (IL-5), and 200 pg/ml (IL-10)....

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  • ...CD4 Th2 cells make a different panel of cytokines, including IL-4, IL-5, and IL-10 (17, 18)....

    [...]

  • ...Assays were standardized with recombinant IFNg , IL-5, IL-10 (Endogen), and IL-4 (Collaborative Research, Inc.)....

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  • ...1 A ), and IL-10 (data not shown)....

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  • ...IL-4 2/2 OVA-specific Th2 cells produced comparable levels of IL-5 and IL-10 when compared to IL-4 1/1 OVA-specific Th2 cells, but IL-4 was produced only by IL-4 1/1 Th2 cells....

    [...]


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Atopic asthma is associated with activation in the bronchi of the interleukin-3, 4, and 5 and GM-CSF gene cluster, a pattern compatible with predominant activation of the TH2-like T-cell population.
Abstract: Background. In atopic asthma, activated T helper lymphocytes are present in bronchial-biopsy specimens and bronchoalveolar-lavage (BAL) fluid, and their production of cytokines may be important in the pathogenesis of this disorder. Different patterns of cytokine release are characteristic of certain subgroups of T helper cells, termed TH1 and TH2, the former mediating delayed-type hypersensitivity and the latter mediating IgE synthesis and eosinophilia. The pattern of cytokine production in atopic asthma is unknown. Methods. We assessed cells obtained by BAL in subjects with mild atopic asthma and in normal control subjects for the expression of messenger RNA (mRNA) for interleukin-2, 3, 4, and 5, granulocytemacrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF), and interferon gamma by in situ hybridization with 32P-labeled complementary RNA. Localization of mRNA to BAL T cells was assessed by simultaneous in situ hybridization and immunofluorescence and by in situ hybridization after immunomagnetic enrichment or...

2,876 citations


"Induction of Airway Mucus Productio..." refers background in this paper

  • ...Th2 cells secreting IL-4 and IL-5 have been shown to be present and activated in the bronchial wall of asthmatic individuals (9, 23)....

    [...]


Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: Xenogeneic immunizations have the advantage of detecting a wide range of antigenic determinants because many commonly occurring proteins have diverged significantly during the course of evolution and are thus antigenic in other species. The broadness of xenogeneic responses, however, means that the antisera they produce are usually complex and require extensive absorptions to make them specific for a single antigen. This problem has now been overcome by generating hybridomas producing monoclonal antibodies (Kohler & Milstein 1975). These permit dissection ofthe xenogeneic response so that large amounts of individual antibodies can be obtained, each of which recognizes only one of the determinants recognized by a broadly reactive conventional antiserum. Williams et al. (1977) used hybridoma monoclonal antibodies obtained after immunizations of mice with rat cells to study rat cell-surface antigens present on subpopulations of rat lymphocytes, i.e., differentiation antigens. Springer et al. (1978a) and Stern et al. (1978) used a similar approach to study mouse lymphocyte antigens. They prepared monoclonal antibodies by immunizing rats with mouse lymphocytes and showed that these monoclonals recognized previously undetected mouse cell surface determinants including a glycoprotein antigen that appears to be specific for macrophages (Springer et al. 1978b). Trowbridge (1978) also used rat anti-mouse immunizations to generate a monoclonal antibody against the non-polymorphic lymphocyte surface antigen T200.

1,913 citations


"Induction of Airway Mucus Productio..." refers methods in this paper

  • ...To generate Th1 or Th2 cells from DO11.10 mice, CD4 T cells were isolated by negative selection as previously described (31) using mAbs to CD8 (clone 53-6.72, clone 2.43 [ 32 ]), Class II MHC I-A d (212.A1 [33]) and anti‐Ig-coated magnetic beads (Advanced Magnetics, Inc....

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Journal ArticleDOI
21 Dec 1990-Science
TL;DR: Results provide direct evidence for the in vivo role of apoptosis in the development of antigen-induced tolerance in mice transgenic for a T cell receptor that reacts to this peptide.
Abstract: In order to examine the mechanisms by which clonal deletion of autoreactive T cells occurs, a peptide antigen was used to induce deletion of antigen-reactive thymocytes in vivo. Mice transgenic for a T cell receptor (TCR) that reacts to this peptide contain thymocytes that progress from the immature to the mature phenotype. Intraperitoneal administration of the peptide antigen to transgenic mice results in a rapid deletion of the immature CD4+ CD8+ TCRlo thymocytes. Apoptosis of cortical thymocytes can be seen within 20 hours of treatment. These results provide direct evidence for the in vivo role of apoptosis in the development of antigen-induced tolerance.

1,816 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
01 Nov 1991-Science
TL;DR: Some but not all of the in vitro properties of IL-4 are critical for the physiology of the immune system in vivo, but the serum levels of IgG1 and IgE are strongly reduced.
Abstract: Interleukin-4 (IL-4) promotes the growth and differentiation of many hematopoietic cells in vitro; in particular, it directs the immunoglobulin (Ig) class switch to IgG1 and IgE. Mice homozygous for a mutation that inactivates the IL-4 gene were generated to test the requirement for IL-4 in vivo. In the mutant mice T and B cell development was normal, but the serum levels of IgG1 and IgE were strongly reduced. The IgG1 dominance in a T cell-dependent immune response was lost, and IgE was not detectable upon nematode infection. Thus, some but not all of the in vitro properties of IL-4 are critical for the physiology of the immune system in vivo.

1,243 citations