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Journal ArticleDOI

Induction of Pluripotent Stem Cells from Adult Human Fibroblasts by Defined Factors

30 Nov 2007-Cell (Cell)-Vol. 131, Iss: 5, pp 861-872

TL;DR: It is demonstrated that iPS cells can be generated from adult human fibroblasts with the same four factors: Oct3/4, Sox2, Klf4, and c-Myc.

AbstractSUMMARY Successful reprogramming of differentiated human somatic cells into a pluripotent state would allow creation of patient- and disease-specific stem cells. We previously reported generation of induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells, capable of germline transmission, from mouse somatic cells by transduction of four defined transcription factors. Here, we demonstrate the generationofiPS cells from adult human dermal fibroblasts with the same four factors: Oct3/4, Sox2, Klf4, and c-Myc. Human iPS cells were similar to human embryonic stem (ES) cells in morphology, proliferation, surface antigens, gene expression, epigenetic status of pluripotent cell-specific genes, and telomerase activity. Furthermore, these cells could differentiate into cell types of the three germ layers in vitro and in teratomas. These findings demonstrate that iPS cells can be generated from adult human fibroblasts.

Topics: Induced pluripotent stem cell (72%), Embryonic stem cell (71%), Stem cell (70%), KOSR (69%), Reprogramming (68%)

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Citations
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Journal ArticleDOI
10 Jan 2008-Nature
TL;DR: The data demonstrate that defined factors can reprogramme human cells to pluripotency, and establish a method whereby patient-specific cells might be established in culture.
Abstract: Pluripotency pertains to the cells of early embryos that can generate all of the tissues in the organism. Embryonic stem cells are embryo-derived cell lines that retain pluripotency and represent invaluable tools for research into the mechanisms of tissue formation. Recently, murine fibroblasts have been reprogrammed directly to pluripotency by ectopic expression of four transcription factors (Oct4, Sox2, Klf4 and Myc) to yield induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells. Using these same factors, we have derived iPS cells from fetal, neonatal and adult human primary cells, including dermal fibroblasts isolated from a skin biopsy of a healthy research subject. Human iPS cells resemble embryonic stem cells in morphology and gene expression and in the capacity to form teratomas in immune-deficient mice. These data demonstrate that defined factors can reprogramme human cells to pluripotency, and establish a method whereby patient-specific cells might be established in culture.

2,939 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: A modified protocol for the generation of iPS cells that does not require the Myc retrovirus is described and, with this protocol, significantly fewer non-iPS background cells are obtained, and theiPS cells generated were consistently of high quality.
Abstract: Direct reprogramming of somatic cells provides an opportunity to generate patient- or disease-specific pluripotent stem cells. Such induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells were generated from mouse fibroblasts by retroviral transduction of four transcription factors: Oct3/4, Sox2, Klf4 and c-Myc. Mouse iPS cells are indistinguishable from embryonic stem (ES) cells in many respects and produce germline-competent chimeras. Reactivation of the c-Myc retrovirus, however, increases tumorigenicity in the chimeras and progeny mice, hindering clinical applications. Here we describe a modified protocol for the generation of iPS cells that does not require the Myc retrovirus. With this protocol, we obtained significantly fewer non-iPS background cells, and the iPS cells generated were consistently of high quality. Mice derived from Myc(-) iPS cells did not develop tumors during the study period. The protocol also enabled efficient isolation of iPS cells without drug selection. Furthermore, we generated human iPS cells from adult dermal fibroblasts without MYC.

2,851 citations


Cites background from "Induction of Pluripotent Stem Cells..."

  • ...We have recently reported the generation of iPS cells from adult human dermal fibroblasts (hDFs) by the same four factor...

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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Noggin/SB431542-based neural induction should facilitate the use of hES and hiPS cells in regenerative medicine and disease modeling and obviate the need for protocols based on stromal feeders or embryoid bodies.
Abstract: Current neural induction protocols for human embryonic stem (hES) cells rely on embryoid body formation, stromal feeder co-culture or selective survival conditions. Each strategy has considerable drawbacks, such as poorly defined culture conditions, protracted differentiation and low yield. Here we report that the synergistic action of two inhibitors of SMAD signaling, Noggin and SB431542, is sufficient to induce rapid and complete neural conversion of >80% of hES cells under adherent culture conditions. Temporal fate analysis reveals the appearance of a transient FGF5(+) epiblast-like stage followed by PAX6(+) neural cells competent to form rosettes. Initial cell density determines the ratio of central nervous system and neural crest progeny. Directed differentiation of human induced pluripotent stem (hiPS) cells into midbrain dopamine and spinal motoneurons confirms the robustness and general applicability of the induction protocol. Noggin/SB431542-based neural induction should facilitate the use of hES and hiPS cells in regenerative medicine and disease modeling and obviate the need for protocols based on stromal feeders or embryoid bodies.

2,753 citations


Cites background from "Induction of Pluripotent Stem Cells..."

  • ...HES cells offer great promise for cell-replacement therapies, and recent advances in somatic cell reprogramming to iPS cells have opened the door to generating patient-specific cells for regenerative medicine and disease modelin...

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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: It is shown that this approach can reprogram multiple human cell types to pluripotency with efficiencies that greatly surpass established protocols and represents a safe, efficient strategy for somatic cell reprogramming and directing cell fate that has broad applicability for basic research, disease modeling, and regenerative medicine.
Abstract: SUMMARY Clinical application of induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) is limited by the low efficiency of iPSC derivation and the fact that most protocols modify the genome to effect cellular reprogramming. Moreover, safe and effective means of directing the fate of patient-specific iPSCs toward clinically useful cell types are lacking. Here we describe a simple, nonintegrating strategy for reprogramming cell fate based on administration of synthetic mRNA modified to overcome innate antiviral responses. We show that this approach can reprogram multiple human cell types to pluripotency with efficiencies that greatly surpass established protocols. We further show that the same technology can be used to efficiently direct the differentiation of RNA-induced pluripotent stem cells (RiPSCs) into terminally differentiated myogenic cells. This technology represents a safe, efficient strategy for somatic cell reprogramming and directing cell fate that has broad applicability for basic research, disease modeling, and regenerative medicine.

2,466 citations


Cites background from "Induction of Pluripotent Stem Cells..."

  • ...Cel It is known that exogenous single-stranded RNA (ssRNA) activates antiviral defenses in mammalian cells through interferonand NF-kB-dependent pathways (Diebold et al., 2004; Hornung et al., 2006; Kawai and Akira, 2007; Pichlmair et al., 2006; Uematsu and Akira, 2007)....

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References
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Journal ArticleDOI
25 Aug 2006-Cell
TL;DR: Induction of pluripotent stem cells from mouse embryonic or adult fibroblasts by introducing four factors, Oct3/4, Sox2, c-Myc, and Klf4, under ES cell culture conditions is demonstrated and iPS cells, designated iPS, exhibit the morphology and growth properties of ES cells and express ES cell marker genes.
Abstract: Differentiated cells can be reprogrammed to an embryonic-like state by transfer of nuclear contents into oocytes or by fusion with embryonic stem (ES) cells. Little is known about factors that induce this reprogramming. Here, we demonstrate induction of pluripotent stem cells from mouse embryonic or adult fibroblasts by introducing four factors, Oct3/4, Sox2, c-Myc, and Klf4, under ES cell culture conditions. Unexpectedly, Nanog was dispensable. These cells, which we designated iPS (induced pluripotent stem) cells, exhibit the morphology and growth properties of ES cells and express ES cell marker genes. Subcutaneous transplantation of iPS cells into nude mice resulted in tumors containing a variety of tissues from all three germ layers. Following injection into blastocysts, iPS cells contributed to mouse embryonic development. These data demonstrate that pluripotent stem cells can be directly generated from fibroblast cultures by the addition of only a few defined factors.

21,746 citations


"Induction of Pluripotent Stem Cells..." refers background in this paper

  • ...We showed that induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells can be generated from mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEF) and adult mouse tail-tip fibroblasts by the retrovirus-mediated transfection of four transcription factors, namely Oct3/4, Sox2, c-Myc, and Klf4 (Takahashi and Yamanaka, 2006)....

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  • ...Induction of iPS cells from mouse fibroblasts requires retroviruses with high transduction efficiencies (Takahashi and Yamanaka, 2006)....

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  • ...Optimization of Retroviral Transduction for Generating Human iPS Cells Induction of iPS cells from mouse fibroblasts requires retroviruses with high transduction efficiencies (Takahashi and Yamanaka, 2006)....

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Journal ArticleDOI
06 Nov 1998-Science
TL;DR: Human blastocyst-derived, pluripotent cell lines are described that have normal karyotypes, express high levels of telomerase activity, and express cell surface markers that characterize primate embryonic stem cells but do not characterize other early lineages.
Abstract: Human blastocyst-derived, pluripotent cell lines are described that have normal karyotypes, express high levels of telomerase activity, and express cell surface markers that characterize primate embryonic stem cells but do not characterize other early lineages. After undifferentiated proliferation in vitro for 4 to 5 months, these cells still maintained the developmental potential to form trophoblast and derivatives of all three embryonic germ layers, including gut epithelium (endoderm); cartilage, bone, smooth muscle, and striated muscle (mesoderm); and neural epithelium, embryonic ganglia, and stratified squamous epithelium (ectoderm). These cell lines should be useful in human developmental biology, drug discovery, and transplantation medicine.

14,753 citations


"Induction of Pluripotent Stem Cells..." refers background in this paper

  • ...These properties have led to expectations that human ES cells might be useful to understand disease mechanisms, to screen effective and safe drugs, and to treat patients of various diseases and injuries, such as juvenile diabetes and spinal cord injury (Thomson et al., 1998)....

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Journal ArticleDOI
09 Jul 1981-Nature
TL;DR: The establishment in tissue culture of pluripotent cell lines which have been isolated directly from in vitro cultures of mouse blastocysts are reported, able to differentiate either in vitro or after innoculation into a mouse as a tumour in vivo.
Abstract: Pluripotential cells are present in a mouse embryo until at least an early post-implantation stage, as shown by their ability to take part hi the formation of chimaeric animals1 and to form teratocarcinomas2. Until now it has not been possible to establish progressively growing cultures of these cells in vitro, and cell lines have only been obtained after teratocarcinoma formation in vivo. We report here the establishment in tissue culture of pluripotent cell lines which have been isolated directly from in vitro cultures of mouse blastocysts. These cells are able to differentiate either in vitro or after innoculation into a mouse as a tumour in vivo. They have a normal karyotype.

7,763 citations


"Induction of Pluripotent Stem Cells..." refers background in this paper

  • ...Embryonic stem (ES) cells, derived from the inner cell mass of mammalian blastocysts, have the ability to grow indefinitely while maintaining pluripotency (Evans and Kaufman, 1981; Martin, 1981)....

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Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: This report describes the establishment directly from normal preimplantation mouse embryos of a cell line that forms teratocarcinomas when injected into mice. The pluripotency of these embryonic stem cells was demonstrated conclusively by the observation that subclonal cultures, derived from isolated single cells, can differentiate into a wide variety of cell types. Such embryonic stem cells were isolated from inner cell masses of late blastocysts cultured in medium conditioned by an established teratocarcinoma stem cell line. This suggests that such conditioned medium might contain a growth factor that stimulates the proliferation or inhibits the differentiation of normal pluripotent embryonic cells, or both. This method of obtaining embryonic stem cells makes feasible the isolation of pluripotent cells lines from various types of noninbred embryo, including those carrying mutant genes. The availability of such cell lines should made possible new approaches to the study of early mammalian development.

5,271 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
23 Sep 2005-Cell
TL;DR: Insight is provided into the transcriptional regulation of stem cells and how OCT4, SOX2, and NANOG contribute to pluripotency and self-renewal and how they collaborate to form regulatory circuitry consisting of autoregulatory and feedforward loops.
Abstract: The transcription factors OCT4, SOX2, and NANOG have essential roles in early development and are required for the propagation of undifferentiated embryonic stem (ES) cells in culture. To gain insights into transcriptional regulation of human ES cells, we have identified OCT4, SOX2, and NANOG target genes using genome-scale location analysis. We found, surprisingly, that OCT4, SOX2, and NANOG co-occupy a substantial portion of their target genes. These target genes frequently encode transcription factors, many of which are developmentally important homeodomain proteins. Our data also indicate that OCT4, SOX2, and NANOG collaborate to form regulatory circuitry consisting of autoregulatory and feedforward loops. These results provide new insights into the transcriptional regulation of stem cells and reveal how OCT4, SOX2, and NANOG contribute to pluripotency and self-renewal.

4,224 citations


"Induction of Pluripotent Stem Cells..." refers background in this paper

  • ...The function of Oct3/4 and Sox2 as core transcription factors to determine pluripotency is well documented (Boyer et al., 2005; Loh et al., 2006; Wang et al., 2006)....

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