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Induksi Kalus dari Hipokotil Alfalfa ( medicago sativa l.) secara in vitro dengan Penambahan Benzyl Amino Purine (BAP) dan α-Naphtalene Acetic Acid (NAA)

01 Jan 2010-Vol. 12, Iss: 1, pp 6-12
TL;DR: The result showed that combination of BAP and NAA was able to induce callogenesis from hipocotyl of alfalfa and the optimal callus was obtained in combination of NAA 2 ppm and BAP 0 ppm.
Abstract: Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) is useful plant for treatment some diseases such as: cancer, diabetes, lupus, and hepatitis. Propagation of this plant in Indonesia face a problem which has no embryo. One method to propagate this plant is by tissue culture or micropropagation. Callus induction is first step in micropropagation to produce callus which will be regenerated to become planlet. The aims of this research are to induce callogenesis from hipocotyl of alfalfa with addition Benzyl Amino Purine (BAP) and α Naphtalene Acetic Acid (NAA), and to determine the proper combination of BAP and NAA to produce the optimal callus. The experiment has been conducted by using 12 combination of BAP and NAA with Completely Randomized Design (CRD) in 4x3 factorial pattern by 5 replicates. Data were analyzed by ANOVA 95% Degrees of Freedom (DF). If there was significance result, it was followed by DMRT analyzed at 95 % DF. The result showed that combination of BAP and NAA was able to induce callogenesis from hipocotyl of alfalfa. The optimal callus was obtained in combination of BAP 0 ppm and NAA 2 ppm.

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Citations
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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The most optimal treatment combination of concentration of plant growth regulators in inducing callus from leaf explants of gendarussa is 1.5 mg/L 2,4-D and 2mg/L BAP with a relatively long period of callus formation at the earliest, i.e. on day 5, 2.247 g of fresh weight, 0.108 gof dry weight, white callus translucent, and friable.
Abstract: Justicia gendarussa Burm.f., a medicinal plant, is Acanthaceae that has many functions. Furthermore, the compounds in gendarussa must be produced in high quantity and quality by applying callus culture method. Accordingly, it is important to study the effects of plant growth regulators (2,4-D, IBA, and BAP) on callus induction of gendarussa leaves. This research design utilized a factorial design with two factors (2,4-D and IBA: 0.5, 1, 1.5 mg/L and BAP: 0.5, 1, 1.5, 2 mg/L). The experiment consisted of 24 treatments, each of which was repeated 3 times. Observation was carried out in 6 weeks. Data on the time of callus formation, percentage of explants formed callus, and callus morphology were analyzed descriptively,while data on fresh and dry weight were analyzed by Two-Way ANOVA ( α = 0.5). Interestingly, the results showed that various concentration of plant growth regulators (2,4-D, IBA, and BAP) affected callus induction from leaf explants of gendarussa. We concluded that the most optimal treatment combination of concentration of plant growth regulators in inducing callus from leaf explants of gendarussa is 1.5 mg/L 2,4-D and 2 mg/L BAP with a relatively long period of callus formation at the earliest, i.e. on day 5, 2.247 g of fresh weight, 0.108 gof dry weight, white callus translucent, and friable. Moreover, t he optimum treatment will be used to produce secondary metabolite and seed s y nthetic by cell suspension culture.

11 citations


Cites background from "Induksi Kalus dari Hipokotil Alfalf..."

  • ...Phenol compounds appear to be toxic to cells when in excessive concentrations, which will inhibit growth (Hayati et al., 2010)....

    [...]

Dissertation
16 Jan 2018
TL;DR: Penelitian ini bersifat eksperimental menggunakan rancangan acak lengkap (RAL), perkecambahan biji cendana mengg unakan IBA dan BAP, anda pengaruh 2,4-D terhadap induksi kalus embrionik dari daun dan kotiledon c endana (Santalum album L.) secara in vitro.
Abstract: INDONESIA: Cendana (Santalum album L.) merupakan tanaman yang tumbuh khusus di Nusa Tenggara Timur serta memiliki beragam manfaat yaitu minyaknya digunakan dalam dunia farmasi, kosmetik dan parfum, sedangkan kayunya digunakan sebagai patung, tasbih dan kipas. Kebutuhan cendana didunia sangatlah tinggi sehingga kekurangan cendana didunia mencapai 80ton pertahun. Kekurangan ini disebabkan karena tanaman cendana yang mudah mati sehingga budidaya secara konvensional sulit dilakukan. Kondisi ini mendorong untuk melakukan budidaya secara massal menggunakan teknik kultur in vitro. Kultur in vitro dilakukan melalui perkecambahan dan induksi kalus embrionik dari daun dan kotiledon dengan penambahan 2,4-D. Induksi kalus kotiledon harus dimulai dari proses perkecambahan dengan penambahan IBA, BAP dan GA3. Oleh karena itu penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui pengaruh IBA, BAP dan GA3 terhadap perkecambahan biji serta pengaruh 2,4-D terhadap induksi kalus embrionik dari daun dan kotiledon cendana (Santalum album L.) secara in vitro. Penelitian ini bersifat eksperimental menggunakan rancangan acak lengkap (RAL). Perkecambahan biji cendana menggunakan IBA dan BAP dengan konsentrasi 0 mg/L, 0.5 mg/L, 1 mg/L, 1.5mg/L, 2mg/L dan 2.5mg/L sedangkan GA3 0mg/L, 5mg/L, 10mg/L, 15mg/L, 20mg/L dan diulang masing-masing sebanyak 5 kali. Untuk induksi kalus embrionik daun dan kotiledon cendana menggunakan penambahan 2,4-D dengan konsentrasi 0mg/l, 1mg/L, 2mg/L, 3mg/L dan diulang masing-masing sebanyak 6 kali. Data perkecambahan biji dan kalus cendana dianalisis dengan uji Oneway Anova α= 5%. Apabila terdapat perbedaan signifikan maka dilanjutkan dengan uji Beda Nyata Jujur (BNJ) dengan taraf signifkan 5%. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa ada pengaruh pemberian IBA, BAP dan GA3 terhadap perkecambahan biji dan 2,4-D terhadap induksi kalus embriogenik daun dan kotiledon tanaman cedana. Konsentrasi yang paling terbaik dalam meningkatkan perkecambahan biji cendana adalah pada hari muncul kecambah GA3 20mg/L (7.6 HST); tinggi batang IBA 1.5mg/L (4.616cm); panjang akar IBA 1mg/L (5.25cm) dan jumlah daun GA3 10mg/L (4.8). Konsentrasi yang paling terbaik terhadap induksi kalus embrionik dengan penambahan 2,4-D yaitu hari munculnya kalus 3mg/L (19.666) pada daun dan 3mg/L (17.666) pada kotiledon; persentase pertumbuhan kalus 2mg/L (99.17%) pada daun dan 2mg/L (100%) pada kotiledon; berat basah kalus 2mg/l (0.180783gr) pada daun dan 1mg/L (0.9002) pada kotiledon. Untuk warna kalus yang dihasilkan adalah putih kekuningan, putih kehijauan, hijau dan hijau kekuningan, sedangkan teksturnya remah, kompak dan intermediet. ENGLISH: Sandalwood (Santalum album L.) is specially growed plant in Nusa Tenggara Timur. Its oil is widely used in pharmacy, cosmetics, and perfumery industry while its wood is used for statue, rosary, and fan. High demand for sandalwood resulted in shortage of sandalwood reached 80 tons per year. This is due to vulnerability of sandalwood to easily die so the conventional cultivation is difficult to be done. To overcome this, mass cultivation using in vitro technique is highly recommended. In vitro culture is done through germination and induction of embryonic callus from leaves and cotyledon by adding 2,4-D. Induction of cotyledon callus should starts from germination with the addition of IBA, BAP, and GA3. Therefore, this study aims to determine the influence of IBA, BAP and GA3 on seed germination as well as the effect of 2.4-D addition on embryonic callus induction from Sandalwood leaves and cotyledon in vitro. This experimental research was conducted using complete randomized design method. Germination of sandalwood seed was done using IBA and BAP with concentration varies from 0 mg/L, 0.5 mg/L, 1 mg/L, 1.5mg/L, 2mg/L and 2.5mg/L while GA3 0mg / L, 5mg / L, 10mg / L , 15mg / L, 20mg / L and repeated 5 times each. Callus embryonic induction of leaf and cotyledon were done by addition of 2,4-D with concentration 0mg / l, 1mg / L, 2mg / L, 3mg / L and repeated each of 6 times. Data of seed germination and callus of sandalwood were analyzed by Oneway Anova test α = 5%. If there is significant difference then continued with HSD test (BNJ) with 5% significance level. The results showed that there was an effect of adding IBA, BAP and GA3 on seed germination and 2,4-D on induction of embryogenic callus from sandalwood leaf and cotyledon. The best concentration for increasing the germination of sandalwood seeds is the sprouts appear in GA3 20mg/L (7.6 HST); stem height in 1.5mg/L IBA (4.616cm); length of root in IBA 1mg/L (5.25cm) and leaf amount in GA3 10mg/L (4.8). The best concentration on induction of embryogenic callus by the addition of 2,4-D on the day of callus emergence 3mg/L (19,666) on leaves and 3mg/L (17.666) on cotyledon; percent growth of callus 2mg/L (99.17%) on leaves and 2mg/L(100%) on cotyledon; wet weight callus 2mg /L (0.180783gr) on leaves and 1mg/L (0.9002gr) on cotyledon. For the resulting callus color is yellowish white, greenish green, green and yellowish green, while the texture is crumb, compact and intermediates.

10 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Methanol extract of tempuyung callus shows potential as an antimalarial drug but more studies would be required.
Abstract: Background: Malaria is a global health problem that requires urgent need for new drugs. Tempuyung (Sonchus arvensis L.) possesses many potential medicinal compounds. As the plant is originally found wild, it is important to reproduce its secondary metabolites by tissue culture. The objectives of this study were to look for effective methods to induce callus from leaf explants of Sonchus arvensis L. and to test its in vitro antiplasmodial activity.Materials and Methods: The leaves and petioles of the plant were cultured on Murashige and Skoog (MS) solid medium supplemented with indole acetic-3-acid (IAA), indole-3-butyric acid (IBA), naphthalene acetic acid (NAA), 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) and benzyl amino purine (BAP), in light and dark incubations. The best results obtained from callus induction were then treated by with several concentrations of sucrose (1- 5%). The best results from callus induction were then extracted with methanol for antiplasmodial test by Trager and Jensen’s method. It was also tested against 3D7 strain of Plasmodium falciparum.Results: The combination of 1mg/L 2,4-D and 0.5 mg/L BAP in dark incubation was the best treatment for callus induction of tempuyung. It produced the best quality of callus and the shortest period for callusing. Sucrose treatment had various effects on leaves callusing, but had no effect on petioles callusing, whereby 4% sucrose was the best treatment for leaves callusing in dark incubation. The methanol extract of the best callus had anti-plasmodial activity with IC50=0.343 μg/mL.Conclusion: Methanol extract of tempuyung callus shows potential as an antimalarial drug but more studies would be required. Keyword: Antiplasmodial activity, Callus, Growth regulator, Methanol extract, Plasmodium falciparum, Sonchus arvensis, tempuyung.

10 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
28 May 2020
TL;DR: In this article, the effect of 2,4-D growth regulators and BAP interactions on the induction of embryogenic callus C. pubescens was investigated using a completely randomized design with 25 treatments and 5 replications.
Abstract: Carica pubescens Lenne & K. Koch has benefits as a producer of medicinal compounds. Propagation of C. pubescens is important to be done through in vitro embryogenic callus culture. This research aimed to determine the effect of 2,4-D growth regulators, 2,4-D and BAP interactions on the induction of embryogenic callus C. pubescens Lenne & K. Koch. This research is experimental, using a completely randomized design (CRD) with 25 treatments and 5 replications. Embryonic callus was induced by various concentration of 2,4 D (0 mg/L, 2.5 mg/L, 5 mg/L, 7.5 mg/L, and 1 mg/L) in combination with BAP (0 mg/L, 2.5 mg/L, 5 mg/L, 7.5 mg/L, and 1 mg/L). Data were analyzed using two-way ANOVA, followed by the Duncan Multiple Range Test (DMRT) (p>0.05). The result showed that the addition of 2,4 D and BAP as a growth regulator gave an effect on embryonic callus. Concentration of 7.5 mg/L 2,4 D and 0.5 mg/L BAP in callus 19 days after planting showed the most effective interaction of both inductors. The combination produced callus fresh weight at 1.09 g and 99% in percentage of explant callus area. Morphological and anatomical observations showed the characteristic of embryogenic callus as indicated by yellowish, textured callus friable, having a large core and containing starch grains also plastids.

8 citations


Cites background from "Induksi Kalus dari Hipokotil Alfalf..."

  • ...Low acidity can also activate certain enzymes in cell walls that can degrade various proteins or polysaccharides that spread on soft and flexible cell walls, so enlargement of embryonic cells can occur (Hayati et al., 2010)....

    [...]

Journal ArticleDOI
04 Nov 2019
TL;DR: The research results showed that the interaction betweem BAP and IAA stimulated shoot and root formation during multiplication of satoimo shoot in in vitro culture.
Abstract: Satoimo (Colocasia esculenta (L.) Schott var. antiquorum) is a type of taro with small tuber size (small corm taro) and called Japanesse taro or satoimo. The conventional method of satoimo propagation takes relatively long time, therefore propagation techniques of satoimo shoot in vitro can be an alternative method to meet the increasing need of satoimo seed. The objectives of research were to study the interaction effect BAP and IAA on multiplication of satoimo shoot as well as to determine the best concentrations of BAP and IAA for satoimo shoot multiplication. This research has been conducted experimentaly using a Completely Randomised Design (CRD) with a factorial treatment pattern. The first factor was BAP concentration (B) with 4 levels i.e B1 : 5 µM, B2 : 7,5 µM, B3 : 10 µM and B4 : 12,5 µM. The second factor was IAA concentrations (I) with 4 levels i.e I1 : 1 µM, I2 : 2 µM, I3 : 3 µM and I4 : 4 µM. The combination of these two factors resulted in 16 treatment combinations. Each combinations repeated 3 times, there were 48 experimental units. The variables observed were taro shoot growth with parameters measured included the number of shoot, leaf and root produced. The data obtained were analyzed using Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) at a 95% level of confidence, followed by a Least Significant Difference (LSD) Test at 5% error rate. The research results showed that the interaction betweem BAP and IAA stimulated shoot and root formation during multiplication of satoimo shoot in in vitro culture. The addition of 5 µM BAP and 2 µM IAA resulted in the best multiplication rate of shoot satoimoin in vitro culture.

7 citations


Cites background from "Induksi Kalus dari Hipokotil Alfalf..."

  • ...Menurut Hayati et al. (2010), pemanjangan sel yang dipengaruhi IAA akan berdifusi kedalam sel eksplan melalui luka pada ujung-ujung eksplan....

    [...]

References
More filters
Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors discuss the origins, causes and uses of Variation in Plant Tissue Cultures and their application in the control of fertility and embryo development in the field of plant cell and tissue culture.

339 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The expression of LeExp2, LeEXT1, and Cel7 was undetectable or negligible at the onset of and during fruit ripening, which is consistent with a specific role of these genes in regulating cell wall loosening during fruit growth, not in ripening-associated cell wall disassembly.
Abstract: An expansin gene, LeExp2 , was isolated from auxin-treated, etiolated tomato ( Lycopersicon esculentum cv T5) hypocotyls. LeExp2 mRNA expression was restricted to the growing regions of the tomato hypocotyl and was up-regulated during incubation of hypocotyl segments with auxin. The pattern of expression of LeExp2 was also studied during tomato fruit growth, a developmental process involving rapid cell enlargement. The expression of genes encoding a xyloglucan endotransglycosylase ( LeEXT1 ) and an endo-1,4-β-glucanase ( Cel7 ), which, like LeExp2 , are auxin-regulated in etiolated hypocotyls (C. Catala, J.K.C. Rose, A.B. Bennett [1997] Plant J 12: 417–426), was also studied to examine the potential for synergistic action with expansins. LeExp2 and LeEXT1 genes were coordinately regulated, with their mRNA accumulation peaking during the stages of highest growth, while Cel7 mRNA abundance increased and remained constant during later stages of fruit growth. The expression of LeExp2 , LeEXT1 , and Cel7 was undetectable or negligible at the onset of and during fruit ripening, which is consistent with a specific role of these genes in regulating cell wall loosening during fruit growth, not in ripening-associated cell wall disassembly.

212 citations


"Induksi Kalus dari Hipokotil Alfalf..." refers background in this paper

  • ...Peran sitokinin secara langsung adalah dalam proses transkripsi dan translasi RNA dalam proses sintesis protein(Catala et al., 2000 dalam Aslamyah, 2002)....

    [...]

  • ...Derajat keasaman yang rendah juga dapat mengaktivasi enzim tertentu pada dinding sel yang dapat mendegradasi bermacam-macam protein atau polisakarida yang menyebar pada dinding sel yang lunak dan lentur, sehingga pembesaran sel dapat terjadi (Catala et al., 2000 dalam Aslamyah, 2002)....

    [...]

Book
18 Feb 2000
TL;DR: Plant tissue culture :techniques and experiments, Plant tissue culture:technique and experiments , مرکز فناوری اطلاعات و £1,000,000 کسورزی
Abstract: "Plant Tissue Culture, Second Edition" provides laboratory exercises in plant tissue culture that demonstrate major educational concepts. The experiments can be conducted with a variety of plant materials that are available year round from easily accessible sources. This course book will give students diverse learning experiences in a semester course. New and experienced plant scientists in agriculture, university, and industry settings will also find this concise manual to be of great value. It presents unique laboratory exercises using a variety of plant materials and step-by-step protocols and provides detailed line drawings that complement both introductions and experiments. It includes supplementary sections and scheduling and interrelationships of exercises for teachers. It covers tissue culture laboratory setup, supplies, media, and explant preparation, and measurements. It includes a glossary of terms and exercises rigorously tested for practicality through years of course use . It contains two new chapters. "History of Plant Cell Culture" is written by Trevor Thorpe. "Woody Plants and Shrubs" is written by Brent McCown. It is adaptable by teachers, students, researchers, and technicians.

198 citations

Journal Article
TL;DR: For callus production, hypocotyl, cotyledon, petiole and leaf explants from seedlings of different sugar beet breeding lines were cultured on MS medium containing BAP or KIN in combination with NAA or 2,4-D at 0.0, 0.5 or 1.0 mg/l.
Abstract: For callus production, hypocotyl, cotyledon, petiole and leaf explants from seedlings of different sugar beet ( Beta vulgaris L.) breeding lines were cultured on MS medium containing BAP or KIN in combination with NAA or 2,4-D at 0.0, 0.5 or 1.0 mg/l. The use of both auxins in combination with 0.5 mg/l BAP or 0.5 mg/l KIN resulted in greater amounts of callus from all types of explants. However, hypocotyl and cotyledon explants produced significantly more callus than petiole and leaf explants when the means of all lines were taken into account. Two types of callus were usually obtained, white and friable callus with large cells (Type I) and green and compact callus with smaller cells (Type II). For shoot induction, Type I callus was transferred to MS medium containing 2.5 mg/l TDZ or 1.0 mg/l BAP in combination with 0.3 mg/l IAA, together with or without a cold pre-treatment at 4iC for two weeks. More shoots developed from the pre-treated callus and elongated shoots could be readily rooted on MS medium containing 3.0 mg/l IBA.

28 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
25 Jun 2020
TL;DR: In this paper, Penelitian peningkatan keragaman genetik pada keladi tikus melalui kultur in vitro telah dilakukan di Laboratorium Kultur Jaringan, Balai Penelitaian Tanaman Obat and Aromatik (Balittro) Bogor pada bulan April sampai Desember 2005.
Abstract: ABSTRAK Keladi tikus umumnya diperbanyak secara vegetatif sehingga ragam genetiknya sempit. Penelitian peningkatan keragaman genetik pada keladi tikus melalui kultur in vitro telah dilakukan di Laboratorium Kultur Jaringan, Balai Penelitian Tanaman Obat dan Aromatik (Balittro) Bogor pada bulan April sampai Desember 2005. Bahan tanaman yang digunakan adalah daun steril keladi tikus in vitro. Media dasar yang digunakan adalah Murashige and Skoog (MS) yang diperkaya vitamin dari group B. Sebagai sumber energi digunakan sukrosa sebanyak 30 g/l. Penelitian terdiri dari dua tahap yaitu induksi dan regenerasi kalus. Perlakuan yang diuji pada tahap I adalah beberapa taraf konsentrasi auksin (2,4-D) secara tunggal maupun kombinasi dengan sitokinin (kinetin) terhadap induksi kalus yaitu : 2,4-D 0,1 mg/l; 2,4-D 0,5 mg/l; 2,4-D 1,0 mg/l; 2,4-D 0,1 + kinetin 0,1 mg/l; 2,4-D 0,5 mg/l + kinetin 0,1 mg/l; 2,4-D 1.0 mg/l + kinetin 0,1 mg/l; 2,4-D 0,1 mg/l + kinetin 0,3 mg/l; 2,4-D 0,5 mg/l +kinetin 0,3 mg/l dan 2,4-D 1,0 mg/l + kinetin 0,3 mg/l. Tahap II adalah beberapa taraf konsentrasi benzyl adenin untuk regenerasi kalus. Penelitian disusun menggunakan rancangan acak lengkap dengan pola faktorial dan lima ulangan, dan setiap ulangan terdiri dari satu eksplan. Faktor pertama adalah asal kalus dan faktor kedua adalah beberapa taraf konsentrasi BA yaitu : BA 0,1 mg/l ; BA 0,3 mg/l dan BA 0,5 mg/l. Parameter yang diamati adalah waktu inisiasi kalus, struktur dan warna kalus, jumlah tunas serta penampilan kultur secara visual. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa kalus asal eksplan daun dapat diinduksi pada perlakuan 2,4-D 1,0 mg/l + kinetin 0,1 mg/l dan 2,4-D 1,0 mg/l + kinetin 0,3 mg/l dengan waktu inisiasi 8 sampai 10 minggu setelah perlakuan. Regenerasi kalus terbaik diperoleh pada medium 2,4-D 1,0 mg/l + kinetin 0,3 mg/l mengandung BA 0,3 mg/l dengan rata-rata tunas dan daun yang dihasilkan sebanyak 13,2 tunas dan 4,4 daun. Kata kunci : Keladi tikus, Typonium flagelliforme Lodd., induksi, regenerasi kalus, in vitro ABSTRACT Induction and regeneration of Rodent tuber calli through in vitro culture Rodent tuber plant (Typonium flagelliforme Lodd) is commonly propagated vegetatively, the repro its genetic variation is narrow. A research to increase the genetic variability of the plant was conducted in Tissue Culture Laboratory of the Indonesian Medicinal and Aromatic Research Institute, Bogor from April to December 2005. The leaf of Rodent tuber in vitro used as an explants. Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium used as basic medium, supplemented with vitamin from B group, sucrose 30 g/l was added into the medium as carbon source. The research consist of two steps : 1) calli induction and 2) calli regeneration. The treatment tested in first step : 2.4-D 0.1 mg/l; 2.4-D 0.5 mg/l; 2.4-D 1,0 mg/l; 2.4-D 0.1 + kinetin 0.1 mg/l; 2.4-D 0.5 mg/l + kinetin 0.1 mg/l; 2.4- D 1.0 mg/l + kinetin 0,1 mg/l; 2.4-D 0.1 mg/l + kinetin 0.3 mg/l; 2.4-D 0.5 mg/l + kinetin 0.3 mg/l and 2.4-D 1.0 mg/l + kinetin 0.3 mg/l. In the second steps, several concentration of BA were tested i.e: BA 0,1 mg/l ; BA 0,3 mg/l and BA 0,5 mg/l. The experiment was arranged in completely randomized design with factorial pattern. Each treatment consist of five replications. The parameters observed were time of calli initiation, texture, colour of calli and number of shoot and leaves in regeneration. The result showed that calli can be induced on 2.4-D 1.0 mg/l + kinetin 0.1 mg/l and 2.4-D 1.0 mg/l + kinetin 0.3 mg/l, eight to ten weeks after culture. The best medium for shoots regeneration contains 2.4- D 1.0 mg/l + kinetin 0.3 mg/l with 0.3 mg/l BA, with mean result of 13.2 shoots and 4.4 leaves. Key words : Rodent tuber, Typonium flagelliforme Lodd. bl , induction, regeneration, calli, in vitro

18 citations