Marie-Anne Bizouard^{1}, Patricio Maturana-Russel^{2}, Patricio Maturana-Russel^{3}, Alejandro Torres-Forné^{4} +7 more

Abstract: The eventual detection of gravitational waves from core-collapse supernovae (CCSNe) will help improve our current understanding of the explosion mechanism of massive stars. The stochastic nature of the late postbounce gravitational wave signal due to the nonlinear dynamics of the matter involved and the large number of degrees of freedom of the phenomenon make the source parameter inference problem very challenging. In this paper we take a step towards that goal and present a parameter estimation approach which is based on the gravitational waves associated with oscillations of protoneutron stars (PNS). Numerical simulations of CCSN have shown that buoyancy-driven $g$ modes are responsible for a significant fraction of the gravitational wave signal and their time-frequency evolution is linked to the physical properties of the compact remnant through universal relations. We use a set of 1D CCSN simulations to build a model that relates the evolution of the PNS properties with the frequency of the dominant $g$ mode, which is extracted from the gravitational-wave data using a new algorithm we have developed for our study. The model is used to infer the time evolution of a combination of the mass and the radius of the PNS. The performance of the method is estimated employing simulations of 2D CCSN waveforms covering a progenitor mass range between 11 and 40 solar masses and different equations of state. Considering signals embedded in Gaussian gravitational wave detector noise, we show that it is possible to infer PNS properties for a galactic source using Advanced LIGO and Advanced Virgo data at design sensitivities. Third generation detectors such as Einstein Telescope and Cosmic Explorer will allow us to test distances of $\mathcal{O}(100\text{ }\text{ }\mathrm{kpc})$.

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Topics: Gravitational wave (61%), Einstein Telescope (61%), Gravitational-wave observatory (60%) ... read more

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11 results found

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Abstract: Multi-dimensional fluid flow plays a paramount role in the explosions of massive stars as core-collapse supernovae. In recent years, three-dimensional (3D) simulations of these phenomena have matured significantly. Considerable progress has been made towards identifying the ingredients for shock revival by the neutrino-driven mechanism, and successful explosions have already been obtained in a number of self-consistent 3D models. These advances also bring new challenges, however. Prompted by a need for increased physical realism and meaningful model validation, supernova theory is now moving towards a more integrated view that connects multi-dimensional phenomena in the late convective burning stages prior to collapse, the explosion engine, and mixing instabilities in the supernova envelope. Here we review our current understanding of multi-D fluid flow in core-collapse supernovae and their progenitors. We start by outlining specific challenges faced by hydrodynamic simulations of core-collapse supernovae and of the late convective burning stages. We then discuss recent advances and open questions in theory and simulations.

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28 Citations

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Abstract: Astroparticle physics is undergoing a profound transformation, due to a series of extraordinary new results, such as the discovery of high-energy cosmic neutrinos with IceCube, the direct detection of gravitational waves with LIGO and Virgo, and many others. This white paper is the result of a collaborative effort that involved hundreds of theoretical astroparticle physicists and cosmologists, under the coordination of the European Consortium for Astroparticle Theory (EuCAPT). Addressed to the whole astroparticle physics community, it explores upcoming theoretical opportunities and challenges for our field of research, with particular emphasis on the possible synergies among different subfields, and the prospects for solving the most fundamental open questions with multi-messenger observations.

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Topics: Astroparticle physics (58%)

22 Citations

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Abstract: The next galactic core-collapse supernova (CCSN) has already exploded, and its electromagnetic (EM) waves, neutrinos, and gravitational waves (GWs) may arrive at any moment. We present an extensive study on the potential sensitivity of prospective detection scenarios for GWs from CCSNe within 5 Mpc, using realistic noise at the predicted sensitivity of the Advanced LIGO and Advanced Virgo detectors for 2015, 2017, and 2019. We quantify the detectability of GWs from CCSNe within the Milky Way and Large Magellanic Cloud, for which there will be an observed neutrino burst. We also consider extreme GW emission scenarios for more distant CCSNe with an associated EM signature. We find that a three-detector network at design sensitivity will be able to detect neutrino-driven CCSN explosions out to ∼5.5 kpc, while rapidly rotating core collapse will be detectable out to the Large Magellanic Cloud at 50 kpc. Of the phenomenological models for extreme GW emission scenarios considered in this study, such as long-lived bar-mode instabilities and disk fragmentation instabilities, all models considered will be detectable out to M31 at 0.77 Mpc, while the most extreme models will be detectable out to M82 at 3.52 Mpc and beyond.

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Topics: Gravitational-wave observatory (56%), Gravitational wave (53%)

8 Citations

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Abstract: We present 3D core-collapse supernova simulations of massive Population III progenitor stars at the transition to the pulsational pair instability regime. We simulate two progenitor models with initial masses of |$85$| and |$100\, \mathrm{M}_\odot$| with the LS220, SFHo, and SFHx equations of state. The |$85\, \mathrm{M}_{\odot }$| progenitor experiences a pair instability pulse coincident with core collapse, whereas the |$100\, \mathrm{M}_{\odot }$| progenitor has already gone through a sequence of four pulses |$1500$| yr before collapse in which it ejected its H and He envelope. The |$85\, \mathrm{M}_{\odot }$| models experience shock revival and then delayed collapse to a black hole (BH) due to ongoing accretion within hundreds of milliseconds. The diagnostic energy of the incipient explosion reaches up to |$2.7\times 10^{51}\, \mathrm{erg}$| in the SFHx model. Due to the high binding energy of the metal core, BH collapse by fallback is eventually unavoidable, but partial mass ejection may be possible. The |$100\, \mathrm{M}_\odot$| models have not achieved shock revival or undergone BH collapse by the end of the simulation. All models exhibit relatively strong gravitational-wave emission both in the high-frequency g-mode emission band and at low frequencies. The SFHx and SFHo models show clear emission from the standing accretion shock instability. For our models, we estimate maximum detection distances of up to |$\mathord {\sim }46\, \mathrm{kpc}$| with LIGO and |$\mathord {\sim } 850\, \mathrm{kpc}$| with Cosmic Explorer.

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Topics: Population (51%)

6 Citations

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Abstract: In the post-detection era of gravitational wave (GW) astronomy, core collapse supernovae (CCSN) are one of the most interesting potential sources of signals arriving at the Advanced LIGO detectors. Mukherjee et al. have developed and implemented a new method to search for GW signals from the CCSN search based on a multistage, high accuracy spectral estimation to effectively achieve higher detection signal to noise ratio (SNR). The study has been further enhanced by incorporation of a convolutional neural network (CNN) to significantly reduce false alarm rates (FAR). The combined pipeline is termed multilayer signal estimation (MuLaSE) that works in an integrative manner with the coherent wave burst (cWB) pipeline. In order to compare the performance of this new search pipeline, termed ``MuLaSECC'', with the cWB, an extensive analysis has been performed with two families of core collapse supernova waveforms corresponding to two different three dimensional (3D) general relativistic CCSN explosion models, viz. Kuroda 2017 and the Ott 2013. The performance of this pipeline has been characterized through receiver operating characteristics (ROC) and the reconstruction of the detected signals. The MuLaSECC is found to have higher efficiency in low false alarm range, a higher detection probability of weak signals and an improved reconstruction, especially in the lower frequency domain.

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Topics: LIGO (52%), Gravitational wave (51%), Signal-to-noise ratio (51%) ... read more

4 Citations

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70 results found

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Abstract: Advanced Virgo is the project to upgrade the Virgo interferometric detector of gravitational waves, with the aim of increasing the number of observable galaxies (and thus the detection rate) by three orders of magnitude. The project is now in an advanced construction phase and the assembly and integration will be completed by the end of 2015. Advanced Virgo will be part of a network, alongside the two Advanced LIGO detectors in the US and GEO HF in Germany, with the goal of contributing to the early detection of gravitational waves and to opening a new window of observation on the universe. In this paper we describe the main features of the Advanced Virgo detector and outline the status of the construction.

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Topics: LIGO (65%), GW151226 (65%), Interferometric gravitational wave detector (60%) ... read more

2,056 Citations

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Abstract: amount of energy, a tiny fraction of which is sufficient to explode the star as a supernova. The authors examine our current understanding of the lives and deaths of massive stars, with special attention to the relevant nuclear and stellar physics. Emphasis is placed upon their post-helium-burning evolution. Current views regarding the supernova explosion mechanism are reviewed, and the hydrodynamics of supernova shock propagation and ‘‘fallback’’ is discussed. The calculated neutron star masses, supernova light curves, and spectra from these model stars are shown to be consistent with observations. During all phases, particular attention is paid to the nucleosynthesis of heavy elements. Such stars are capable of producing, with few exceptions, the isotopes between mass 16 and 88 as well as a large fraction of still heavier elements made by the r and p processes.

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Topics: Supernova nucleosynthesis (63%), Neutron star (61%), Supernova (58%) ... read more

1,796 Citations

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Abstract: Advanced Virgo is the project to upgrade the Virgo interferometric detector of gravitational waves, with the aim of increasing the number of observable galaxies (and thus the detection rate) by three orders of magnitude. The project is now in an advanced construction phase and the assembly and integration will be completed by the end of 2015. Advanced Virgo will be part of a network with the two Advanced LIGO detectors in the US and GEO HF in Germany, with the goal of contributing to the early detections of gravitational waves and to opening a new observation window on the universe. In this paper we describe the main features of the Advanced Virgo detector and outline the status of the construction.

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Topics: LIGO (65%), GW151226 (65%), Interferometric gravitational wave detector (60%) ... read more

1,651 Citations

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Abstract: Perturbations of stars and black holes have been one of the main topics of relativistic astrophysics for the last few decades. They are of particular importance today, because of their relevance to gravitational wave astronomy. In this review we present the theory of quasi-normal modes of compact objects from both the mathematical and astrophysical points of view. The discussion includes perturbations of black holes (Schwarzschild, Reissner-Nordstrom, Kerr and Kerr-Newman) and relativistic stars (non-rotating and slowly-rotating). The properties of the various families of quasi-normal modes are described, and numerical techniques for calculating quasi-normal modes reviewed. The successes, as well as the limits, of perturbation theory are presented, and its role in the emerging era of numerical relativity and supercomputers is discussed.

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Topics: Numerical relativity (66%), Black hole (64%), Binary black hole (61%) ... read more

1,439 Citations