scispace - formally typeset

Influence of cytoplasmic-nuclear male sterility on agronomic performance of sorghum hybrids

S Ramesh1, Belum Vs Reddy1, P S Reddy, B. Ramaiah 
01 Jan 2006-

TL;DR: The results obtained allowed us to assess the significance or otherwise of cytoplasmic differences in respect of gca effects of the A-lines and the mean performance and sca effects ofThe hybrids by comparing with the least disadvantaged groups.

Abstractdays to 50% flowering, plant height, grain yield and 100grain weight (g). Statistical analysis. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) was carried out as per SSPD. The general combining ability (gca) effects of the parents and the specific combining ability (sca) effects of the crosses were estimated as per Kempthorne (1957). The significance or otherwise of cytoplasmic differences in respect of gca effects of the A-lines and the mean performance and sca effects of the hybrids was determined by comparing with the least

...read more

Content maybe subject to copyright    Report

Citations
More filters


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The status of diverse sterility-inducing cytoplasms and associated Rf factors reported across different field crops are reviewed along with exploring opportunities for integrating modern omics tools with CMS-based hybrid breeding.
Abstract: A comprehensive understanding of CMS/Rf system enabled by modern omics tools and technologies considerably improves our ability to harness hybrid technology for enhancing the productivity of field crops. Harnessing hybrid vigor or heterosis is a promising approach to tackle the current challenge of sustaining enhanced yield gains of field crops. In the context, cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS) owing to its heritable nature to manifest non-functional male gametophyte remains a cost-effective system to promote efficient hybrid seed production. The phenomenon of CMS stems from a complex interplay between maternally-inherited (mitochondrion) and bi-parental (nucleus) genomic elements. In recent years, attempts aimed to comprehend the sterility-inducing factors (orfs) and corresponding fertility determinants (Rf) in plants have greatly increased our access to candidate genomic segments and the cloned genes. To this end, novel insights obtained by applying state-of-the-art omics platforms have substantially enriched our understanding of cytoplasmic-nuclear communication. Concomitantly, molecular tools including DNA markers have been implicated in crop hybrid breeding in order to greatly expedite the progress. Here, we review the status of diverse sterility-inducing cytoplasms and associated Rf factors reported across different field crops along with exploring opportunities for integrating modern omics tools with CMS-based hybrid breeding.

147 citations


Cites background from "Influence of cytoplasmic-nuclear ma..."

  • ...2014; Touzet and Meyer 2014) as evident from a comparison of performance between A 9 R and B 9 R crosses (Ramesh et al. 2006); though instances have been reported where the sterile cytoplasm also exhibited pleiotropic effects on female fertility (Manickam et al....

    [...]

  • ...…2008; Fujii and Toriyama 2008; Lin et al. 2014; Touzet and Meyer 2014) as evident from a comparison of performance between A 9 R and B 9 R crosses (Ramesh et al. 2006); though instances have been reported where the sterile cytoplasm also exhibited pleiotropic effects on female fertility (Manickam…...

    [...]


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: This work mapped a major male fertility restoration locus on sorghum chromosome 4 tightly linked with SSR markers, SB2387 and SB2388, and identified six genes including a pentatricopeptide repeat (PPR) gene, Sobic that could be a candidate for fertility restoration on A1 and A2 cytoplasms.
Abstract: Of the several male sterility cytoplasms available as an alternative to the widely exploited A1 (milo) cytoplasm in sorghum, A2 is more suitable for commercial exploitation. Diversification of genetic and cytoplasmic base of hybrids involving A2 cytoplasm necessitates mapping of fertility restorer (Rf) genes for use in marker-assisted restorer development. We mapped a major male fertility restoration locus on sorghum chromosome 4 tightly linked with SSR markers, SB2387 and SB2388. This new fertility locus, Rf6, was able to restore male fertility on both A1 and A2 cytoplasms. Analysis of the genomic region around the Rf6 locus identified six genes including a pentatricopeptide repeat (PPR) gene, Sobic.004G004100. With its similar restoration ability to Rf1, Rf2 and Rf5 loci in sorghum, it is most likely that the Rf6 is a member of the PPR gene family, and the PPR gene Sobic.004G004100 could be a candidate for fertility restoration on A1 and A2 cytoplasms.

9 citations


Dissertation
01 Jul 2016
TL;DR: The analysis of variance for experimental design revealed that the mean squares due to genotypes, parents and hybrids were highly significant for all the characters indicating that experimental material had sufficient genetic variability for all of the characters.
Abstract: Sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.), Moench] has ability to grow in poor soil, faster growth habit, high yielding, palatable, nutritious quality and uniform green fodder yield throughout the year. The experimental material comprised of three cytoplasmic male sterile lines used as female parents, 12 genotypes used as male parents and resultant 36 F1s developed in a Line x Tester fashion and one standard check hybrid (CSH 13) were evaluated in a randomized block design with three replications at Main Sorghum Research Station, Navsari Agricultural University, Surat during kharif-2015. The observations were recorded for eleven characters viz. days to 50% flower, plant height, number of leaves per plant, leaf length, leaf width, stem girth, leaf: stem ratio, TSS%, HCN content, green and dry fodder yield per plant. The objectives of this investigation were to elicit information on heterosis, combining ability and gene action. The analysis of variance for experimental design revealed that the mean squares due to genotypes, parents and hybrids were highly significant for all the characters indicating that experimental material had sufficient genetic variability for all the characters. The variance due to Parent Vs hybrids was found highly significant for all the characters except HCN content indicating substantial amount of heterosis. The mean performance of parents revealed that none of the parents showed consistent superior performance for all the traits. Among females, AKMS 14A and 2219A while among males, CSV 21F, SRF 305, GFS 5, GFS 3 and

7 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The data obtained indicate that different types of sterile cytoplasm of sorghum make a different contribution to CA under conditions of drought stress.
Abstract: Investigation of the effect of the cytoplasm on the combining ability (CA) of lines with cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS) is of considerable interest in terms of understanding the genetic functions of the cytoplasm and for practical purposes to create hybrids with improved economically valuable traits. In order to investigate the effect of different types of sterile cytoplasm (A3, A4, 9E) on CA in sorghum, we studied the manifestation of a number of biological and agronomic traits in 54 F1 hybrid combinations obtained using iso-nuclear CMS lines with the nuclear genome of the line Zheltozernoye 10, differing only in the types of sterile cytoplasm (A3, A4 and 9E). Eighteen varieties and lines of grain sorghum developed at the Russian Research and Project-technological Institute of Sorghum and Maize were used as paternal parents. The CA was determined by the topcross method. F1 hybrids and their parents were grown in 2015-2017 in conditions of insufficient (2015-2016: HTC (hydro-thermal coefficient) = 0.32-0.66), or good water availability conditions (2017: HTC = 1.00). On average, for three years of testing, a positive effect of the 9E cytoplasm on the general combining ability (GCA) (0.63) and negative effects of the A3 and A4 cytoplasms (-0.32 and -0.31) for the inflorescence length were noted. In dry seasons, significant positive effects of the 9E cytoplasm on GCA for the length of the largest leaf, and positive effects of the A3 cytoplasm on GCA for the plant height, and negative effects of the A4 cytoplasm on GCA for these traits were observed. No differences were observed during the wet season. The type of CMS did not affect the GCA for the width of the largest leaf and grain yield. The dispersion of specific combining ability (SCA) in the dry seasons was significant for the following traits: leaf length, plant height, panicle length and width, and grain yield, the 9E cytoplasm had the highest SCA dispersion, whereas the A4 cytoplasm had the smallest one. The data obtained indicate that different types of sterile cytoplasm of sorghum make a different contribution to CA under conditions of drought stress.

3 citations


Additional excerpts

  • ...…on the general combining ability (GCA) of CMS lines for the duration of the seedlingflowering interphase period, grain yield, grain weight per panicle and 100 grains, in comparison with A1 cytoplasm, has been described (Kishan, Borikar, 1989; Ramesh et al., 2006; Reddy et al., 2007, 2009)....

    [...]

  • ...In sorghum, the influence of the cytoplasm type on GCA for grain yield and mass of 100 grains was previously noted in the study of Indian researchers, while cytoplasm A2 had an advantage over A1 and A4 cytoplasms (Kishan, Borikar, 1989; Ramesh et al., 2006; Reddy et al., 2007, 2009)....

    [...]

  • ...The positive effect of A2 cytoplasm on the general combining ability (GCA) of CMS lines for the duration of the seedlingflowering interphase period, grain yield, grain weight per panicle and 100 grains, in comparison with A1 cytoplasm, has been described (Kishan, Borikar, 1989; Ramesh et al., 2006; Reddy et al., 2007, 2009)....

    [...]


References
More filters

Book
01 Jan 1957

1,668 citations


Journal ArticleDOI

581 citations


"Influence of cytoplasmic-nuclear ma..." refers methods in this paper

  • ...The general combining ability (gca) effects of the parents and the specific combining ability (sca) effects of the crosses were estimated as per Kempthorne (1957). The significance or otherwise of cytoplasmic differences in respect of gca effects of the A-lines and the mean performance and sca effects of the hybrids was determined by comparing with the least significant difference (LSD)....

    [...]


Book ChapterDOI
02 Nov 2015
TL;DR: The purpose of this analysis will be to show how hybrids and heterosis can help to supply food for burgeoning populations and also help to improve environmental health of the global food production system.
Abstract: Hybrid vigor, or heterosis, usually refers to the increase in size or rate of growth of offspring over parents; for example, hybrid vigor in crop plants can be observed as in increase in yield of grain, or reduction in number of days to flower. Heterosis in plants has been utilized on large scale for the past 75 years, as carefully selected and reproduced hybrid cultivars. Field crops such as maize, sorghum and sunflower are produced as hybrids in all of the industrialized world; they also are grown as hybrids in increasing amounts in the developing world. Hybrid rice is grown extensively in China, and increasingly in India (Virmani, 1994). Many commercial vegetable and flower crops are grown almost entirely as hybrids. Heterosis is credited for large increases in production per unit area, thus sparing large amounts of land for other uses such as environmentally benign nature preserves. Examination of the historical record suggests that the major gift of heterosis was its stimulation of interest in the entire system of breeding and use of hybrid crops, rather than a simple exploitation of hybrid vigor per se. Development and use of hybrid seeds can enhance crop yields and performance in ways that are different from and not necessarily dependent on heterosis by itself. This essay will examine the historical record on utilization of hybrids to exploit heterosis in some of the major field crops, discuss the present use of heterosis and hybrids, and attempt to predict how heterosis and hybrids may be used in the future. The purpose of this analysis will be to show how hybrids and heterosis can help to supply food for burgeoning populations and also help to improve environmental health of the global food production system.

271 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: All possible crosses between heterozygous (Msms) Day, Double Dwarf Yellow Sooner milo and Texas Blackhull kafir were made to determine if cytoplasmic factors might account for the F, male-sterility in the combination of msms Day x kafIR, and the evidence indicated that theF, sterility was genetic rather than cytop lasmic.
Abstract: NVES'TIGATIONS with three-way crosses as a method 1 for hybrid sorghum seed production have been reported previ~usly.~ All possible crosses between heterozygous (Msms) Day, Double Dwarf Yellow Sooner milo and Texas Blackhull kafir were made to determine if cytoplasmic factors might account for the F, male-sterility in the combination of msms Day x kafir. The evidence indicated that the F, sterility was genetic rather than cytoplasmic. The F, plants of milo x kafir and its reciprocal grown in 1949 were fully fertile. However, some partial male-sterility was observed the following year in small F, populations of milo x kafir but not in the reciprocal cross, kafir x milo. The defective anthers in partially male-sterile panicles were somewhat longer than those typical of malesterile Day. In the same year, in certain progenies of ms Day x kafir, F, male-sterile, crossed with various combine kafirs, some rows segregated in a ratio of approximately one fertile to one male-sterile as expected. However, most of the plants in other rows were sterile or partially sterile. Part of the plants in rows having excess male-sterility had the long, pinched-appearing anthers observed in the F,2 plants of milo x kafir. Since Day is derived from milo and presumably has milo cytoplasm, it was reasoned that the unexpected sterility might be accounted for if some degree of cytoplasmic male-sterility was being expressed in part of the populatioas. N o seed stocks of cytoplasmic male-sterile lines for distribution to producers have been developed but the results obtained 1:hrough 1952 warrant a preliminary report. Considerable interest in this material has been shown by visitors who have inspected the experiments in progress at this Station.

189 citations


"Influence of cytoplasmic-nuclear ma..." refers background in this paper

  • ...The discovery of a cytoplasmic-nuclear male-sterility(CMS) system (Stephens and Holland 1954) [designatedas A1 (milo)] has led to the commercial exploitation ofheterosis of F1 hybrids in sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.)Moench]....

    [...]