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Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1038/S41598-021-84458-5

Influence of intra and inter species variation in chilies (Capsicum spp.) on metabolite composition of three fruit segments.

02 Mar 2021-Scientific Reports (Nature Publishing Group)-Vol. 11, Iss: 1, pp 4932-4932
Abstract: Twenty-one different cultivars from four different species were examined. The highest dry weight was present in seeds (between 35 and 50%) and the average water content was 60%. Placenta and pericarp contained on average 86% water. Total sugars variation between species was 60%. The most concentrated in the various cultivar pericarps were ascorbic acid ranging from 368.1 to 2105.6 mg/100 g DW and citric acid ranging from 1464.3 to 9479.9 mg/100 g DW. Total phenolic content ranged from 2599.1 mg/100 DW in ‘Chilli AS- Rot’ to 7766.7 mg/100 g DW in 'Carolina Reaper'. The placenta had 23.5 times higher phenolic content than seeds. C. chinense and C. chinense × C. frutescens had 3.5 to 5 times higher capsaicinoid content compared to C. annuum and C. baccatum, with 'Carolina Reaper' having the highest content at 7334.3 mg/100 g DW and 'Chilli AS- Rot' the lowest (318.7 mg/100 g DW).

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Topics: Ascorbic acid (54%)
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5 results found


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.3390/BIOLOGY10060535
Aljaz Medic1, Jerneja Jakopic1, Anita Solar1, Metka Hudina1  +1 moreInstitutions (1)
15 Jun 2021-Biology
Abstract: The present study was designed to identify and quantify the major phenolic compounds (phenolics) in the inner and outer husks, buds and bark of the Persian walnut, Juglans regia L. A comparison across six different cultivars grown in Slovenia was also carried out: ‘Fernor’, ‘Fernette’, ‘Franquette’, ‘Sava’, ‘Krka’ and ‘Rubina’. A total of 83 compounds were identified, which included 25 naphthoquinones, 15 hydroxycinnamic acids, 8 hydroxybenzoic acids, 13 flavanols, 2 flavones, 1 flavanone and 19 flavonols. For the first time, 38 phenolics in the husks, 57 phenolics in the buds and 29 phenolics in the bark were presented in J. regia within this study. Naphthoquinones were the major phenolics determined, approximately 75% of all analysed phenolics in the inner husk, 85% in the outer husk, 50% in buds and 80% in bark. The highest content of phenolics was found in the walnut buds, followed by the bark, the inner husk and the outer husk. On the basis of these high phenolic contents, walnut husks, buds and bark represented valuable by-products of the walnut tree. These data also show origin-related phenolic contents across the cultivars, and thus these phenolic profiles might serve to define the origins of different walnut cultivars.

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Topics: Juglans (55%), Bark (54%), Flavonols (52%) ... read more

3 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.3390/HORTICULTURAE7080212
26 Jul 2021-Horticulturae
Abstract: The brown marmorated stink bug (BMSB; Halyomorpha halys Stal.) has become a significant pest in Slovenia, especially in apple, pear, peach, and cherry orchards. In our study, apple fruit of the apple cultivar ‘Red Pinova’ were evaluated for visual injury and sugar, organic acid, and phenolic contents. The chemical composition of the area around the puncture wound, the uninjured part of the infested apple, was compared to, as a control, only uninjured apples. There was a significant response of the apple around the puncture wound, resulting in an 11.9 g/kg FW higher total sugar content, a 1.4 g/kg FW lower total organic acid content, and an 11.9 g/kg FW higher total phenolic content compared with control apples. A strong phenolic response in the puncture wound area, with high flavanol and hydroxycinnamic acid contents, with increases of 118% and 237%, respectively, compared with control apples, was detected. The brown marmorated stink bug induces a strong phenolic response in the injured area of the apple. The results of this study illustrated how apple fruit responds to the BMSB injury, not only sensorily (visual injury, odor), but also chemically in the form of metabolic responses.

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Topics: Brown marmorated stink bug (64%), Malus (58%)

1 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.3390/AGRONOMY11112252
08 Nov 2021-Agronomy
Abstract: Halyomorpha halys is an important invasive pest that causes severe damage to fruits and vegetables. Peppers are susceptible to infestation by H. halys, resulting in yield losses. Plants respond to the insect infestation with a metabolic response. With this study, we attempted to determine the intensity of the metabolic response of infested peppers, how pungent and non-pungent peppers react to the infestation, and how the H. halys affects the post-harvest quality of both cultivars. The shelf life of the infested peppers did not change compared to the control treatments. We observed a drastic decrease in metabolite levels after storage in all three treatments in both cultivars, especially capsaicinoids, with an approximate decrease of 30% in the pericarp and 95% in the placenta of the pungent ‘Eris F1’. In some cases, the accumulation of metabolites was not limited to the fruit exposed to the H. halys infestation, but to the entire plant. We observed a 15-fold increase in capsaicinoid content in the infested fruits of cultivar ‘Eris F1’ and a 4-fold increase in the pericarp of cultivar ‘Lombardo tago’, which could lead to a possible further study on the defensive function of capsaicinoids and their use against H. halys.

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Topics: Brown marmorated stink bug (54%), Infestation (51%)

Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/J.AGWAT.2021.107304
Abstract: Greenhouse production of chilies requires constant irrigation and fertilization. Due to climate change, water availability is decreasing, and thus new techniques are being developed, one of which is deficit irrigation, also applied in controlled conditions, such as greenhouse production This allows us to improve yield quality with minimal or no reduction in yield with optimal water use. Nitrogen is an important macronutrient whose uptake can be hindered under deficit irrigation because deficit is a form of drought stress. In the pot experiment, two chili cultivars were tested to see how they responded to water deficit irrigation treatments compared to the field capacity treatment with peat substrate. Nitrogen fertilization, with the addition of the isotope 15N, was applied to all treatments. Seeds and leaves contained the most total nitrogen in both cultivars, followed by placenta. N utilization from fertilization was 3.32% at field capacity and 2.33% under deficit irrigation in 'Chili-AS Rot'. 'Naga Morich' utilized 4.58% of N from fertilizer under field capacity and 6.72% under deficit irrigation. Capsaicinoid content was strongly correlated with nitrogen content in both cultivars irrespective of irrigation regime. This study fills an important gap in our understanding of N assimilation, fertilization, and irrigation in chili plants. It shows that there is no universal rule for N absorption under different irrigation conditions in chili plants and that the right choice of cultivar and species is crucial for optimal and high-quality chili fruit production.

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Topics: Deficit irrigation (67%), Irrigation (57%), Field capacity (53%) ... read more

Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1186/S40538-021-00260-5
Abstract: Biostimulants, such as algae extracts or amino acids, are becoming more common in agriculture because the mentality is to make plants more resistant or tolerant to negative environmental factors, rather than using synthetic chemicals (herbicides, insecticides and fungicides), whose use is decreasing year by year, forcing farmers and companies to develop new environmentally friendly products. In a field experiment, green algae and amino acids were tested as biostimulants on three hot pepper cultivars. A large variability was observed between the effects of the two biostimulants on the cultivars. Green algae-treated ‘Somborka’ and ‘Habanero Red Caribbean’ cultivars had 10% and 5% higher dry matter in seeds compared to control treatment. Total sugar content was negatively affected by green algae extract and amino acids in pericarp in cultivars ‘Chili AS-Red’ and ‘Habanero Red Caribbean’. Total organic acids content was positively affected by amino acid treatment in ‘Habanero Red Caribbean’ pericarp and placenta, with an increase of 5.5 g and 2.1 g/100 g DW, respectively. In terms of total phenolics, all three cultivars were positively affected by amino acid treatment, but not in each fruit part. In terms of capsaicinoid content, the greatest effect of the two stimulants was on ‘Somborka’, which varied from four (pericarp, seed) to 16 (placenta) times compared to the control. Amino acid extract decreased ‘Habanero Red Caribbean’ capsaicinoid content in placenta by about 40%. Amino acids were found to be superior to algal extract, although the effect of both was mostly cultivar specific. For a wider use of biostimulants, it should first be tested whether they are suitable for the cultivar in order to increase and optimize the results.

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Topics: Cultivar (50%)
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Open accessJournal Article
01 Jan 2014-MSOR connections
Abstract: Copyright (©) 1999–2012 R Foundation for Statistical Computing. Permission is granted to make and distribute verbatim copies of this manual provided the copyright notice and this permission notice are preserved on all copies. Permission is granted to copy and distribute modified versions of this manual under the conditions for verbatim copying, provided that the entire resulting derived work is distributed under the terms of a permission notice identical to this one. Permission is granted to copy and distribute translations of this manual into another language, under the above conditions for modified versions, except that this permission notice may be stated in a translation approved by the R Core Team.

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Topics: R Programming Language (78%)

229,202 Citations


Book ChapterDOI: 10.1016/S0076-6879(99)99017-1
Abstract: Publisher Summary This chapter discusses the analysis of total phenols and other oxidation substrates and antioxidants by means of Folin-Ciocalteu reagent. Analyses of the Folin-Ciocalteu (FC) type are convenient, simple, and require only common equipment and have produced a large body of comparable data. Under proper conditions, the assay is inclusive of monophenols and gives predictable reactions with the types of phenols found in nature. Because different phenols react to different degrees, expression of the results as a single number—such as milligrams per liter gallic acid equivalence—is necessarily arbitrary. Because the reaction is independent, quantitative, and predictable, analysis of a mixture of phenols can be recalculated in terms of any other standard. The assay measures all compounds readily oxidizable under the reaction conditions and its very inclusiveness allows certain substances to also react that are either not phenols or seldom thought of as phenols (e.g., proteins). Judicious use of the assay—with consideration of potential interferences in particular samples and prior study if necessary—can lead to very informative results. Aggregate analysis of this type is an important supplement to and often more informative than reems of data difficult to summarize from various techniques, such as high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) that separate a large number of individual compounds .The predictable reaction of components in a mixture makes it possible to determine a single reactant by other means and to calculate its contribution to the total FC phenol content. Relative insensitivity of the FC analysis to many adsorbents and precipitants makes differential assay—before and after several different treatments—informative.

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Topics: Folin–Ciocalteu reagent (52%), Reagent (51%)

11,904 Citations


Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1021/JF035331K
Abstract: Four cultivars (Bronowicka Ostra, Cyklon, Tornado, and Tajfun) of pepper fruit Capsicum annuum L. were studied for phenolics contents and antioxidant activity. Two fractions of phenolics, flavonoids (with phenolic acids) and capsaicinoids, were isolated from the pericarp of pepper fruit at two growth stages (green and red) and were studied for their antioxidant capacity. Both fractions from red fruits had higher activities than those from green fruits. A comparison of the capsaicinoid fraction with the flavonoid and phenolic acid fraction from red fruit with respect to their antioxidant activity gave similar results. Phenolic compounds were separated and quantified by LC and HPLC. Contents of nine compounds were determined in the flavonoid and phenolic acid fraction: trans-p-feruloyl-β-d-glucopyranoside, trans-p-sinapoyl-β-d-glucopyranoside, quercetin 3-O-α-l-rhamnopyranoside-7-O-β-d-glucopyranoside, trans-p-ferulyl alcohol-4-O-[6-(2-methyl-3-hydroxypropionyl] glucopyranoside, luteolin 6-C-β-d-glucopyran...

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Topics: Phenolic acid (62%), Pepper (53%), Phenols (51%) ... read more

544 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.3390/MOLECULES21101374
Derong Lin1, Mengshi Xiao1, Jingjing Zhao1, Zhuohao Li1  +10 moreInstitutions (2)
15 Oct 2016-Molecules
Abstract: In this paper, the biosynthesis process of phenolic compounds in plants is summarized, which includes the shikimate, pentose phosphate and phenylpropanoid pathways. Plant phenolic compounds can act as antioxidants, structural polymers (lignin), attractants (flavonoids and carotenoids), UV screens (flavonoids), signal compounds (salicylic acid and flavonoids) and defense response chemicals (tannins and phytoalexins). From a human physiological standpoint, phenolic compounds are vital in defense responses, such as anti-aging, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant and anti-proliferative activities. Therefore, it is beneficial to eat such plant foods that have a high antioxidant compound content, which will cut down the incidence of certain chronic diseases, for instance diabetes, cancers and cardiovascular diseases, through the management of oxidative stress. Furthermore, berries and other fruits with low-amylase and high-glucosidase inhibitory activities could be regarded as candidate food items in the control of the early stages of hyperglycemia associated with type 2 diabetes.

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Topics: Phenylpropanoid (51%)

408 Citations


Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1021/JF020614I
Shiow Y. Wang1, Wei Zheng1, Gene J. Galletta1Institutions (1)
Abstract: Cultural system [hill plasticulture (HC) versus matted row (MR)] and genotype interactions affected strawberry fruit quality. In general, fruit soluble solids content, total sugar, fructose, glucose, ascorbic acid, titratable acid, and citric acid contents were increased in the HC system. Fruit from HC also had higher flavonoid contents and antioxidant capacities. Strawberry fruit contains flavonols as well as other phenolic compounds such as anthocyanins and phenolic acids. Pelargonidin-based anthocyanins such as pelargonidin 3-glucoside, pelargonidin 3-rutinoside, and pelargonidin 3-glucoside-succinate were the predominant anthocyanins in strawberry fruit. The content of cyanidin-based anthocyanins, cyanidin 3-glucoside and cyanidin 3-glucoside-succinate, was much lower than that of pelargonidin-based anthocyanins in either system. Strawberry fruit from the HC system had significantly higher amounts of p-coumaroylglucose, dihydroflavonol, quercetin 3-glucoside, quercetin 3-glucuronide, kaempferol 3-glucoside, kaempferol 3-glucuronide, cyanidin 3-glucoside, pelargonidin 3-glucoside, pelargonidin 3-rutinoside, cyanidin 3-glucoside-succinate, and pelargonidin 3-glucoside-succinate. Fruits from plants grown in the MR system generally had the lowest contents of phenolic acids, flavonols, and anthocyanins. Strawberry fruit grown under HC conditions had significantly higher peroxyl radicals (ROO*) absorbance capacity (ORAC).

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Topics: Pelargonidin (68%), Anthocyanin (60%), Cyanidin (56%) ... read more

252 Citations


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