scispace - formally typeset
SciSpace - Your AI assistant to discover and understand research papers | Product Hunt

Journal ArticleDOI

Influence of organ site and tumor cell type on MUC1-specific tumor immunity.

01 Feb 2001-International Immunology (Oxford University Press)-Vol. 13, Iss: 2, pp 233-240

TL;DR: It is shown that it is more difficult to produce immune responses to tumors growing at the pancreatic site than the s.c.C.Tg mice, and immune responses evoked by presentation of MUC1 in wild-type mice were effective in rejecting tumor cells in the pancreas of both wild- type and M UC1.

AbstractWe investigated the influence of organ-specific parameters on tolerance and immunity to human MUC1. C57Bl/6 mice (wild-type) and C57Bl/6 transgenic for MUC1 (MUC1.Tg) were challenged in the pancreas with Panc02-MUC1, a C57Bl/6-syngeneic pancreatic cancer cell line expressing human MUC1. Wild-type mice produced immune responses to MUC1 when presented on tumor cells growing in the pancreas; however, the responses to tumors in the pancreas were less effective than responses produced by tumor challenge at the s.c. site. Tumor immunity specific for MUC1 was produced in wild-type mice by two different procedures: (i) s.c. immunization of wild-type mice with a low dose of Panc02-MUC1 or (ii) adoptive transfer of spleen and lymph node cells harvested from wild-type mice previously immunized s.c. with Panc02-MUC1. This demonstrates that immune responses to MUC1 presented at the s.c. site can be detected and adoptively transferred. MUC1.Tg mice were immunologically tolerant to MUC1; however, some immunological protection against orthotopic challenge with Panc02-MUC1 was conferred by adoptive transfer of CD4+ and CD8+ T cells from wild-type mice. These results show that it is more difficult to produce immune responses to tumors growing at the pancreatic site than the s.c. site. Panc02-MUC1 cells growing in the pancreas were accessible to the immune system, and immune responses evoked by s.c. presentation of this molecule in wild-type mice were effective in rejecting tumor cells in the pancreas of both wild-type and MUC1.Tg mice. No effective anti-tumor immune responses against MUC1 were produced in MUC1.Tg mice.

Topics: Acquired immune system (60%), Immune system (59%), Adoptive cell transfer (57%), Immunity (53%), Pancreatic cancer (53%)

...read more

Content maybe subject to copyright    Report

Citations
More filters


Journal Article
TL;DR: Data suggest that endogenous expression of MUC1 protein by M UC1 transgenic mice induces T-cell tolerance to stimulation by MUC2, and will facilitate the investigation of anti-MUC1 immunotherapy formulations.
Abstract: The human epithelial mucin, MUC1, is a large transmembrane glycoprotein that is expressed on most simple epithelia. It is overexpressed and aberrantly glycosylated on many human epithelial tumors, including more than 90% of human breast cancers. MUC1 is of interest as an immunotherapy target because patients with breast, ovarian, and pancreatic cancers have T lymphocytes in their tumor-draining lymph nodes that can be induced to recognize and lyse MUC1-expressing tumor cells. We have produced a transgenic mouse model that expresses the human MUC1 molecule on an inbred C57Bl/6 background to investigate the effect of endogenous expression of MUC1 on the ability of mice to generate antitumor immunity to MUC1-expressing tumors. Transgenic mice expressed the human transgene in a pattern and level consistent with that observed in humans. Transgenic mice were tolerant to stimulation by MUC1 as evidenced by the ability of MUC1-expressing tumor cells to grow in these mice, whereas MUC1-expressing cells were eliminated from wild-type mice. Moreover, transgenic mice immunized with MUC1 peptides failed to exhibit immunoglobulin class switching to the IgG subtypes. These data suggest that endogenous expression of MUC1 protein by MUC1 transgenic mice induces T-cell tolerance to stimulation by MUC1. The transgenic mice will provide a useful model to investigate the mechanisms that regulate immunological tolerance to tumor antigens and will facilitate the investigation of anti-MUC1 immunotherapy formulations.

193 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
Miho Akimoto1, Mari Iizuka1, Rie Kanematsu1, Masato Yoshida1, Keizo Takenaga1 
11 May 2015-PLOS ONE
TL;DR: It is demonstrated that ginger extract has potent anticancer activity against pancreatic cancer cells by inducing ROS-mediated autosis and warrants further investigation in order to develop an efficacious candidate drug.
Abstract: The extract of ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe) and its major pungent components, [6]-shogaol and [6]-gingerol, have been shown to have an anti-proliferative effect on several tumor cell lines. However, the anticancer activity of the ginger extract in pancreatic cancer is poorly understood. Here, we demonstrate that the ethanol-extracted materials of ginger suppressed cell cycle progression and consequently induced the death of human pancreatic cancer cell lines, including Panc-1 cells. The underlying mechanism entailed autosis, a recently characterized form of cell death, but not apoptosis or necroptosis. The extract markedly increased the LC3-II/LC3-I ratio, decreased SQSTM1/p62 protein, and enhanced vacuolization of the cytoplasm in Panc-1 cells. It activated AMPK, a positive regulator of autophagy, and inhibited mTOR, a negative autophagic regulator. The autophagy inhibitors 3-methyladenine and chloroquine partially prevented cell death. Morphologically, however, focal membrane rupture, nuclear shrinkage, focal swelling of the perinuclear space and electron dense mitochondria, which are unique morphological features of autosis, were observed. The extract enhanced reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, and the antioxidant N-acetylcystein attenuated cell death. Our study revealed that daily intraperitoneal administration of the extract significantly prolonged survival (P = 0.0069) in a peritoneal dissemination model and suppressed tumor growth in an orthotopic model of pancreatic cancer (P < 0.01) without serious adverse effects. Although [6]-shogaol but not [6]-gingerol showed similar effects, chromatographic analyses suggested the presence of other constituent(s) as active substances. Together, these results show that ginger extract has potent anticancer activity against pancreatic cancer cells by inducing ROS-mediated autosis and warrants further investigation in order to develop an efficacious candidate drug.

100 citations


Additional excerpts

  • ...Panc02 cells were kindly provided by Dr. T. Hollingsworth, University of Nebraska Medical Center [19, 20]....

    [...]

  • ...Hollingsworth, University of Nebraska Medical Center [19, 20]....

    [...]


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: It is indicated that prophylactic vaccination with dendritic/tumor fusion cells confers sufficient antitumor immunity to counter the tumorigenesis of potent oncogenic products.
Abstract: Genetically modified mice with spontaneous development of mammary carcinoma provide a powerful tool to study the efficacy of tumor vaccines, since they mimic breast cancer development in humans. We used a transgenic murine model expressing polyomavirus middle T oncogene and mucin 1 tumor-associated Ag to determine the preventive effect of a dendritic/tumor fusion cell vaccine. The MMT (a transgenic murine model) mice developed mammary carcinoma between the ages of 65-108 days with 100% penetrance. No spontaneous CTL were detected. However, prophylactic vaccination of MMT mice with dendritic/tumor fusion cells induced polyclonal CTL activity against spontaneous mammary carcinoma cells and rendered 57-61% of the mice free of the disease at the end of experiment (180 days). Furthermore, the level of CTL activity was maintained with multiple vaccinations. The antitumor immunity induced by vaccination with dendritic/tumor fusion cells reacted differently to injected tumor cells and autochthonous tumor. Whereas the injected tumor cells were rejected, the autochthonous tumor evaded the attack and was allowed to grow. Collectively these results indicate that prophylactic vaccination with dendritic/tumor fusion cells confers sufficient antitumor immunity to counter the tumorigenesis of potent oncogenic products. The findings in the present study are highly relevant to cancers in humans.

82 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Results indicate that immunization with FC/MUC1 can generate an anti‐M UC1 response that is sufficient to delay the development of spontaneous mammary carcinomas and control tumour progression in MMT mice.
Abstract: Summary The tumour-associated antigen mucin 1 (MUC1) is a multifunctional protein involved in protection of mucous membranes, signal transduction, and modulation of the immune system. More than 70% of cancers overexpress MUC1, making MUC1 a potential target for immunotherapy. In the present study, MUC1 transgenic mice were crossed with syngeneic strains that express the polyomavirus middle-T oncogene (PyMT) driven by the mouse mammary tumour virus promoter long-terminal repeat (MMTV-LTR). The resultant breed (MMT mice) developed spontaneous MUC1-expressing mammary carcinomas with 100% penetrance at 8–15 weeks of age. As found in human breast cancer, the mammary carcinoma in MMT mice arose in multiple stages. Immunization with fusions of dendritic cells and MUC1-positive tumour cells (FC/MUC1) induced MUC1-specific immune responses that blocked or delayed the development of spontaneous breast carcinomas. In contrast, there was no delay of tumour development in MMT mice immunized with irradiated MC38/MUC1 tumour cells. The efficacy of fusion cells was closely correlated with the timing of initial immunization. Immunization with FC/MUC1 initiated in MMT mice at < 1, 1–2 and 2–3 months of age rendered 33, 5 and 0% of mice free of tumour, respectively, up to 6 months. Whereas mice immunized in the later stage of tumour development succumbed to their disease, immunization resulted in control of tumour progression and prolongation of life. These results indicate that immunization with FC/MUC1 can generate an anti-MUC1 response that is sufficient to delay the development of spontaneous mammary carcinomas and control tumour progression in MMT mice.

69 citations


References
More filters

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The results have important implications for the clinical use of genetically modified tumor cells as therapeutic cancer vaccines and the levels of anti-tumor immunity reported previously in cytokine gene transfer studies involving live, transduced cells could be achieved through the use of irradiated cells alone.
Abstract: To compare the ability of different cytokines and other molecules to enhance the immunogenicity of tumor cells, we generated 10 retroviruses encoding potential immunomodulators and studied the vaccination properties of murine tumor cells transduced by the viruses. Using a B16 melanoma model, in which irradiated tumor cells alone do not stimulate significant anti-tumor immunity, we found that irradiated tumor cells expressing murine granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) stimulated potent, long-lasting, and specific anti-tumor immunity, requiring both CD4+ and CD8+ cells. Irradiated cells expressing interleukins 4 and 6 also stimulated detectable, but weaker, activity. In contrast to the B16 system, we found that in a number of other tumor models, the levels of anti-tumor immunity reported previously in cytokine gene transfer studies involving live, transduced cells could be achieved through the use of irradiated cells alone. Nevertheless, manipulation of the vaccine or challenge doses made it possible to demonstrate the activity of murine GM-CSF in those systems as well. Overall, our results have important implications for the clinical use of genetically modified tumor cells as therapeutic cancer vaccines.

2,790 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Detailed studies performed with one of the cytotoxic T-cell lines from pancreatic cancer patients show that it recognizes a specific antigen, a large and heavily glycosylated mucin molecule, expressed on pancreatic and breast tumors and tumor cell lines.
Abstract: We have previously reported the establishment of cytotoxic T-cell lines from pancreatic cancer patients, by continuously stimulating tumor-draining lymph node cells with allogeneic pancreatic tumor cell lines. After the preliminary characterization of their phenotype and tumor specificity, detailed studies performed with one of the cell lines, W.D., show that it recognizes a specific antigen, a large and heavily glycosylated mucin molecule, expressed on pancreatic and breast tumors and tumor cell lines. Although this recognition appears major histocompatibility complex (MHC)-unrestricted, the antigen receptor used by the cytotoxic T cell is the alpha/beta heterodimer, typically found on MHC-restricted T cells. The target antigen is atypical, however, in its ability to directly bind and activate the T cells in the absence of self MHC, presumably by abundant and regularly repeated antigenic epitopes. These findings are important because they demonstrate a specific T-cell response against a human tumor-associated antigen. In addition to pancreatic and breast tumors, various mucin molecules are known to be produced by other tumors of epithelial cell origin and could be expected to stimulate similar T-cell-mediated immune responses.

475 citations


Journal Article
TL;DR: This Phase I study demonstrated the feasibility, safety, and bioactivity of an autologous GM-CSF gene-transduced tumor vaccine for RCC patients.
Abstract: Granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) gene-transduced, irradiated tumor vaccines induce potent, T-cell-mediated antitumor immune responses in preclinical models. We report the initial results of a Phase I trial evaluating this strategy for safety and the induction of immune responses in patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma (RCC). Patients were treated in a randomized, double-blind dose-escalation study with equivalent doses of autologous, irradiated RCC vaccine cells with or without ex vivo human GM-CSF gene transfer. The replication-defective retroviral vector MFG was used for GM-CSF gene transfer. No dose-limiting toxicities were encountered in 16 fully evaluable patients. GM-CSF gene-transduced vaccines were equivalent in toxicity to nontransduced vaccines up to the feasible limits of autologous tumor vaccine yield. No evidence of autoimmune disease was observed. Biopsies of intradermal sites of injection with GM-CSF gene-transduced vaccines contained distinctive macrophage, dendritic cell, eosinophil, neutrophil, and T-cell infiltrates similar to those observed in preclinical models of efficacy. Histological analysis of delayed-type hypersensitivity responses in patients vaccinated with GM-CSF-transduced vaccines demonstrated an intense eosinophil infiltrate that was not observed in patients who received nontransduced vaccines. An objective partial response was observed in a patient treated with GM-CSF gene-transduced vaccine who displayed the largest delayed-type hypersensitivity conversion. No replication-competent retrovirus was detected in vaccinated patients. This Phase I study demonstrated the feasibility, safety, and bioactivity of an autologous GM-CSF gene-transduced tumor vaccine for RCC patients.

442 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Paracrine delivery of cytokines can be considered as a new type of adjuvant in the design of vaccines for cancer as well as microbial infections.
Abstract: Advances in our understanding of the molecular events of antigen recogni­ tion by T cells and T cell activation are opening up new approaches to cancer immunotherapy. The identification and cloning of cytokines provide one impor­ tant set of tools for manipulating immunologic responses. For cancer therapy, cytokines such as interleukin-2 have been administered systemically. However, systemic administration of cytokines ignores the paracrine nature of their ac­ tion. Recently, an alternative approach has been explored that produces high concentrations of cytokines local to the tumor cells. This is achieved either by transduction of the tumor cells the cytokine gene or by mixture of the tumor cells with cytokine containing biodegradable polymer microspheres. Under these circ umstances, the locally released cytokine produces a strong local inflammatory response specific to the particular cytokine. In some cases, a potent tumor-specific T cell response results, capable of mediating regression of systemi c tumor de­ posits. This paracrine delivery of cytokines can therefore be considered as a new type of adjuvant in the design of vaccines for cancer as well as microbial infections.

404 citations


Journal Article
TL;DR: The data suggest that the highly repetitive nature of the mucin allows cross-linking of the T-cell receptor on mucin-specific T-cells and therefore accounts for the lack of MHC restriction seen in the tumor-reactive CTLs of patients with breast adenocarcinoma.
Abstract: A population of tumor-reactive cytotoxic T-cells can be propagated from tumor-draining lymph nodes of patients with breast adenocarcinoma. These T-cells specifically recognize breast and pancreatic tumor cells in a major histocompatibility complex (MHC)-unrestricted fashion but not other tumors of epithelial origin or the natural killer target K562. The tumor-specific but MHC-unrestricted lytic activity of these cytotoxic T-lymphocytes (CTLs) is mediated through the alpha/beta T-cell receptor. The molecule recognized by these CTLs is ductal epithelial mucin produced by breast and pancreatic adenocarcinomas. The protein core of the mucin consists of multiple tandem repeats of a 20-amino acid sequence. Antibody SM3, directed against a determinant on the mucin protein core preferentially expressed on malignant cells is able to significantly inhibit lysis of tumor cells by the CTL, while other antibodies binding to different core epitopes are not. Normal breast epithelial lines, which also express mucin but not the SM3 epitope, are not lysed by these tumor-reactive CTLs or act as cold target inhibitors of lysis of tumor lines. The data suggest that the highly repetitive nature of the mucin allows cross-linking of the T-cell receptor on mucin-specific T-cells and therefore accounts for the lack of MHC restriction seen in this system. They further suggest that the mucin core epitope recognized on tumor cells is not expressed on normal epithelial cells in a manner that can be recognized by tumor-reactive CTLs. These findings support the role of mucins as important tumor-associated antigens mediating the cellular response to certain human cancers and suggest that epithelial mucin core sequences might form the basis for an effective vaccine to augment the antitumor immune response.

370 citations


Related Papers (5)