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Journal ArticleDOI

Influence of Partially Coherent Illumination and Spherical Aberration on Microscopic Resolution

01 Aug 1971-Journal of Modern Optics (Taylor & Francis Group)-Vol. 18, Iss: 8, pp 597-608
About: This article is published in Journal of Modern Optics.The article was published on 1971-08-01. It has received 7 citation(s) till now. The article focuses on the topic(s): Contrast transfer function & Coma (optics).
Citations
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Journal ArticleDOI
01 Mar 1979-Journal of Optics
Abstract: The limit of resolution for two antiphase coherent point objects is studied with reference to one-dimensional diffraction limited optical systems (slit apertures). The ratios of measurable to real point separation and of measurable to real peak intensity are also investigated.

7 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: The Rayleigh criterion has been investigated as a performance criterion for optical systems imaging in partially coherent light. In numerical tests with moderate amounts of primary spherical aberration—up to 18 u maximum wavefront deviation—the Rayleigh criterion proves to be insensitive to the amount of aberration. This insensitivity appears characteristic of two-point criteria generally.

6 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: The effects of condenser transmission characteristics upon the performance of partially coherent systems have been investigated. It has been shown that the transmittance of the condenser aperture affects the coherence conditions prevailing upon the object plane and modifies the image forming properties of the system. Two different types of irradiance distribution functions have been assumed, in the first type the irradiance is maximum at the centre and tapers off towards the edges of the aperture, the reverse being true for the second type. Their influence upon the spatial frequency response and the edge response of the system has been investigated. The effect of the condenser size and transmission upon the two-point resolution of the system has also been examined.

3 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: An optimal balance of spherical aberrations under partially coherent illumination is presented. The visibility of a two-point image as a merit function is used to estimate the image aberrations. Although the optimal balance of aberrations has been evaluated by Marechal [ Rev. Opt.2, 257 ( 1947)] and Wang [ Proc. Phys. Soc. London53, 157 ( 1941)] for incoherent illumination, it has not been treated for partially coherent illumination. In this paper, a general relationship between the optimal balance of aberrations and the degree of mutual coherence under partially coherent illumination is discussed. The result obtained for incoherent illumination turns out to be a special case of that for partially coherent illumination. In other words, the result of optimal balance of aberrations under partially coherent illumination is a general case that includes coherent, incoherent, and partially coherent illumination.

3 citations


References
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Book
01 Jan 1959-
Abstract: The book is comprised of 15 chapters that discuss various topics about optics, such as geometrical theories, image forming instruments, and optics of metals and crystals. The text covers the elements of the theories of interference, interferometers, and diffraction. The book tackles several behaviors of light, including its diffraction when exposed to ultrasonic waves.

19,811 citations


01 Oct 1999-
Abstract: The book is comprised of 15 chapters that discuss various topics about optics, such as geometrical theories, image forming instruments, and optics of metals and crystals. The text covers the elements of the theories of interference, interferometers, and diffraction. The book tackles several behaviors of light, including its diffraction when exposed to ultrasonic waves.

19,501 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: Zusammenfassung Auf Grundlage der A b b eschen Beugungstheorie der optischen Abbildung wird das Aussehen eines Hohlspiegels mit willkurlich verlaufenden kleinen Abweichungen beim Foucaul tschen Schneidenverfahren und beim neuen Phasenkontrastverfahren berechnet. Es werden die orthogonalen “Kreisfachenpolynome” gefunden und auf die Beugungserscheinungen beim kreisformigen Spiegel angewendet.

902 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
01 Oct 1950-
Abstract: An expression is found for the distribution of light in the image of two small apertures which are illuminated by a condenser of numerical aperture equal to s times that of the imaging objective The resolving power of the system is written ρ=Kλ/(NA), and K is found as a function of s It is shown that precisely the same result obtains for both critical and Kohler illumination

143 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: In this paper the diffraction theory for arbitrary aberrations of a symmetrical optical system is developed for the case that the amount of aberration is small The aberration function, which measures the deviation of the actual wave-front from a sphere, is expanded in a series of the so-called circle polynomials, which were introduced by Zernike in a problem closely related to the one treated here This new expansion appears to have considerable advantages as compared to the customary one So, for instance, the problem of the counter-balancing of aberrations of various orders can be solved now completely Formulae are given, from which the intensity distribution of the diffraction pattern in a receiving plane perpendicular to the principal ray in the neighbourhood of the Gaussian image can be numerically determined without much labour The formulae are applied to the diffraction patterns of astigmatism and coma The results of the numerical computations are given in diagrams showing the lines of equal intensity

63 citations


Performance
Metrics
No. of citations received by the Paper in previous years
YearCitations
20201
19811
19791
19762
19741
19731