Q1. What are the contributions mentioned in the paper "Influence of ph on the toxicity of ionisable pharmaceuticals and personal care products to freshwater invertebrates" ?
In this study the authors evaluated to what extent varying pH conditions may influence the toxicity of the antibiotic enrofloxacin ( ENR ) and the personal care product ingredient triclosan ( TCS ) to three freshwater invertebrates: the ephemeropteran Cloeon dipterum, the amphipod Gammarus pulex and the snail Physella acuta. Acute toxicity tests were performed by adjusting the water pH to four nominal levels: 6. 5, 7. 0, 7. 5 and 8. 0. Furthermore, the authors tested the efficiency of three toxicity models with different assumptions regarding the uptake and toxicity potential of ionisable chemicals with the experimental data produced in this study. The results of this study show that pH fluctuations can have a considerable influence on toxicity thresholds, and should therefore be taken into account for the risk assessment of ionisable pharmaceuticals and personal health-care products.