Abstract: Lung volumes are subdivided into static and dynamic lung volumes. Static lung volumes are measured by methods which are based on the completeness of respiratory manoeuvres, so that the velocity of the manoeuvres should be adjusted accordingly. The measurements taken during fast breathing movements are described as dynamic lung volumes and as forced inspiratory and expiratory flows.
### 1.1 Static lung volumes and capacities
The volume of gas in the lung and intrathoracic airways is determined by the properties of lung parenchyma and surrounding organs and tissues, surface tension, the force exerted by respiratory muscles, by lung reflexes and by the properties of airways. The gas volumes of thorax and lung are the same except in the case of a pneumothorax. If two or more subdivisions of the total lung capacity are taken together, the sum of the constituent volumes is described as a lung capacity. Lung volumes and capacities are described in more detail in § 2.
#### 1.1.1 Determinants
Factors which determine the size of the normal lung include stature, age, sex, body mass, posture, habitus, ethnic group, reflex factors and daily activity pattern. The level of maximal inspiration (total lung capacity, TLC) is influenced by the force developed by the inspiratory muscles (disorders include e.g. muscular dystrophy), the elastic recoil of the lung (disorders include e.g. pulmonary fibrosis and emphysema) and the elastic properties of the thorax and adjacent structures (disorders include e.g. ankylosis of joints). The level of maximal expiration (residual volume, RV) is determined by the force exerted by respiratory muscles (disorders include e.g. muscle paralysis), obstruction, occlusion and compression of small airways (disorders include e.g. emphysema) and by the mechanical properties of lung and thorax (disorders include diffuse fibrosis, kyphoscoliosis).
Assessing the total lung capacity is indispensable in establishing a restrictive ventilatory defect or in diagnosing abnormal lung distensibility, as may occur in patients …