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Journal ArticleDOI

Inhaler mishandling remains common in real life and is associated with reduced disease control

01 Jun 2011-Respiratory Medicine (W.B. Saunders Ltd)-Vol. 105, Iss: 6, pp 930-938

Abstract: Proper inhaler technique is crucial for effective management of asthma and COPD. This multicentre, cross-sectional, observational study investigates the prevalence of inhaler mishandling in a large population of experienced patients referring to chest clinics; to analyze the variables associated with misuse and the relationship between inhaler handling and health-care resources use and disease control. We enrolled 1664 adult subjects (mean age 62 years) affected mostly by COPD (52%) and asthma (42%). Respectively, 843 and 1113 patients were using MDIs and DPIs at home; of the latter, the users of Aerolizer®, Diskus®, HandiHaler® and Turbuhaler® were 82, 467, 505 and 361. We have a total of 2288 records of inhaler technique. Critical mistakes were widely distributed among users of all the inhalers, ranging from 12% for MDIs, 35% for Diskus® and HandiHaler® and 44% for Turbuhaler®. Independently of the inhaler, we found the strongest association between inhaler misuse and older age (p = 0.008), lower schooling (p = 0.001) and lack of instruction received for inhaler technique by health caregivers (p < 0.001). Inhaler misuse was associated with increased risk of hospitalization (p = 0.001), emergency room visits (p < 0.001), courses of oral steroids (p < 0.001) and antimicrobials (p < 0.001) and poor disease control evaluated as an ACT score for the asthmatics (p < 0.0001) and the whole population (p < 0.0001). We conclude that inhaler mishandling continues to be common in experienced outpatients referring to chest clinics and associated with increased unscheduled health-care resource use and poor clinical control. Instruction by health caregivers is the only modifiable factor useful for reducing inhaler mishandling.
Topics: Dry-powder inhaler (64%), Inhaler (63%), Population (51%)
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References
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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Assessing the total lung capacity is indispensable in establishing a restrictive ventilatory defect or in diagnosing abnormal lung distensibility, as may occur in patients …
Abstract: Lung volumes are subdivided into static and dynamic lung volumes. Static lung volumes are measured by methods which are based on the completeness of respiratory manoeuvres, so that the velocity of the manoeuvres should be adjusted accordingly. The measurements taken during fast breathing movements are described as dynamic lung volumes and as forced inspiratory and expiratory flows. ### 1.1 Static lung volumes and capacities The volume of gas in the lung and intrathoracic airways is determined by the properties of lung parenchyma and surrounding organs and tissues, surface tension, the force exerted by respiratory muscles, by lung reflexes and by the properties of airways. The gas volumes of thorax and lung are the same except in the case of a pneumothorax. If two or more subdivisions of the total lung capacity are taken together, the sum of the constituent volumes is described as a lung capacity. Lung volumes and capacities are described in more detail in § 2. #### 1.1.1 Determinants Factors which determine the size of the normal lung include stature, age, sex, body mass, posture, habitus, ethnic group, reflex factors and daily activity pattern. The level of maximal inspiration (total lung capacity, TLC) is influenced by the force developed by the inspiratory muscles (disorders include e.g. muscular dystrophy), the elastic recoil of the lung (disorders include e.g. pulmonary fibrosis and emphysema) and the elastic properties of the thorax and adjacent structures (disorders include e.g. ankylosis of joints). The level of maximal expiration (residual volume, RV) is determined by the force exerted by respiratory muscles (disorders include e.g. muscle paralysis), obstruction, occlusion and compression of small airways (disorders include e.g. emphysema) and by the mechanical properties of lung and thorax (disorders include diffuse fibrosis, kyphoscoliosis). Assessing the total lung capacity is indispensable in establishing a restrictive ventilatory defect or in diagnosing abnormal lung distensibility, as may occur in patients …

4,834 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Results reinforce the usefulness of a brief, easy to administer, patient-based index of asthma control.
Abstract: Background Asthma guidelines indicate that the goal of treatment should be optimum asthma control In a busy clinic practice with limited time and resources, there is need for a simple method for assessing asthma control with or without lung function testing Objectives The objective of this article was to describe the development of the Asthma Control Test (ACT), a patient-based tool for identifying patients with poorly controlled asthma Methods A 22-item survey was administered to 471 patients with asthma in the offices of asthma specialists The specialist's rating of asthma control after spirometry was also collected Stepwise regression methods were used to select a subset of items that showed the greatest discriminant validity in relation to the specialist's rating of asthma control Internal consistency reliability was computed, and discriminant validity tests were conducted for ACT scale scores The performance of ACT was investigated by using logistic regression methods and receiver operating characteristic analyses Results Five items were selected from regression analyses The internal consistency reliability of the 5-item ACT scale was 084 ACT scale scores discriminated between groups of patients differing in the specialist's rating of asthma control (F = 345, P P 1 (F = 43, P = 0052) As a screening tool, the overall agreement between ACT and the specialist's rating ranged from 71% to 78% depending on the cut points used, and the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve was 077 Conclusion Results reinforce the usefulness of a brief, easy to administer, patient-based index of asthma control

2,099 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
Donald A. Mahler1, Carolyn K. Wells2Institutions (2)
01 Mar 1988-Chest
TL;DR: The results show that the BDI, MRC scale, and OCD provide significantly related measures of Dyspnea, and the clinical ratings of dyspnea correlate significantly with physiologic parameters of lung function; and breathlessness may be related to the pathophysiology of the specific respiratory disease.
Abstract: To evaluate available clinical methods (self ratings and questionnaire) for rating dyspnea, we (1) compared scores from the recently developed baseline dyspnea index (BDI) with the Medical Research Council (MRC) scale and the oxygen-cost diagram (OCD) in 153 patients with various respiratory diseases who sought medical care for shortness of breath; and (2) evaluated the relationships between dyspnea scores and standard measures of physiologic lung function in the same patients. The dyspnea scores were all significantly correlated (r = 0.48 to 0.70; p less than 0.001). Agreement between two observers or with repeated use was satisfactory with all three clinical rating methods. The BDI showed the highest correlations with physiologic measurements. Dyspnea scores were most highly related to spirometric values (r = 0.78; p less than 0.001) for patients with asthma, maximal respiratory pressures (r = 0.34 and 0.35; p less than 0.001) for patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and PImax (r = 0.51; p = 0.01) and FVC (r = 0.44; p = 0.03) for those with interstitial lung disease. These results show that: (1) the BDI, MRC scale, and OCD provide significantly related measures of dyspnea; (2) the clinical ratings of dyspnea correlate significantly with physiologic parameters of lung function; and (3) breathlessness may be related to the pathophysiology of the specific respiratory disease. The clinical rating of dyspnea may provide quantitative information complementary to measurements of lung function.

1,142 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: It is demonstrated that incorrect DPI technique with established DPIs is common among patients with asthma and COPD, and suggests that poor inhalation technique has detrimental consequences for clinical efficacy.
Abstract: Background Incorrect usage of inhaler devices might have a major influence on the clinical effectiveness of the delivered drug. This issue is poorly addressed in management guidelines. Methods This article presents the results of a systematic literature review of studies evaluating incorrect use of established dry powder inhalers (DPIs) by patients with asthma or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Results Overall, we found that between 4% and 94% of patients, depending on the type of inhaler and method of assessment, do not use their inhalers correctly. The most common errors made included failure to exhale before actuation, failure to breath-hold after inhalation, incorrect positioning of the inhaler, incorrect rotation sequence, and failure to execute a forceful and deep inhalation. Inefficient DPI technique may lead to insufficient drug delivery and hence to insufficient lung deposition. As many as 25% of patients have never received verbal inhaler technique instruction, and for those that do, the quality and duration of instruction is not adequate and not reinforced by follow-up checks. Conclusions This review demonstrates that incorrect DPI technique with established DPIs is common among patients with asthma and COPD, and suggests that poor inhalation technique has detrimental consequences for clinical efficacy. Regular assessment and reinforcement of correct inhalation technique are considered by health professionals and caregivers to be an essential component of successful asthma management. Improvement of asthma and COPD management could be achieved by new DPIs that are easy to use correctly and are forgiving of poor inhalation technique, thus ensuring more successful drug delivery.

495 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
Violaine Giraud1, Nicolas RocheInstitutions (1)
TL;DR: Misuse of pressurized metered-dose inhalers, which is mainly due to poor coordination, is frequent and associated with poorer asthma control in inhaled corticosteroid-treated asthmatics, highlighting the importance of evaluating inhalation technique and providing appropriate education in all patients.
Abstract: This study assessed whether the improper use of pressurized metered-dose inhalers (pMDIs) is associated with decreased asthma control in asthmatics treated by inhaled corticosteroids (ICS). General practitioners (GPs) included consecutive asthmatic outpatients treated by pMDI-administered ICS and on-demand, short-acting beta2-agonists. They measured an asthma instability score (AIS) based on daytime and nocturnal symptoms, exercise-induced dyspnoea, beta2-agonist usage, emergency-care visits and global perception of asthma control within the preceding month; the inhalation technique of the patient also was assessed. GPs (n=915) included 4,078 adult asthmatics; 3,955 questionnaires were evaluable. pMDI was misused by 71% of patients, of which 47% was due to poor coordination. Asthma was less stable in pMDI misusers than in good users (AIS: 3.93 versus 2.86, p<0.001). Among misusers, asthma was less stable in poor coordinators (AIS: 4.38 versus 3.56 in good coordinators, p<0.001). To conclude, misuse of pressurized metered-dose inhalers, which is mainly due to poor coordination, is frequent and associated with poorer asthma control in inhaled corticosteroid-treated asthmatics. This study highlights the importance of evaluating inhalation technique and providing appropriate education in all patients, especially before increasing inhaled corticosteroid dosage or adding other agents. The use of devices which alleviate coordination problems should be reinforced in pressurized metered-dose inhaler misusers.

486 citations


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