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Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1002/JIMD.12369

Inherited disorders of complex lipid metabolism: A clinical review

02 Mar 2021-Journal of Inherited Metabolic Disease (Wiley)-Vol. 44, Iss: 4, pp 809-825
Abstract: Over 80 human diseases have been attributed to defects in complex lipid metabolism. A majority of them have been reported recently in the setting of rapid advances in genomic technology and their increased use in clinical settings. Lipids are ubiquitous in human biology and play roles in many cellular and intercellular processes. While inborn errors in lipid metabolism can affect every organ system with many examples of genetic heterogeneity and pleiotropy, the clinical manifestations of many of these disorders can be explained based on the disruption of the metabolic pathway involved. In this review, we will discuss the physiological function of major pathways in complex lipid metabolism, including nonlysosomal sphingolipid metabolism, acylceramide metabolism, de novo phospholipid synthesis, phospholipid remodeling, phosphatidylinositol metabolism, mitochondrial cardiolipin synthesis and remodeling, and ether lipid metabolism as well as common clinical phenotypes associated with each.

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Topics: Lipid metabolism (70%)

5 results found

Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/J.MICROC.2021.106654
Abstract: Diagnosing a large group of inborn errors of metabolism poses a great challenge for physicians due to the mostly non-specific clinical picture. Therefore, laboratory methods have become indispensable in the process of differential diagnosis. With the technological advances of liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry (LC-MS), the diagnostic possibilities have expanded considerably. In the last two decades, LC-MS has been used primarily for multicomponent analysis of metabolites for the diagnosis of a wide range of diseases. In addition, the technique has begun to be successfully applied in metabolomics and lipidomics, which provide both information on the overall profile of small molecules and have the ability to find new potential biomarkers for selected diseases. This review discusses directions and aspects of LC-MS-based laboratory diagnosing in the field of inborn errors of metabolism.

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Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/J.YMGME.2021.07.005
Abstract: Cutaneous signs and symptoms may facilitate the diagnosis or can help in identifying complications or side effects of overtreatment of inherited metabolic diseases. The principal manifestations can be grouped into vascular lesions, ichthyosis, papular and nodular skin lesions, abnormal pigmentation, photosensitivity, skin laxity, hair shaft involvement, and nail abnormalities. We have summarized associations of these cutaneous signs and symptoms in 252 inherited metabolic diseases. This represents the sixth of a series of articles attempting to create and maintain a comprehensive list of clinical and metabolic differential diagnoses according to system involvement.

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Topics: Ichthyosis (50%)

Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.4062/BIOMOLTHER.2021.122
Vijayakumar Natesan1, Sung-Jin Kim2Institutions (2)
Abstract: Different lifestyles have an impact on useful metabolic functions, causing disorders. Different lipids are involved in the metabolic functions that play various vital roles in the body, such as structural components, storage of energy, in signaling, as biomarkers, in energy metabolism, and as hormones. Inter-related disorders are caused when these functions are affected, like diabetes, cancer, infections, and inflammatory and neurodegenerative conditions in humans. During the Covid-19 period, there has been a lot of focus on the effects of metabolic disorders all over the world. Hence, this review collectively reports on research concerning metabolic disorders, mainly cardiovascular and diabetes mellitus. In addition, drug research in lipid metabolism disorders have also been considered. This review explores lipids, metabolism, lipid metabolism disorders, and drugs used for these disorders.

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Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/J.ENVINT.2021.106893
Haoduo Zhao1, Min Liu1, Yunbo Lv1, Mingliang Fang1Institutions (1)
Abstract: In the toxicological regime, the toxicological endpoint and its dose-response relationship are two of the most prominent characters in conducting a risk assessment for chemical exposure. Systems biological methods have been used to comprehensively characterize the impact of toxicants on the biochemical pathways. However, the majority of the current studies are only based on single-dose, and limited information can be extrapolated to other doses from these experiments, regardless of the sensitivity of each endpoint. This study aims to understand the dose-response metabolite dysregulation pattern and metabolite sensitivity at the system-biological level. Here, we applied bisphenol A (BPA), an endocrine-disrupting chemical (EDC), as the model chemical. We first employed the global metabolomics method to characterize the metabolome of breast cancer cells (MCF-7) upon exposure to different doses (0, 20, 50, and 100 µM) of BPA. The dysregulated features with a clear dose-response relationship were also effectively picked up with an R-package named TOXcms. Overall, most metabolites were dysregulated by showing a significant dose-dependent behaviour. The results suggested that BPA exposure greatly perturbed purine metabolism and pyrimidine metabolism. Interestingly, most metabolites within the purine metabolism were described as a biphasic dose-response relationship. With the established dose-response relationship, we were able to fully map the metabolite cartography of BPA exposure within a wide range of concentrations and observe some unique patterns. Furthermore, an effective concentration of certain fold changes (e.g., EC+10 means the dose at which metabolite is 10% upregulated) and metabolite sensitivity were defined and introduced to this dose-response omics information. The result showed that the purine metabolism pathway is the most venerable target of BPA, which can be a potential endogenous biomarker for its exposure. Overall, this study applied the dose-response metabolomics method to fully understand the biochemical pathway disruption of BPA treatment at different doses. Both dose-response omics strategy and metabolite sensitivity analysis can be further considered and emphasized in future chemical risk assessments.

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Topics: Metabolite (58%), Metabolome (55%), Metabolomics (53%)

Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.3390/IJMS222111682
Abstract: Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) comprise a distinct set of clinical symptoms resulting from chronic inflammation within the gastrointestinal (GI) tract. Despite the significant progress in understanding the etiology and development of treatment strategies, IBD remain incurable for thousands of patients. Metabolic deregulation is indicative of IBD, including substantial shifts in lipid metabolism. Recent data showed that changes in some phospholipids are very common in IBD patients. For instance, phosphatidylcholine (PC)/phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) and lysophosphatidylcholine (LPC)/PC ratios are associated with the severity of the inflammatory process. Composition of phospholipids also changes upon IBD towards an increase in arachidonic acid and a decrease in linoleic and a-linolenic acid levels. Moreover, an increase in certain phospholipid metabolites, such as lysophosphatidylcholine, sphingosine-1-phosphate and ceramide, can result in enhanced intestinal inflammation, malignancy, apoptosis or necroptosis. Because some phospholipids are associated with pathogenesis of IBD, they may provide a basis for new strategies to treat IBD. Current attempts are aimed at controlling phospholipid and fatty acid levels through the diet or via pharmacological manipulation of lipid metabolism.

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Topics: Lipid metabolism (51%), Crohn's disease (50%)

146 results found

Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1038/NRM2330
Abstract: Throughout the biological world, a 30 A hydrophobic film typically delimits the environments that serve as the margin between life and death for individual cells. Biochemical and biophysical findings have provided a detailed model of the composition and structure of membranes, which includes levels of dynamic organization both across the lipid bilayer (lipid asymmetry) and in the lateral dimension (lipid domains) of membranes. How do cells apply anabolic and catabolic enzymes, translocases and transporters, plus the intrinsic physical phase behaviour of lipids and their interactions with membrane proteins, to create the unique compositions and multiple functionalities of their individual membranes?

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Topics: Biological membrane (64%), Membrane lipids (61%), Peripheral membrane protein (61%) ... show more

4,862 Citations

Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1194/JLR.E400004-JLR200
Eoin Fahy1, Shankar Subramaniam1, H. Alex Brown2, Christopher K. Glass1  +13 moreInstitutions (11)
Abstract: Lipids are produced, transported, and recognized by the concerted actions of numerous enzymes, binding proteins, and receptors. A comprehensive analysis of lipid molecules, "lipidomics," in the context of genomics and proteomics is crucial to understanding cellular physiology and pathology; consequently, lipid biology has become a major research target of the postgenomic revolution and systems biology. To facilitate international communication about lipids, a comprehensive classification of lipids with a common platform that is compatible with informatics requirements has been developed to deal with the massive amounts of data that will be generated by our lipid community. As an initial step in this development, we divide lipids into eight categories (fatty acyls, glycerolipids, glycerophospholipids, sphingolipids, sterol lipids, prenol lipids, saccharolipids, and polyketides) containing distinct classes and subclasses of molecules, devise a common manner of representing the chemical structures of individual lipids and their derivatives, and provide a 12 digit identifier for each unique lipid molecule. The lipid classification scheme is chemically based and driven by the distinct hydrophobic and hydrophilic elements that compose the lipid. This structured vocabulary will facilitate the systematization of lipid biology and enable the cataloging of lipids and their properties in a way that is compatible with other macromolecular databases.

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Topics: Lipidomics (56%)

1,157 Citations

Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1152/PHYSREV.00028.2012
Tamas Balla1Institutions (1)
Abstract: Phosphoinositides (PIs) make up only a small fraction of cellular phospholipids, yet they control almost all aspects of a cell's life and death. These lipids gained tremendous research interest as plasma membrane signaling molecules when discovered in the 1970s and 1980s. Research in the last 15 years has added a wide range of biological processes regulated by PIs, turning these lipids into one of the most universal signaling entities in eukaryotic cells. PIs control organelle biology by regulating vesicular trafficking, but they also modulate lipid distribution and metabolism via their close relationship with lipid transfer proteins. PIs regulate ion channels, pumps, and transporters and control both endocytic and exocytic processes. The nuclear phosphoinositides have grown from being an epiphenomenon to a research area of its own. As expected from such pleiotropic regulators, derangements of phosphoinositide metabolism are responsible for a number of human diseases ranging from rare genetic disorders to the most common ones such as cancer, obesity, and diabetes. Moreover, it is increasingly evident that a number of infectious agents hijack the PI regulatory systems of host cells for their intracellular movements, replication, and assembly. As a result, PI converting enzymes began to be noticed by pharmaceutical companies as potential therapeutic targets. This review is an attempt to give an overview of this enormous research field focusing on major developments in diverse areas of basic science linked to cellular physiology and disease.

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1,015 Citations

Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1194/JLR.R800095-JLR200
Abstract: In 2005, the International Lipid Classification and Nomenclature Committee under the sponsorship of the LIPID MAPS Consortium developed and established a "Comprehensive Classification System for Lipids" based on well-defined chemical and biochemical principles and using an ontology that is extensible, flexible, and scalable. This classification system, which is compatible with contemporary databasing and informatics needs, has now been accepted internationally and widely adopted. In response to considerable attention and requests from lipid researchers from around the globe and in a variety of fields, the comprehensive classification system has undergone significant revisions over the last few years to more fully represent lipid structures from a wider variety of sources and to provide additional levels of detail as necessary. The details of this classification system are reviewed and updated and are presented here, along with revisions to its suggested nomenclature and structure-drawing recommendations for lipids.

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1,005 Citations

Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/0092-8674(89)90868-4
06 Oct 1989-Cell
Abstract: Lysophosphatidate (LPA), the simplest natural phospholipid, is highly mitogenic for quiescent fibroblasts. LPA-induced cell proliferation is not dependent on other mitogens and is blocked by pertussis toxin. LPA initiates at least three separate signaling cascades: activation of a pertussis toxin-insensitive G protein mediating phosphoinositide hydrolysis with subsequent Ca2+ mobilization and stimulation of protein kinase C; release of arachidonic acid in a GTP-dependent manner, but independent of prior phosphoinositide hydrolysis; and activation of a pertussis toxin-sensitive Gi protein mediating inhibition of adenylate cyclase. The peptide bradykinin mimics LPA in inducing the first two responses but fails to activate Gi and to stimulate DNA synthesis. Our data suggest that the mitogenic action of LPA occurs through Gi or a related pertussis toxin substrate and that the phosphoinositide hydrolysis-protein kinase C pathway is neither required nor sufficient, by itself, for mitogenesis. The results further suggest that LPA or LPA-like phospholipids may have a novel role in G protein-mediated signal transduction.

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Topics: Pertussis toxin (60%), Gi alpha subunit (55%), G protein (55%) ... show more

793 Citations

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