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Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1111/CPR.13009

Inhibition of FGF-FGFR and VEGF-VEGFR signalling in cancer treatment

02 Mar 2021-Cell Proliferation (John Wiley & Sons, Ltd)-Vol. 54, Iss: 4
Abstract: The sites of targeted therapy are limited and need to be expanded. The FGF-FGFR signalling plays pivotal roles in the oncogenic process, and FGF/FGFR inhibitors are a promising method to treat FGFR-altered tumours. The VEGF-VEGFR signalling is the most crucial pathway to induce angiogenesis, and inhibiting this cascade has already got success in treating tumours. While both their efficacy and antitumour spectrum are limited, combining FGF/FGFR inhibitors with VEGF/VEGFR inhibitors are an excellent way to optimize the curative effect and expand the antitumour range because their combination can target both tumour cells and the tumour microenvironment. In addition, biomarkers need to be developed to predict the efficacy, and combination with immune checkpoint inhibitors is a promising direction in the future. The article will discuss the FGF-FGFR signalling pathway, the VEGF-VEGFR signalling pathway, the rationale of combining these two signalling pathways and recent small-molecule FGFR/VEGFR inhibitors based on clinical trials.

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Topics: Targeted therapy (50%)
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Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/J.EJPHAR.2021.174512
Abstract: A complete cure for cancer is still the holy grail for scientists. The existing treatment of cancer is primarily focused on surgery, radiation and conventional chemotherapy. However, chemotherapeutic agents also affect healthy tissues or organs due to a lack of specificity. While passive targeting is studied for anticancer drugs focused on the enhanced permeability and retention effect, it failed to achieve drug accumulation at the tumor site and desired therapeutic efficacy. This review presents an outline of the current significant targets for active tumor drug delivery systems and provides insight into the direction of active tumor-targeting strategies. For this purpose, a systematic understanding of the physiological factors, tumor microenvironment and its components, overexpressed receptor and associated proteins are covered here. We focused on angiogenesis mediated targeting, receptor-mediated targeting and peptide targeting. This active targeting along with integration with nano delivery systems helps in achieving specific action, thus reducing the associated adverse effects to healthy tissues. Although the tumor-targeting methods and possibilities explored so far seem revolutionary in cancer treatment, in-depth clinical studies data is required for its commercial translation.

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1 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1111/JCMM.16661
Chen Zhang1, Na Li1, Mengying Suo1, Chunmei Zhang1  +7 moreInstitutions (1)
Abstract: Lymphangiogenesis is possibly capable of attenuating hypertension-induced cardiac injury. Sirtuin 3 (SIRT3) is an effective mitochondrial deacetylase that has the potential to modulate this process; however, its role in hypertension-induced cardiac lymphangiogenesis to date has not been investigated. Our experiments were performed on 8-week-old wild-type (WT), SIRT3 knockout (SIRT3-KO) and SIRT3 overexpression (SIRT3-LV) mice infused with angiotensin II (Ang II) (1000 ng/kg per minute) or saline for 28 days. After Ang II infusion, SIRT3-KO mice developed a more severe cardiac remodelling, less lymphatic capillaries and lower expression of lymphatic marker when compared to wild-type mice. In comparison, SIRT3-LV restored lymphangiogenesis and attenuated cardiac injury. Furthermore, lymphatic endothelial cells (LECs) exposed to Ang II in vitro exhibited decreased migration and proliferation. Silencing SIRT3 induced functional decrease in LECs, while SIRT3 overexpression LECs facilitated. Moreover, SIRT3 may up-regulate lymphangiogenesis by affecting vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 3 (VEGFR3) and ERK pathway. These findings suggest that SIRT3 could promote lymphangiogenesis and attenuate hypertensive cardiac injury.

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Topics: Lymphangiogenesis (66%), Angiotensin II (58%), SIRT3 (54%) ... show more

1 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.3389/FONC.2021.772915
Ruyi Li1, Xin Song2, Yanan Guo, Peng Song  +2 moreInstitutions (4)
Abstract: Tumor-associated angiogenesis is a key target for anti-cancer therapy. The imbalance between pro-angiogenic and anti-angiogenic signals elicited by tumor cells or tumor microenvironment always results in activating "angiogenic switch". Tumor angiogenesis functions in multi-aspects of tumor biology, including endothelial cell apoptosis, tumor metastasis, and cancer stem cell proliferation. Numerous studies have indicated the important roles of inexpensive and less toxic natural products in targeting tumor angiogenesis-associated cytokines and apoptotic signaling pathways. Our current knowledge of tumor angiogenesis is based mainly on experiments performed on cells and animals, so we summarized the well-established models for angiogenesis both in vitro and in vivo. In this review, we classified and summarized the anti-angiogenic natural agents (Polyphenols, Polysaccharides, Alkaloids, Terpenoids, Saponins) in targeting various tumor types according to their chemical structures at present, and discussed the mechanistic principles of these natural products on regulating angiogenesis-associated cytokines and apoptotic signaling pathways. This review is to help understanding the recent progress of natural product research for drug development on anti-tumor angiogenesis.

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Topics: Tumor microenvironment (60%), Angiogenesis (57%), Cancer stem cell (55%)

Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.3389/FCELL.2021.684966
Lei Wang1, Huiqiong Han1, Zehua Wang1, Litong Shi1  +2 moreInstitutions (1)
Abstract: Esophageal cancer (EC) is the eighth most common type of cancer and the sixth leading cause of cancer-related deaths worldwide. At present, the clinical treatment for EC is based mainly on radical surgery, chemotherapy, and radiotherapy. However, due to the limited efficacy of conventional treatments and the serious adverse reactions, the outcome is still unsatisfactory (the 5-year survival rate for patients is less than 25%). Thus, it is extremely important and urgent to identify new therapeutic targets. The concept of tumor microenvironment (TME) has attracted increased attention since it was proposed. Recent studies have shown that TME is an important therapeutic target for EC. Microenvironment-targeting therapies such as immunotherapy and antiangiogenic therapy have played an indispensable role in prolonging survival and improving the prognosis of patients with EC. In addition, many new drugs and therapies that have been developed to target microenvironment may become treatment options in the future. We summarize the microenvironment of EC and the latest advances in microenvironment-targeting therapies in this review.

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Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.3390/IJMS22179526
Abstract: Locally advanced or metastatic urothelial bladder cancer (a/m UBC) is currently treated using platinum-based combination chemotherapy. Immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) are the preferred second-line treatment options for cisplatin-eligible a/m UBC patients and as first-line options in cisplatin-ineligible settings. However, the response rates for ICI monotherapy are modest (~20%), which necessitates the exploration of alternative strategies. Dysregulated activation of fibroblast growth factor receptor (FGFR) signaling enhances tumor proliferation, survival, invasion, angiogenesis, and immune evasion. The recent U.S. Food and Drug Administration approval of erdafitinib and the emergence of other potent and selective FGFR inhibitors (FGFRis) have shifted the treatment paradigm for patients with a/m UBC harboring actionable FGFR2 or FGFR3 genomic alterations, who often have a minimal-to-modest response to ICIs. FGFRi–ICI combinations are therefore worth exploring, and their preliminary response rates and safety profiles are promising. In the present review, we summarize the impact of altered FGFR signaling on a/m UBC tumor evolution, the clinical development of FGFRis, the rationale for FGFRi–ICI combinations, current trials, and prospective research directions.

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Topics: Tumor microenvironment (58%), Erdafitinib (54%), Combination chemotherapy (54%) ... show more

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251 results found


Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1056/NEJMOA032691
Abstract: background Bevacizumab, a monoclonal antibody against vascular endothelial growth factor, has shown promising preclinical and clinical activity against metastatic colorectal cancer, particularly in combination with chemotherapy. methods Of 813 patients with previously untreated metastatic colorectal cancer, we randomly assigned 402 to receive irinotecan, bolus fluorouracil, and leucovorin (IFL) plus bevacizumab (5 mg per kilogram of body weight every two weeks) and 411 to receive IFL plus placebo. The primary end point was overall survival. Secondary end points were progression-free survival, the response rate, the duration of the response, safety, and the quality of life. results The median duration of survival was 20.3 months in the group given IFL plus bevacizumab, as compared with 15.6 months in the group given IFL plus placebo, corresponding to a hazard ratio for death of 0.66 (P<0.001). The median duration of progressionfree survival was 10.6 months in the group given IFL plus bevacizumab, as compared with 6.2 months in the group given IFL plus placebo (hazard ratio for disease progression, 0.54; P<0.001); the corresponding rates of response were 44.8 percent and 34.8 percent (P=0.004). The median duration of the response was 10.4 months in the group given IFL plus bevacizumab, as compared with 7.1 months in the group given IFL plus placebo (hazard ratio for progression, 0.62; P=0.001). Grade 3 hypertension was more common during treatment with IFL plus bevacizumab than with IFL plus placebo (11.0 percent vs. 2.3 percent) but was easily managed. conclusions The addition of bevacizumab to fluorouracil-based combination chemotherapy results in statistically significant and clinically meaningful improvement in survival among patients with metastatic colorectal cancer.

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Topics: IFL Regimen (73%), Bevacizumab (56%), FOLFIRI (55%) ... show more

9,747 Citations


Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1056/NEJM197111182852108
Abstract: THE growth of solid neoplasms is always accompanied by neovascularization. This new capillary growth is even more vigorous and continuous than a similar outgrowth of capillary sprouts observed in f...

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Topics: Neovascularization (66%), Angiogenesis inhibitor (52%), Tumstatin (52%)

9,319 Citations


Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1038/NM0603-669
01 Jun 2003-Nature Medicine
Abstract: Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is a key regulator of physiological angiogenesis during embryogenesis, skeletal growth and reproductive functions. VEGF has also been implicated in pathological angiogenesis associated with tumors, intraocular neovascular disorders and other conditions. The biological effects of VEGF are mediated by two receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs), VEGFR-1 and VEGFR-2, which differ considerably in signaling properties. Non-signaling co-receptors also modulate VEGF RTK signaling. Currently, several VEGF inhibitors are undergoing clinical testing in several malignancies. VEGF inhibition is also being tested as a strategy for the prevention of angiogenesis, vascular leakage and visual loss in age-related macular degeneration.

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8,400 Citations


Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1126/SCIENCE.6823562
25 Feb 1983-Science
Abstract: Tumor ascites fluids from guinea pigs, hamsters, and mice contain activity that rapidly increases microvascular permeability. Similar activity is also secreted by these tumor cells and a variety of other tumor cell lines in vitro. The permeability-increasing activity purified from either the culture medium or ascites fluid of one tumor, the guinea pig line 10 hepatocarcinoma, is a 34,000- to 42,000-dalton protein distinct from other known permeability factors.

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Topics: Vascular permeability (58%)

3,804 Citations


Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1038/362841A0
K J Kim1, Bing Li1, Jane Winer1, Mark Armanini1  +3 moreInstitutions (1)
29 Apr 1993-Nature
Abstract: The development of new blood vessels (angiogenesis) is required for many physiological processes including embryogenesis, wound healing and corpus luteum formation. Blood vessel neoformation is also important in the pathogenesis of many disorders, particularly rapid growth and metastasis of solid tumours. There are several potential mediators of tumour angiogenesis, including basic and acidic fibroblast growth factors, tumour necrosis factor-alpha and transforming factors-alpha and -beta. But it is unclear whether any of these agents actually mediates angiogenesis and tumour growth in vivo. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is an endothelial cell-specific mitogen and an angiogenesis inducer released by a variety of tumour cells and expressed in human tumours in situ. To test whether VEGF may be a tumour angiogenesis factor in vivo, we injected human rhabdomyosarcoma, glioblastoma multiforme or leiomyosarcoma cell lines into nude mice. We report here that treatment with a monoclonal antibody specific for VEGF inhibited the growth of the tumours, but had no effect on the growth rate of the tumour cells in vitro. The density of vessels was decreased in the antibody-treated tumours. These findings demonstrate that inhibition of the action of an angiogenic factor spontaneously produced by tumour cells may suppress tumour growth in vivo.

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3,787 Citations


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