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Journal ArticleDOI

Inhibition of Lipopolysaccharide-Stimulated Neuro- Inflammatory Kuntze in BV-2 Microglial Cell Mediators by Tetragonia tetragonoides (Pall)

13 Jan 2015-Tropical Journal of Pharmaceutical Research (Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Benin)-Vol. 13, Iss: 12, pp 2005-2010
TL;DR: The results suggest that TKE can be explored as a potential therapeutic agent for regulating microglia-mediated neuroinflammatory responses observed in several neurodegenerative diseases.
Abstract: Purpose: To investigate the in vitro antioxidant and anti-neuroinflammatory effects of Tetragonia tetragonoides (Pall.) Kuntze extract (TKE) in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated BV-2 microglial cells. Methods: To evaluate the effects of TKE, LPS-stimulated BV microglia were used and the expression and production of inflammatory mediators, namely, nitric oxide (NO), inducible NO synthase (iNOS) and tumor necrosis alpha (TNF-α) were evaluated. Antioxidant activity of TKE was measured using 1, 1diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH) assay. Cell viabilities were estimated by 3-(4, 5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)2, 5- diphenyl-tetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. Results: TKE significantly suppressed LPS-induced production of NO (p < 0.001 at 20, 40, 80 and 100 μg/ml) and expression of iNOS in BV-2 cells. TKE also suppressed LPS-induced increase in TNF-α level (p < 0.001at 100 μg/ml) in BV-2 cells. In addition, DPPH-generated free radicals were inhibited by TKE in a concentration-dependent manner. Conclusion: The results suggest that TKE can be explored as a potential therapeutic agent for regulating microglia-mediated neuroinflammatory responses observed in several neurodegenerative diseases.

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TL;DR: The Aizoaceae is one of the largest succulent plant families as discussed by the authors and most members of the family are ornamental and form part of specialist succulent collections, however, most studies lacked reliable correlation to in vivo activity and did not adequately validate the safety and efficacy of potential therapeutic compounds.
References
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Journal ArticleDOI
09 Nov 2000-Nature
TL;DR: Evidence that the appropriate and inappropriate production of oxidants, together with the ability of organisms to respond to oxidative stress, is intricately connected to ageing and life span is reviewed.
Abstract: Living in an oxygenated environment has required the evolution of effective cellular strategies to detect and detoxify metabolites of molecular oxygen known as reactive oxygen species. Here we review evidence that the appropriate and inappropriate production of oxidants, together with the ability of organisms to respond to oxidative stress, is intricately connected to ageing and life span.

8,665 citations


"Inhibition of Lipopolysaccharide-St..." refers methods in this paper

  • ...It is well known that DPPH radical assay is one of the widely used methods for evaluating the free radical scavenging activities of several antioxidants [12]....

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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Reporter constructs containing truncated promoter regions revealed that activation of NF-kappa B/Rel is critical in the induction of iNOS by LPS, however, additional, newly synthesized proteins contribute to the NF- kappa Bd-dependent transcription factor complex on the iN OS promoter in LPS-treated mouse macrophages.

2,195 citations


"Inhibition of Lipopolysaccharide-St..." refers background in this paper

  • ...Mounting evidence indicate that microbial endotoxins like LPS can directly activate microglia triggering the production of proinflammatory mediators, such as nitric oxide (NO), inducible NO synthase (iNOS), interleukins (IL) and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α [6-8]....

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  • ...Studies have shown that anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory agents may inhibit microglial activation and thus protect against neuronal cell death seen in various neurodegenerative disorders [7,8]....

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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Recent advances on the study of the role of microglia based on findings from animal and cell culture models in the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative diseases, with particular emphasis on Parkinson's disease are summarized.
Abstract: Evidence from postmortem analysis implicates the involvement of microglia in the neurodegenerative process of several degenerative neurological diseases, including Alzheimer's disease and Parkinson's disease. It remains to be determined, however, whether microglial activation plays a role in the initiation stage of disease progression or occurs merely as a response to neuronal death. Activated microglia secrete a variety of proinflammatory and neurotoxic factors that are believed to induce and/or exacerbate neurodegeneration. In this article, we summarize recent advances on the study of the role of microglia based on findings from animal and cell culture models in the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative diseases, with particular emphasis on Parkinson's disease. In addition, we also discuss novel approaches to potential therapeutic strategies.

1,069 citations


"Inhibition of Lipopolysaccharide-St..." refers background in this paper

  • ...Mounting evidence indicate that microbial endotoxins like LPS can directly activate microglia triggering the production of proinflammatory mediators, such as nitric oxide (NO), inducible NO synthase (iNOS), interleukins (IL) and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α [6-8]....

    [...]

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: It is suggested that the galloyl moiety attached to flavan-3-ol at 3 position has a strong scavenging ability on the DPPH radical as well as the ortho-trihydroxyl group in the B ring, which elevates the radical scavenging efficiency above that of the orthosylated group; as has been recognized in other flavonoids such as flavones.

768 citations


"Inhibition of Lipopolysaccharide-St..." refers methods in this paper

  • ...The amount of stable nitrite, the end product of NO generation by activated microglia was determined by a colorimetric assay as previously described [10]....

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  • ...Cell viability was determined by 3-(4, 5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay as described previously [10]....

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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The possible functions of resident and recruited macrophages in the developing and adult nervous system are reviewed and what contribution these cells might make to repair mechanisms in the central and peripheral nervous systems are examined.

745 citations


"Inhibition of Lipopolysaccharide-St..." refers background in this paper

  • ...Trop J Pharm Res, December 2014; 13(12): 2006 processes can attenuate the severity of neurodegeneration [5]....

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