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Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1111/CEI.13582

Innate and adaptive immune responses to SARS-CoV-2 in humans: relevance to acquired immunity and vaccine responses.

04 Mar 2021-Clinical and Experimental Immunology (John Wiley & Sons, Ltd)-Vol. 204, Iss: 3, pp 310-320
Abstract: The factors responsible for the spectrum of coronavirus 19 (COVID-19) disease severity and the genesis and nature of protective immunity against COVID-19 remain elusive Multiple studies have investigated the immune responses to COVID-19 in various populations, including those without evidence of COVID-19 infection Information regarding innate and adaptive immune responses to the novel severe respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has evolved rapidly Data are accumulating defining disease phenotypes that aid in rational and informed development of new therapeutic approaches for the treatment of patients infected with SARS-CoV-2 and the development of novel vaccines In this paper, data on important innate immune responses are summarized, including cytokines, specifically interleukin (IL)-6 and complement, and potential treatments are explored Adaptive immune responses and derivative therapeutics such as monoclonal antibodies directed at spike proteins are also examined Finally, data on real-time assessments of adaptive immune responses are explored, which include CD4+ /CD8+ T cells, natural killer (NK) T cells, memory B cells and T follicular cells with specificities for COVID-19 peptides in infected and normal individuals Data of two novel vaccines have been released, both showing > 95% efficacy in preventing SARS-CoV-2 infection Analysis of humoral and cellular responses to the vaccines will determine the robustness and durability of protection In addition, long-term assessment of SARS-CoV-2 memory B and T cell-mediated immune responses in patients recovering from an infection or those with cross-reactive immunological memory will help to define risk for future SARS-CoV infections Finally, patients recovering from SARS-CoV-2 infection may experience prolonged immune activation probably due to T cell exhaustion This will be an important new frontier for study

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Topics: Acquired immune system (68%), Immune system (64%), Innate immune system (61%) ... show more
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9 results found


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/J.CHOM.2021.05.010
Alba Grifoni1, John Sidney1, Randi Vita1, Bjoern Peters2  +5 moreInstitutions (2)
Abstract: Over the past year, numerous studies in the peer reviewed and preprint literature have reported on the virological, epidemiological and clinical characteristics of the coronavirus, SARS-CoV-2. To date, 25 studies have investigated and identified SARS-CoV-2-derived T cell epitopes in humans. Here, we review these recent studies, how they were performed, and their findings. We review how epitopes identified throughout the SARS-CoV2 proteome reveal significant correlation between number of epitopes defined and size of the antigen provenance. We also report additional analysis of SARS-CoV-2 human CD4 and CD8 T cell epitope data compiled from these studies, identifying 1,400 different reported SARS-CoV-2 epitopes and revealing discrete immunodominant regions of the virus and epitopes that are more prevalently recognized. This remarkable breadth of epitope repertoire has implications for vaccine design, cross-reactivity, and immune escape by SARS-CoV-2 variants.

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Topics: Epitope (64%)

21 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1186/S13027-021-00376-1
Abstract: Patients with non-hodgkin lymphomas (NHL) represent a population of special interest during the current Coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19) pandemics. NHLs are associated with disease- and treatment-related immunodeficiencies which may generate unusual COVID-19 dynamics and pose unique management challenges. We report the unusual clinical course of COVID-19 in a patient with mantle cell lymphoma (MCL) exposed to nine doses of Rituximab shortly before infection with severe acute respiratory syndrome corona virus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). He had a prolonged asymptomatic phase, with negative molecular and antibody testing for SARS-CoV-2, followed by a rapidly progressive evolution to severe COVID-19. Despite detection of viral RNA overlapped with first symptoms occurrence, anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibodies displayed an asynchronous pattern, with IgG first appearing 2 days after RNA positivity and IgM never being detected throughout the entire clinical course. While disease-associated immune derangements and/or previous treatments involving anti-CD20 antibodies might have contributed to COVID-19 dynamics in our patient, data suggests that antibody testings, without concurrent molecular assessment for SARS-CoV-2, may turn inadequate for monitoring of MCL patients, and in general NHL patients heavily exposed to anti-CD20 antibodies, during the current pandemics. We suggest that repeated molecular testing of nasopharyngeal swab should be implemented in these subjects despite a negative serology and absence of symptoms of SARS-CoV-2 infection. For the same reasons, a customized strategy needs to be developed for patients exposed to anti-CD20 antibodies, based on different features and mechanism of action of available SARS-CoV-2 vaccines and novel vaccinomics developments.

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Topics: Mantle cell lymphoma (55%), Rituximab (53%), Serology (53%) ... show more

4 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.3389/FIMMU.2021.660632
Lakhveer Singh, Sakshi Bajaj, Manoj Gadewar, Nitin Verma  +4 moreInstitutions (3)
Abstract: The novel SARS-CoV-2virus that caused the disease COVID-19 is currently a pandemic worldwide. The virus requires an alveolar type-2 pneumocyte in the host to initiate its life cycle. The viral S1 spike protein helps in the attachment of the virus on toACE-2 receptors present on type-2 pneumocytes, and the S2 spike protein helps in the fusion of the viral membrane with the host membrane. Fusion of the SARS-CoV-2virus and host membrane is followed by entry of viral RNA into the host cells which is directly translated into the replicase-transcriptase complex (RTC) following viral RNA and structural protein syntheses. As the virus replicates within type-2 pneumocytes, the host immune system is activated and alveolar macrophages start secreting cytokines and chemokines, acting as an inflammatory mediator, and chemotactic neutrophils, monocytes, natural NK cells, and CD8+ T cells initiate the local phagocytosis of infected cells. It is not the virus that kills COVID-19 patients; instead, the aberrant host immune response kills them. Modifying the response from the host immune system could reduce the high mortality due to SARS-CoV-2 infection. The present study examines the viral life cycle intype-2 pneumocytes and resultant host immune response along with possible therapeutic targets.

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Topics: Viral membrane (61%), Immune system (56.99%), Virus (56%) ... show more

1 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.3390/CURRONCOL28050294
03 Sep 2021-Current Oncology
Abstract: Spontaneous regression of metastatic renal cell carcinoma (mRCC) is a rare event, often associated with an activation of innate immunity by various triggers. SARS-CoV-2 infection induces a strong inflammatory response in some patients and a cytokine storm is one of the main causes of severe morbidity and mortality associated with the virus. Here, we describe two cases of patients with histologically and radiologically proven mRCC whose treatment was delayed due to COVID-19 and who experienced spontaneous tumour regression following the infection. Both patients reported here had predominantly pulmonary and mediastinal involvement and underwent nephrectomy. The interval between the diagnosis of COVID-19 and the detection of tumour regression was 3 and 4 months, respectively. Although approved vaccines and other measures are clearly the best way to prevent COVID-19-associated morbidity and mortality in cancer patients, we hypothesize that innate immunity activation by the infection can contribute to tumour regression in special circumstances.

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Topics: Renal cell carcinoma (54%), Nephrectomy (51%)

Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.3839/JABC.2021.038
Su Bin Hyun1, Min Nyeong Ko1, Chang-Gu Hyun1Institutions (1)
Abstract: The emergence and rapid spread of the potentially fatal coronavirus disease 2019, caused due to infection by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2, has led to worldwide interest in developing functional bioactive ingredients that act as immunomodulatory agents. In this study, we aimed to characterize Carica papaya extract and explore its potential as an immuno-modulator by performing in vitro cell screening. Papaya leaf water extract (PLW) was found to significantly increase the levels of nitric oxide (NO) and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) by upregulating inducible nitric oxide synthase and cyclo-oxygenase-2 activity, respectively. Additionally, PLW increased the production of tumor necrosis factor-α and interleukin 1β in RAW 264.7 cells. Furthermore, PLW activated the expression of c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) but not that of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase. These results indicate that PLW increased the production of NO, PGE2, and pro-inflammatory cytokines by activating the JNK and ERK pathways in macrophages, thus demonstrating immunomodulatory properties. Finally, high-performance liquid chromatography fingerprint analysis indicated the presence of rutin, narirutin, and ρ-coumaric acid in PLW (6.30, 119.76, and 47.25 ppm, respectively). Treating cells with these compounds at non-toxic concentrations had no effect on NO production. Taken together, these results suggest that PLW may have potential as an immunity-enhancing supplement. © The Korean Society for Applied Biological Chemistry 2021.

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Topics: Carica (50%), Nitric oxide (50%)

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42 results found


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/J.TRSL.2020.04.007
Abstract: Acute respiratory failure and a systemic coagulopathy are critical aspects of the morbidity and mortality characterizing infection with severe acute respiratory distress syndrome-associated coronavirus-2, the etiologic agent of Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). We examined skin and lung tissues from 5 patients with severe COVID-19 characterized by respiratory failure (n= 5) and purpuric skin rash (n = 3). COVID-19 pneumonitis was predominantly a pauci-inflammatory septal capillary injury with significant septal capillary mural and luminal fibrin deposition and permeation of the interalveolar septa by neutrophils. No viral cytopathic changes were observed and the diffuse alveolar damage (DAD) with hyaline membranes, inflammation, and type II pneumocyte hyperplasia, hallmarks of classic acute respiratory distress syndrome, were not prominent. These pulmonary findings were accompanied by significant deposits of terminal complement components C5b-9 (membrane attack complex), C4d, and mannose binding lectin (MBL)-associated serine protease (MASP)2, in the microvasculature, consistent with sustained, systemic activation of the complement pathways. The purpuric skin lesions similarly showed a pauci-inflammatory thrombogenic vasculopathy, with deposition of C5b-9 and C4d in both grossly involved and normally-appearing skin. In addition, there was co-localization of COVID-19 spike glycoproteins with C4d and C5b-9 in the interalveolar septa and the cutaneous microvasculature of 2 cases examined. In conclusion, at least a subset of sustained, severe COVID-19 may define a type of catastrophic microvascular injury syndrome mediated by activation of complement pathways and an associated procoagulant state. It provides a foundation for further exploration of the pathophysiologic importance of complement in COVID-19, and could suggest targets for specific intervention.

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Topics: Diffuse alveolar damage (57.99%), Complement membrane attack complex (53%), Lung (52%) ... show more

1,273 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1038/S41586-020-2456-9
18 Jun 2020-Nature
Abstract: During the COVID-19 pandemic, SARS-CoV-2 infected millions of people and claimed hundreds of thousands of lives Virus entry into cells depends on the receptor binding domain (RBD) of the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein (S) Although there is no vaccine, it is likely that antibodies will be essential for protection However, little is known about the human antibody response to SARS-CoV-21-5 Here we report on 149 COVID-19 convalescent individuals Plasmas collected an average of 39 days after the onset of symptoms had variable half-maximal pseudovirus neutralizing titres: less than 1:50 in 33% and below 1:1,000 in 79%, while only 1% showed titres above 1:5,000 Antibody sequencing revealed expanded clones of RBD-specific memory B cells expressing closely related antibodies in different individuals Despite low plasma titres, antibodies to three distinct epitopes on RBD neutralized at half-maximal inhibitory concentrations (IC50 values) as low as single digit nanograms per millitre Thus, most convalescent plasmas obtained from individuals who recover from COVID-19 do not contain high levels of neutralizing activity Nevertheless, rare but recurring RBD-specific antibodies with potent antiviral activity were found in all individuals tested, suggesting that a vaccine designed to elicit such antibodies could be broadly effective

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Topics: Epitope (51%), Antibody (51%)

1,092 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1038/S41586-020-2550-Z
15 Jul 2020-Nature
Abstract: Memory T cells induced by previous pathogens can shape susceptibility to, and the clinical severity of, subsequent infections1. Little is known about the presence in humans of pre-existing memory T cells that have the potential to recognize severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Here we studied T cell responses against the structural (nucleocapsid (N) protein) and non-structural (NSP7 and NSP13 of ORF1) regions of SARS-CoV-2 in individuals convalescing from coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) (n = 36). In all of these individuals, we found CD4 and CD8 T cells that recognized multiple regions of the N protein. Next, we showed that patients (n = 23) who recovered from SARS (the disease associated with SARS-CoV infection) possess long-lasting memory T cells that are reactive to the N protein of SARS-CoV 17 years after the outbreak of SARS in 2003; these T cells displayed robust cross-reactivity to the N protein of SARS-CoV-2. We also detected SARS-CoV-2-specific T cells in individuals with no history of SARS, COVID-19 or contact with individuals who had SARS and/or COVID-19 (n = 37). SARS-CoV-2-specific T cells in uninfected donors exhibited a different pattern of immunodominance, and frequently targeted NSP7 and NSP13 as well as the N protein. Epitope characterization of NSP7-specific T cells showed the recognition of protein fragments that are conserved among animal betacoronaviruses but have low homology to 'common cold' human-associated coronaviruses. Thus, infection with betacoronaviruses induces multi-specific and long-lasting T cell immunity against the structural N protein. Understanding how pre-existing N- and ORF1-specific T cells that are present in the general population affect the susceptibility to and pathogenesis of SARS-CoV-2 infection is important for the management of the current COVID-19 pandemic.

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Topics: T cell (65%), Cytotoxic T cell (63%), Epitope (56%) ... show more

930 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1126/SCIENCE.ABF4063
Jennifer M. Dan1, Jennifer M. Dan2, Jose Mateus1, Yu Kato1  +23 moreInstitutions (3)
05 Feb 2021-Science
Abstract: Understanding immune memory to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is critical for improving diagnostics and vaccines and for assessing the likely future course of the COVID-19 pandemic. We analyzed multiple compartments of circulating immune memory to SARS-CoV-2 in 254 samples from 188 COVID-19 cases, including 43 samples at ≥6 months after infection. Immunoglobulin G (IgG) to the spike protein was relatively stable over 6+ months. Spike-specific memory B cells were more abundant at 6 months than at 1 month after symptom onset. SARS-CoV-2-specific CD4+ T cells and CD8+ T cells declined with a half-life of 3 to 5 months. By studying antibody, memory B cell, CD4+ T cell, and CD8+ T cell memory to SARS-CoV-2 in an integrated manner, we observed that each component of SARS-CoV-2 immune memory exhibited distinct kinetics.

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Topics: T cell (60%), Memory B cell (56.99%), Antibody (55%) ... show more

928 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1038/S41577-020-0308-3
Xuetao Cao1Institutions (1)
Abstract: Severe coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is characterized by pneumonia, lymphopenia, exhausted lymphocytes and a cytokine storm. Significant antibody production is observed; however, whether this is protective or pathogenic remains to be determined. Defining the immunopathological changes in patients with COVID-19 provides potential targets for drug discovery and is important for clinical management. In the short time since SARS-CoV2 emerged, much has been learned about the immunopathology of the infection. Here, Xuetao Cao discusses what these early insights imply for drug discovery and clinical management.

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Topics: Immunopathology (54%), Cytokine storm (51%)

838 Citations


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