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Journal ArticleDOI

Insect Fat, a Promising Resource for Biodiesel

19 Nov 2011-Journal of Petroleum & Environmental Biotechnology (OMICS International)-Vol. 4, Iss: 3, pp 1-3

AbstractBiodiesel is one promising approach to reduce the consumption of petroleum. However, biodiesel economy has been hampered by the production of oilseed plants. Therefore, alternative feedstocks are urgently needed to enable biodiesel production from cheaper materials. Insect recourse which is rated as the most diverse animal group is rich and ubiquitous in the world. Insect could convert organic waste into insect fat which was further extracted as a novel feedstock for biodiesel production, and then the residual after extraction can be used as protein feedstuff. This paper reviewed the research and developmental progress on insect fat, especially the possibility of insect fat as potential feedstock of biodiesel.

Topics: Biodiesel production (59%), Biodiesel (54%)

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Citations
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Journal ArticleDOI
29 May 2017
TL;DR: Although BSF larvae contain high protein levels, and other macro- and micronutrients important for animal feed, available studies suggest that it could only partially replace traditional feedstuff, because high or complete replacement resulted in reduced performance.
Abstract: The black soldier fly (BSF; Hermetia illucens L; Diptera: Stratiomyidae) has been studied for its capability to convert organic waste to high quality protein, control certain harmful bacteria and insect pests, provide potential chemical precursors to produce biodiesel and for its use as feed for a variety of animals Nutritional value of BSF larvae is discussed, as well as the effect of biotic and abiotic factors on both larval body composition and performance Although BSF larvae contain high protein levels (from 37 to 63% dry matter; DM), and other macro- and micronutrients important for animal feed, the available studies on including BSF larvae in feed rations for poultry, pigs and fish suggest that it could only partially replace traditional feedstuff, because high or complete replacement resulted in reduced performance This is due to factors such as high fat content (from 7 to 39% DM), ash (from 9 to 28% DM), and consequences of processing Therefore, further studies are needed on nutrient composit

201 citations


Cites background from "Insect Fat, a Promising Resource fo..."

  • ...Fat content accounted for about 30% of the BSF larval biomass fed on manures, but chicken manure supported maximal larval growth and crude fat content (Li et al., 2011b) (Table 1)....

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  • ...Thus, BSF larvae can convert dairy manure into biodiesel (Li et al., 2011c), and compared with oil crops, BSF has higher reproductive capacity and a shorter lifecycle....

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  • ...BSF production requires less land than growing oil crops and may thereby alleviate conflicts between human food use and industrial use of crops (Li et al., 2011b,c)....

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  • ...…1977 Chicken manure 40.1±2.5 3 27.9±8.3 3 Arango Gutiérrez et al., 2004; Li et al., 2011b; Sheppard et al., 1994 Swine manure 43.6; 43.2 2 26.4±7.6 4 Li et al., 2011b; Manzano-Agugliaro et al., 2012; Newton et al., 2005b; St-Hilaire et al., 2007b; Palm kernel meal 42.1; 45.8 2 27.5 1 Rachmawati…...

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  • ...…have been found to contain 58- 72% saturated fatty acids and 19-40% mono- and polyunsaturated fatty acids of total fat content (Kroeckel et al., 2012; Li et al., 2011c; Makkar et al., 2014; Surendra et al., 2016), containing high levels of lauric, palmitic and oleic acid (Surendra et al., 2016)....

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Journal ArticleDOI
Longyu Zheng1, Yanfei Hou1, Wu Li1, Sen Yang1, Qing Li1, Ziniu Yu1 
Abstract: Biodiesel has been considered as one of the promising non-fossil fuels, but its development also have promoted a drastic debate due to its current production status, such as oilseeds dependency, arable land requirement, high cost and long-term impact on food prices. Therefore alternative resources with considerable lower cost that could be used for biodiesel production have been studied. Immature life stage of some insects is able to consume various organic wastes for fat accumulation. This high fat containing insect has the potential to serve as biodiesel feedstock. In this study, larval grease extracted from yellow mealworm beetle (Tenebrio molitor L.) (YMB), a post-harvest scavenger, was investigated for finding its potential as a substitute of oilseeds. Decayed vegetables were used to feed YMB and after 9 weeks, then the grease was extracted for biodiesel production. About 34.2 g biodiesel was obtained from 234.8 g dried YMB larval biomass. The main fatty acids of YMB biodiesel were linolenic acid (19.7%), palmitic acid (17.6%), linoleic acid (16.3%) and stearic acid (11.4%). Most of the properties of the YMB biodiesel fed on decayed vegetables met the standard EN 14214, including ester content (96.8%), density (860 kg/m3), flash point (127 °C), cetane number (58), water content (300 mg/kg), and methanol content (0.2%). From comprehensive analysis on the effect to society, economy and environment, it can be concluded that YMB can recycle organic wastes into clean energy with low cost.

59 citations


Cites background from "Insect Fat, a Promising Resource fo..."

  • ...BSFL can convert organic wastes into biodiesel and protein feedstuff, which is in accordance with the concept of circular economy in short lifecycle, while the energy plants need long lifecycle and plenty of land which do avoid conflict with food necessary for human beings [16]....

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Journal ArticleDOI
Sen Yang1, Qing Li1, Yang Gao1, Longyu Zheng1, Ziduo Liu1 
Abstract: Although biodiesel is a sustainable and renewable diesel fuel, the current feedstock predominantly from edible oils limits the economic feasibility of biodiesel production and thus the development of a cost-effective non-food feedstock is really essential. In this study, approximately 21.6% of crude grease was extracted from housefly ( Musca domestica L.) larvae reared on swine manure, and the extracted grease was evaluated for biodiesel production concerning the variables affecting the yield of acid-catalyzed production of methyl esters and the properties of the housefly larvae-based biodiesel. The optimized process of 8:1 methanol/grease (mol/mol) with 2 vol% H 2 SO 4 reacted at 70 °C for 2 h resulted in a 95.7% conversion rate from free fatty acid (FFA) into methyl esters. A 90.3% conversion rate of triglycerides (crude grease) to its esters was obtained from alkaline trans-esterification using sodium hydroxide as catalyst. The major fatty acid components of this larvae grease were palmitic (29.1%), oleic (23.3%), palmitoletic (17.4%) and linoleic (17.2%). The housefly larvae-based biodiesel has reached the ASTM D6751-10 standard in density (881 kg/m 3 ), viscosity (5.64 mm 2 /s), ester content (96.8%), flash point (145 °C), and cetane number (52). These findings suggest that the grease derived from swine manure-grown housefly larvae can be a feasible non-food feedstock for biodiesel production.

50 citations


Cites background from "Insect Fat, a Promising Resource fo..."

  • ...Using a cheaper feedstock like the grease from maggots grown on organic waste has proved to be an alternative to lower the biodiesel costs, but can also mitigate the environmental pressure [12]....

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Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: Swine manure may cause environmental pollution and resource waste if not handled properly on pig farms. In this paper, the technology for pig manure biodegradation and biodiesel production using Chrysomya megacephala (Fabricius) is described. About 700 kg of fresh pig manure (73% moisture) can be converted within one week into 18.2 kg dried larvae biomass containing about 21.11% oil in a pilot plant. The properties of the oil extracted from the larvae meal treated with three different drying methods were compared, indicating that the drying method may affect the properties of feedstock oil. The acid value (1.9 mg KOH/g), iodine value (86.3 gI/100 g), melt point (3.1 °C) and peroxide value (0.08 meq/kg) of the oil extracted from the larvae treated with both boiling water and oven-drying were superior to the values of the larvae treated with either oven-drying or sun-drying directly. The main fatty acids of the swine manure C. megacephala larvae oil were found to be composed of palmitic acid (36.91%), oleic acid (27.67%), palmitoleic acid (10.89%) and linoleic acid (9.49%). Most of the properties of the biodiesel converted from the feedstock oil by alkaline-catalyst transesterification met the EN 14214 standard in terms of density (0.89 g/cm 3 ), viscosity (5.1 mm 2 /s), ester content (96.6%), flash point (138 °C), cetane number (56), water content (0.02%) and acid value (0.28 mg KOH/g). This study suggests that the swine manure-grown C. megacephala larvae could be a feasible feedstock for a large-scale biodiesel production.

29 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
24 Sep 2012-PLOS ONE
TL;DR: Property of the BPL oil-based biodiesel are within the specifications of ASTM D6751, suggesting that the solid organic waste-grown BPL could be a feasible non-food feedstock for biodiesel production.
Abstract: The feedstocks for biodiesel production are predominantly from edible oils and the high cost of the feedstocks prevents its large scale application. In this study, we evaluated the oil extracted from Boettcherisca peregrine larvae (BPL) grown on solid organic wastes for biodiesel production. The oil contents detected in the BPL converted from swine manure, fermentation residue and the degreased food waste, were 21.7%, 19.5% and 31.1%, respectively. The acid value of the oil is 19.02 mg KOH/g requiring a two-step transesterification process. The optimized process of 12∶1 methanol/oil (mol/mol) with 1.5% H2SO4 reacted at 70°C for 120 min resulted in a 90.8% conversion rate of free fatty acid (FFA) by esterification, and a 92.3% conversion rate of triglycerides into esters by alkaline transesterification. Properties of the BPL oil-based biodiesel are within the specifications of ASTM D6751, suggesting that the solid organic waste-grown BPL could be a feasible non-food feedstock for biodiesel production.

24 citations


Cites background from "Insect Fat, a Promising Resource fo..."

  • ...Therefore, a promising solution to environmental and energy crises is to use non-edible oils, such as insect grease/oil derived from solid organic wastes [5]....

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  • ...) can be converted into insect oil and nutrition [5]....

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References
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4,925 citations


"Insect Fat, a Promising Resource fo..." refers background in this paper

  • ...As a renewable fuel, biodiesel is an important resource to provide energy for the world’s transportation needs [1,2]....

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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Transportation biofuels such as synfuel hydrocarbons or cellulosic ethanol, if produced from low-input biomass grown on agriculturally marginal land or from waste biomass, could provide much greater supplies and environmental benefits than food-basedBiofuels.
Abstract: Negative environmental consequences of fossil fuels and concerns about petroleum supplies have spurred the search for renewable transportation biofuels. To be a viable alternative, a biofuel should provide a net energy gain, have environmental benefits, be economically competitive, and be producible in large quantities without reducing food supplies. We use these criteria to evaluate, through life-cycle accounting, ethanol from corn grain and biodiesel from soybeans. Ethanol yields 25% more energy than the energy invested in its production, whereas biodiesel yields 93% more. Compared with ethanol, biodiesel releases just 1.0%, 8.3%, and 13% of the agricultural nitrogen, phosphorus, and pesticide pollutants, respectively, per net energy gain. Relative to the fossil fuels they displace, greenhouse gas emissions are reduced 12% by the production and combustion of ethanol and 41% by biodiesel. Biodiesel also releases less air pollutants per net energy gain than ethanol. These advantages of biodiesel over ethanol come from lower agricultural inputs and more efficient conversion of feedstocks to fuel. Neither biofuel can replace much petroleum without impacting food supplies. Even dedicating all U.S. corn and soybean production to biofuels would meet only 12% of gasoline demand and 6% of diesel demand. Until recent increases in petroleum prices, high production costs made biofuels unprofitable without subsidies. Biodiesel provides sufficient environmental advantages to merit subsidy. Transportation biofuels such as synfuel hydrocarbons or cellulosic ethanol, if produced from low-input biomass grown on agriculturally marginal land or from waste biomass, could provide much greater supplies and environmental benefits than food-based biofuels.

2,708 citations


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  • ...As a renewable fuel, biodiesel is an important resource to provide energy for the world’s transportation needs [1,2]....

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Journal ArticleDOI
17 Jul 2009-Science
TL;DR: Exploiting multiple feedstocks, under new policies and accounting rules, to balance biofuel production, food security, and greenhouse-gas reduction and to accept the undesirable impacts of biofuels done wrong.
Abstract: Recent analyses of the energy and greenhouse-gas performance of alternative biofuels have ignited a controversy that may be best resolved by applying two simple principles. In a world seeking solutions to its energy, environmental, and food challenges, society cannot afford to miss out on the global greenhouse-gas emission reductions and the local environmental and societal benefits when biofuels are done right. However, society also cannot accept the undesirable impacts of biofuels done wrong.

1,475 citations


"Insect Fat, a Promising Resource fo..." refers background in this paper

  • ...The raw materials being exploited commercially are the edible oils such as rapeseed, soybean, palm, sunflower, etc, and which also are basic requirement as food [4]....

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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: This review focuses on energy storage and release in insects and summarizes current understanding of the mechanisms underlying these processes in insects.
Abstract: The fat body plays major roles in the life of insects. It is a dynamic tissue involved in multiple metabolic functions. One of these functions is to store and release energy in response to the energy demands of the insect. Insects store energy reserves in the form of glycogen and triglycerides in the adipocytes, the main fat body cell. Insect adipocytes can store a great amount of lipid reserves as cytoplasmic lipid droplets. Lipid metabolism is essential for growth and reproduction and provides energy needed during extended nonfeeding periods. This review focuses on energy storage and release and summarizes current understanding of the mechanisms underlying these processes in insects.

1,347 citations


"Insect Fat, a Promising Resource fo..." refers background in this paper

  • ...Insect fat play an important role in the course of evolution, it can serve as a support, reproduction, metamorphosis and other energy sources [16]....

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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: An overview of the technologies in the production of biodiesel from microalgae, including the various modes of cultivation for theproduction of oil-rich microalgal biomass, as well as the subsequent downstream processing for biodiesel production is provided.
Abstract: Biodiesel has received much attention in recent years. Although numerous reports are available on the production of biodiesel from vegetable oils of terraneous oil-plants, such as soybean, sunflower and palm oils, the production of biodiesel from microalgae is a newly emerging field. Microalgal biotechnology appears to possess high potential for biodiesel production because a significant increase in lipid content of microalgae is now possible through heterotrophic cultivation and genetic engineering approaches. This paper provides an overview of the technologies in the production of biodiesel from microalgae, including the various modes of cultivation for the production of oil-rich microalgal biomass, as well as the subsequent downstream processing for biodiesel production. The advances and prospects of using microalgal biotechnology for biodiesel production are discussed.

999 citations


"Insect Fat, a Promising Resource fo..." refers background in this paper

  • ...In this context, some had searched for new renewable feedstock for biodiesel, such as microalgae [6], and Jatropha curcas [7]....

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