scispace - formally typeset

Journal ArticleDOI

Insect folivory in Didymopanax vinosum (Apiaceae) in a vegetation mosaic of Brazilian cerrado.

01 May 2006-Brazilian Journal of Biology (Instituto Internacional de Ecologia)-Vol. 66, pp 671-680

TL;DR: The findings suggest that, at least in this species, other chemical compounds or variables related to plant apparency and resource availability to herbivores (e.g. plant architecture) might play a more decisive role in the spatial variation of folivory than the nutritional and defensive traits that were analyzed.

AbstractSusceptibility of Didymopanax vinosum (Apiaceae) to insect herbivores was investigated in three sites of a cerrado mosaic - composed of campo cerrado (a grassland with scattered trees and shrubs), cerradao (a tall woodland) and cerrado sensu stricto (intermediate between the two) - situated in Cerrado Pe-de-Gigante, Santa Rita do Passa Quatro, SP, Brazil. We also examined the relationship of folivory with the composition and abundance of the insect herbivore fauna, and with several nutritional and defensive plant characteristics (water, nitrogen, cellulose, lignin, tannin leaf contents, and leaf toughness). We collected insects associated with D. vinosum every month, and we measured leaf damage every three months. In general, the annual folivory differed among sites. It reached the highest rates in site 1 and site 3: 7.33 and 8.5 percent, respectively. Only 1.32 percent of annual folivory was observed in site 2. These levels resulted from the higher abundance, in sites 1 and 3, of the thrips Liothrips didymopanacis (Phlaeothripidae), the most abundant herbivore sampled, responsible for more than 90 percent of the observed damage. However, no significant relationship was found between insect activity and the chemical and physical composition of the leaves. Our findings suggest that, at least in this species, other chemical compounds or variables related to plant apparency and resource availability to herbivores (e.g. plant architecture) might play a more decisive role in the spatial variation of folivory than the nutritional and defensive traits that were analyzed.

...read more

Content maybe subject to copyright    Report

Citations
More filters

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: It is suggested that herbivory rates in the transition dry forest‐cerrado may be driven by soil nutrient content, which is thought to influence leaf sclerophylly.
Abstract: This study aimed to compare canopy herbivore diversity and resultant insect damage to vegetation in two distinct and adjacent ecosystems, specifically a dry forest ecosystem and a cerrado (savanna) ecosystem that occur together in an abrupt transition zone in southeastern Brazil. In the dry forest, the canopy was reached using a single rope climbing technique, whereas the shorter canopy of the cerrado was assessed using a 7m ladder. Insect specimens were collected by beating the foliage, and 20 representative leaves were collected to calculate the specific leaf mass (SLM) and leaf area loss through herbivory. Also, we collected ten soil samples from each habitat to determine soil nutrient content. We sampled 118 herbivorous insects from ten families, mostly in dry forest trees (96 individuals belonging to 31 species). A higher abundance of chewing and sap-sucking insects were observed in dry forest trees than in cerrado trees. The same pattern was observed for the richness of chewers, with a higher degree of diversity of chewers found in dry forest trees than in cerrado trees. Herbivorous insects were not affected by SLM regardless of guild and habitat. However, we observed a negative correlation between the herbivory rate and the specific leaf mass (SLM). The cerrado trees showed a higher SLM and lower herbivory rates than trees occurring in the dry forest. These results suggest that herbivory rates in the transition dry forest‐cerrado may be driven by soil nutrient content, which is thought to influence leaf sclerophylly.

59 citations


Cites background from "Insect folivory in Didymopanax vino..."

  • ...Also, Ribeiro (2003) reported annual rates of leaf area loss of 18 percent for Tabebuia (Bignoniaceae), and Varanda and Pais (2006) found rates of 1.3–8.5 percent in Didymopanax vinosum (Apiaceae) in the Brazilian Cerrado....

    [...]


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: It is argued that herbivory exerts significant selection pressure on these plant defense traits, and grouped the species into defense syndromes according to their traits.
Abstract: Plants have traits against herbivory that may occur together and increase defense efficiency. We tested whether there are defense syndromes in a cerrado community and, if so, whether there is a phylogenetic signal in them. We measured nine defense traits from a woodland cerrado community in southeastern Brazil. We tested the correlation between all pairs of traits and grouped the species into defense syndromes according to their traits. Most pairwise correlations of traits were complementary. Plants with lower specific leaf area also presented tougher leaves, with low nitrogen, more trichomes, and tannins. We found five syndromes: two with low defenses and high nutritional quality, two with high defenses and low nutritional quality, and one with traits compensating each other. There were two predominant strategies against herbivory in cerrado: “tolerance” and “low nutritional quality” syndromes. Phylogeny did not determine the suite of traits species presented. We argue that herbivory exerts significant selection pressure on these plant defense traits.

52 citations


Cites background from "Insect folivory in Didymopanax vino..."

  • ...In the Brazilian cerrado, herbivory surveys have focused on one species (e.g., Varanda and Pais 2006) or one defense trait, such as the presence of extra-floral nectaries in ant associations (e.g., Oliveira 1997; Oliveira and Freitas 2004) or the presence of latex (e.g., Diniz et al. 1999)....

    [...]

  • ...In the Brazilian cerrado, herbivory surveys have focused on one species (e.g., Varanda and Pais 2006 ) or one defense trait, such as the presence of extra-floral nectaries in ant associations (e.g., Oliveira 1997; Oliveira and Freitas 2004) or the presence of latex (e.g., Diniz et al. 1999)....

    [...]


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The results suggest that the described herbivory patterns are robust for advanced successional stages (intermediate and late) of the SDTFs, but may not apply to earlysuccessional stages of these forests.
Abstract: This study determined the temporal patterns of herbivory on Handroanthus ochraceus (Cham.) Mattos (Bignoniaceae) along a successional gradient in a seasonally dry tropical forest (SDTF) in southeastern Brazil. We assessed the diversity of free-feeding herbivore insects (sap-suckers and leaf-chewers), leaf herbivory rates, leaf nitrogen content, phenolic compounds, and spider abundance through the rainy season in three different successional stages (early, intermediate, and late). Sampling was conducted in December, at the beginning of the rainy season (with fully expanded young leaves), February (mid-aged leaves), and April, at the end of rainy season (old leaves). Fifteen reproductive trees of H. ochraceus were sampled per successional stage in each month of sampling. Herbivore diversity was highest in the early stage of succession, but herbivory rates were highest in the intermediate and late stages. This result was probably related to differences in herbivore community composition and leaf quality across successional stages. The highest herbivore abundance was found in April in the early successional stage. In addition, we found low levels of herbivory in the intermediate and late successional stages in the second half of the rainy season. For each successional stage, leaf nitrogen content decreased through the rainy season, whereas the concentration of phenolic compounds increased. For the intermediate and late successional stages, the temporal changes that took place as the rainy season progressed corroborated the following hypotheses postulated for SDTFs: (1) both the abundance of chewing insects and herbivory rates decreased, (2) the abundance of natural enemies (i.e., spiders) increased, and (3) leaf quality decreased. These results suggest that the described herbivory patterns are robust for advanced successional stages (intermediate and late) of the SDTFs, but may not apply to early successional stages of these forests.

39 citations


Cites background or result from "Insect folivory in Didymopanax vino..."

  • ...…H. ochraceus corroborates the diversity patterns described in other studies conducted in tropical forests, with sap-sucking cicadellids and folivorous chrysomelids being the most abundant canopy herbivorous insects (Basset et al. 2001; Campos et al. 2006; Varanda and Pais 2006; Neves et al. 2010a)....

    [...]

  • ...ochraceus corroborates the diversity patterns described in other studies conducted in tropical forests, with sap-sucking cicadellids and folivorous chrysomelids being the most abundant canopy herbivorous insects (Basset et al. 2001; Campos et al. 2006; Varanda and Pais 2006; Neves et al. 2010a)....

    [...]

  • ...Several studies have recorded such an absence of spatial linkage between the herbivore diversity and herbivory rates (Ernest 1989; Campos et al. 2006; Varanda and Pais 2006)....

    [...]


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The present study reveals an ontogenetic succession pattern for herbivore insects along the C. langsdorffii growth, probably due to both indirect and direct benefits from the host plant architecture and quality.
Abstract: Plant development is the main factor that determines the insect-ontogeny interaction, since it leads to variations in resource quality and availability. The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that plant development and varying tannin concentration leads to changes in species richness, abundance and composition of ants, free-feeding herbivores and galling insects associated with Copaifera langsdorffii (Fabaceae). The plant ontogeny and tannin concentration effects on insects were tested on 60 individuals with height varying from 0.9 to 11.0 m. A positive correlation was observed for tree height and species richness and abundance of ants, free-feeding and galling insects. In contrast, we did not find a significant relation between leaf tannin concentration and plant height, or richness and abundance of the different insect guilds. The assemblage of ants (composition of species) did not change between saplings and adults of C. langsdorffii. However, the assemblage of free-feeding herbivores and galling insects varied between the two development stages studied. The present study reveals an ontogenetic succession pattern for herbivore insects along the C. langsdorffii growth, probably due to both indirect and direct benefits from the host plant architecture and quality. Those plants with more complex architectures should support a wider diversity of insects, since they present higher number of sites for egg laying, housing, feeding and better environmental conditions. This is the first work to investigate the host plant ontogeny effect on insects in Cerrado “Savanna” vegetation. The pattern described, along with other previous studies, suggests a vast occurrence of ontogenetic succession in tropical areas.

36 citations


Cites background from "Insect folivory in Didymopanax vino..."

  • ...Several studies cited sap-sucking cicadellids and folivorous curculionids as the most abundant canopy herbivorous insects (Basset et al. 2001; Campos et al. 2006; Varanda and Pais 2006; Neves et al. 2010)....

    [...]


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: This study shows that P. obscuricornis disrupted the facultative mutualism between C. crassus and B. malifolia, since ants received extrafloral nectar from plants, but were unable to deter herbivore thrips.
Abstract: Herbivores are attracted to young shoots and leaves because of their tender tissues. However, in extrafloral nectaried plants, young leaves also attract patrolling ants, which may chase or prey on herbivores. We examined this scenario in extrafloral nectaried shrubs of Banisteriopsis malifolia resprouting after fire, which promoted both the aseasonal production of leaves and the activity of extrafloral nectaries (EFNs). Results were compared between resprouting (burned) and unburned control plants. The aggressive ant species Camponotus crassus and the herbivorous thrips Pseudophilothrips obscuricornis were respectively rapidly attracted to resprouting plants because of the active EFNs and their less sclerophyllous leaves. The abundance of these insects was almost negligible in the control (unburned) shrubs. Ants failed to protect B. malifolia, as no thrips were preyed upon or injured by ants in resprouting plants. Consequently, on average, 37 % of leaves from resprouting shrubs had necrosis marks. Upon contact with ants, thrips released small liquid droplets from their abdomen, which rapidly displaced ants from the surroundings. This study shows that P. obscuricornis disrupted the facultative mutualism between C. crassus and B. malifolia, since ants received extrafloral nectar from plants, but were unable to deter herbivore thrips.

21 citations


Cites background from "Insect folivory in Didymopanax vino..."

  • ...The influence of plant architecture on the occurrence of thrips has rarely been studied but, in some cases, it may play a more decisive role on thrips’ performance than plant nutrients (Varanda and Pais 2006)....

    [...]


References
More filters

Book
30 Sep 1988
Abstract: Definitions of diversity. Measuring species diversity. Choosing an index and interpreting diversity measures. Sampling problems. Structural diversity. Applications of diversity measures. Summary.

10,689 citations


"Insect folivory in Didymopanax vino..." refers methods in this paper

  • ...We determined the abundance and richness for each site, and two annual similarity indexes among sites: the Sorensen index (C S ) for qualitative, and the Morisita-Horn index (C mH ) for quantitative comparisons (Magurran, 1991)....

    [...]


Journal ArticleDOI
22 Nov 1985-Science
TL;DR: Resource availability in the environment is proposed as the major determinant of both the amount and type of plant defense, and theories on the evolution of plant defenses are compared with other theories.
Abstract: The degree of herbivory and the effectiveness of defense varies widely among plant species. Resource availability in the environment is proposed as the major determinant of both the amount and type of plant defense. When resource are limited, plants with inherently slow growth are favored over those with fast growth rates; slow rates in turn favor large investments in antiherbivore defenses. Leaf lifetime, also determined by resource availability, affects the relative advantages of defenses with different turnover rates. Relative limitation of different resources also constrains the types of defenses. The proposals are compared with other theories on the evolution of plant defenses.

3,391 citations


"Insect folivory in Didymopanax vino..." refers background in this paper

  • ...According to Coley et al. (1985), plant species in environments with low resource availability (such as cerrado) have been selected to have a high investment in quantitative defenses including tannins and lignins, which reduce the digestibility of the plant tissues....

    [...]

  • ...…the importance of defensive compounds and nutritional quality in plant–herbivory interactions at the interspecific level (Feeny, 1975; Coley, 1983; Coley et al., 1985), we suggest that spatial variation in D. vinosum folivory among the sampled sites is not influenced by the plant traits that…...

    [...]


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The results suggest a new proposition, the resource concentration hypothesis, which states that herbivores are more likely to find and remain on hosts that are growing in dense or nearly pure stands; that the most specialized species frequently attain higher relative densities in simple environments; and that biomass tends to become concentrated in a few species, causing a decrease in the diversity of herbsivores in pure stands.
Abstract: Collards were grown at Ithaca, New York, in two experimental habitats: pure stands and single rows that were bounded on each side by diverse, meadow vegetation. The arthropods associated with these plants were sampled on 20 dates over a 3—year period. The status of the herbivore species was measured by their rank in biomass in each sample. The two most prominent species, Phyllotreta cruciferae and Pieris rapae, maintained high status throughout the investigation, but another important species, Brevicoryne brassicae, was absent for an entire season. Pit feeders usually formed the most important herbivore guild. Nevertheless, the guild spectrum, which describes the functional structure of the fauna, varied widely in time and space. The size distributions of species and of individuals were both highly skewed toward the smaller sizes. Herbivore loads, the mean biomass of herbivores per 100 g of consumable foliage, were consistently higher in the pure stands. Moreover, herbivore loads varied significantly with season in each experimental habitat. Both the number of herbivore species and the diversity of the herbivore load were greater in the diverse habitat. Biomass was more heavily concentrated among the prominent herbivores in the pure stands; increased dominance, rather than differences in species richness, appeared to be the major cause for the lower herbivore diversity in this habitat. The diversity of predators and parasitoids was higher in the pure stands. Most of the abundant species found on collards shared a similar narrow range of hosts. As a result the species in this core group of herbivores and parasitoids were regularly associated with each other. Predators and the less abundant herbivores tended to be less specialized and served to link the collard association with the surrounding community. Plant—arthropod associations are representative of component communities, well—integrated systems that form portions of larger compound communities. This distinction facilitates the analysis of community structure. Microclimates and the effectiveness of "enemies" did not appear to differ sufficiently in the two experimental habitats to account for the observed differences in the herbivore load. The results suggest a new proposition, the resource concentration hypothesis, which states that herbivores are more likely to find and remain on hosts that are growing in dense or nearly pure stands; that the most specialized species frequently attain higher relative densities in simple environments; and that, as a result, biomass tends to become concentrated in a few species, causing a decrease in the diversity of herbivores in pure stands.

2,568 citations


"Insect folivory in Didymopanax vino..." refers background in this paper

  • ...Secondly, as stated by the resourceconcentration hypothesis (Root, 1973), there is a higher probability of herbivores finding, remaining on, and consequently becoming more abundant on hosts growing at a high density or abundance....

    [...]


Book ChapterDOI
Paul Feeny1
TL;DR: A test of how far understanding of insect ecology has progressed will be the authors' ability to predict how patterns vary from one kind of community to another and how they will change when subjected to natural or human disturbance.
Abstract: A major objective of insect ecology is to explain observed patterns of interaction between plants and herbivorous insects. We would like to understand both how such patterns are maintained in ecological time and also how they have come about in evolutionary time. A test of how far such understanding has progressed will be our ability to predict how patterns vary from one kind of community to another and how they will change when subjected to natural or human disturbance.

2,322 citations


"Insect folivory in Didymopanax vino..." refers background in this paper

  • ...Larger plants provide two types of benefits for herbivores: higher apparency (Feeny, 1976; Karban, 1993), which renders Braz....

    [...]


Book
01 Jan 1984

1,489 citations


"Insect folivory in Didymopanax vino..." refers background in this paper

  • ...Strong et al. (1984) reported several studies suggesting that the effect of plant density varies according to the insect species....

    [...]