scispace - formally typeset
Search or ask a question
Book ChapterDOI

Institutional Completeness of Ethnic Communities and the Personal Relations of Immigrants

01 Sep 1964-American Journal of Sociology (Palgrave Macmillan, London)-Vol. 70, Iss: 2, pp 77-94
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors adopted the view that some of the most crucial factors bearing on the absorption of immigrants would be found in the social organ-ization of the communities which the immigrant contacts in the receiving country.
Abstract: Many researchers, in attempting to explain the integration of immigrants, have stressed the factors pertaining to the social background, the motivation, and the primary group affiliations of the immigrant.2 In the present study the view was adopted that some of the most crucial factors bearing on the absorption of immigrants would be found in the social organ-ization of the communities which the immigrant contacts in the receiving country. There are three communities which are relevant: the community of his ethnicity, the native (i.e., receiving) community, and the other ethnic communities.
Citations
More filters
Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: It is argued that assimilation theory has not lost its utility for the study of contemporary immigration to the United States and some of the evidence about the socioeconomic and residential assimilation of recent immigrant groups is sifted through.
Abstract: Assimilation theory has been subject to intensive critique for decades. Yet no other framework has provided the social science community with as deep a corpus of cumulative findings concerning the incorporation of immigrants and their descendants. We argue that assimilation theory has not lost its utility for the study of contemporary immigration to the United States. In making our case, we review critically the canonical account of assimilation provided by Milton Gordon and others ; we refer to Shibutani and Kwan's theory of ethnic stratification to suggest some directions to take in reformulating assimilation theory. We also examine some of the arguments frequently made to distinguish between the earlier mass immigration of Europeans and the immigration of the contemporary era and find them to be inconclusive. Finally, we sift through some of the evidence about the socioeconomic and residential assimilation of recent immigrant groups. Though the record is clearly mixed, we find evidence consistent with the view that assimilation is taking place, albeit unevenly

1,984 citations


Cites background from "Institutional Completeness of Ethni..."

  • ...levels into account dates at least as far back as Breton's (1964) hypothesis that an ethnic community's "institutional completeness" influences its members'...

    [...]

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, the authors evaluated three contentions about the Community Question: Community is Lost, Saved or Liberted, and the data provided broad support for the Liberated argument, in conjunction with some portions of the Saved argument.
Abstract: The Community Question has set the agenda for much or much of sociology. It is the question of how large-scale social systemic divisions of labor affect the organization and content of primary ties. Network analysis is proposed as a useful approach to the Community Question, because, by focusing on linkages, it avoids the a priori confinement of analysis to solidary groupings and territorial units. Three contentions about the Question are evaluated: arguments that Community is Lost, Saved or Liberted. Data are presented about the structure and use of the "intimate" networks of 845 adult residents of East York, Toronto. Intimate networks are found to be prevalent, composed of both kin and nonkin, nonlocal, asymmetric, and of sparse density. Help in dealing with both emergencies and everyday matters is available from almost all intimate networks, but from only a minority of intimate ties. The data provide broad support for the Liberated argument, in conjunction with some portions of the Saved argument.

1,354 citations

01 Sep 2002
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors present a survey of the types of U.S. school programs provided for these linguistically and culturally diverse students, focusing on English language learners' (ELLs/LEPs) academic achievement in Grades K-12.
Abstract: Our research from 1985 to 2001 has focused on analyzing the great variety of education services provided for language minority (LM) students in U.S. public schools and the resulting long-term academic achievement of these students. This five-year research study (1996-2001) is our most recent overview of the types of U.S. school programs provided for these linguistically and culturally diverse students, especially focusing on English language learners’ (ELLs/LEPs) academic achievement in Grades K-12. This study includes qualitative and quantitative research findings from five urban and rural research sites in the northeast, northwest, south-central, and southeast U.S. It is designed to answer urgent policy questions of interest to the federal and state governments of the United States, since this demographic group is projected to be 40 percent of the school-age population by the 2030s and most U.S. schools are currently under-educating this student group. Overall, this research provides whole school district views of policy decision-making that is data-driven regarding designing, implementing, evaluating, and reforming the education of LM students.

1,267 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The authors examine various approaches to explaining ethnic enterprise, using a framework based on three dimensions: an ethnic group's access to opportunities, the characteristics of a group, and emergent strategies.
Abstract: We examine various approaches to explaining ethnic enterprise, using a framework based on three dimensions: an ethnic group's access to opportunities, the characteristics of a group, and emergent strategies A common theme pervades research on ethnic business: Ethnic groups adapt to the resources made available by their environments, which vary substantially across societies and over time Four issues emerge as requiring greater attention: the reciprocal relation between ethnicity and entrepreneurship, more careful use of ethnic labels and categories in research, a need for more multigroup, comparative research, and more process-oriented research designs

1,247 citations

01 Sep 2002
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors present a survey of the types of U.S. school programs provided for these linguistically and culturally diverse students, focusing on English language learners' (ELLs/LEPs) academic achievement in Grades K-12.
Abstract: Our research from 1985 to 2001 has focused on analyzing the great variety of education services provided for language minority (LM) students in U.S. public schools and the resulting long-term academic achievement of these students. This five-year research study (1996-2001) is our most recent overview of the types of U.S. school programs provided for these linguistically and culturally diverse students, especially focusing on English language learners’ (ELLs/LEPs) academic achievement in Grades K-12. This study includes qualitative and quantitative research findings from five urban and rural research sites in the northeast, northwest, south-central, and southeast U.S. It is designed to answer urgent policy questions of interest to the federal and state governments of the United States, since this demographic group is projected to be 40 percent of the school-age population by the 2030s and most U.S. schools are currently under-educating this student group. Overall, this research provides whole school district views of policy decision-making that is data-driven regarding designing, implementing, evaluating, and reforming the education of LM students.

994 citations


Cites background from "Institutional Completeness of Ethni..."

  • ...However, the community did not have sufficient ‘institutional completeness’ (Breton, 1964) to...

    [...]

References
More filters
Book
01 Jan 1960
TL;DR: Vaste etude monographique sur un groupe d'immigrants and les problemes d'assimilation qu'ils rencontrent dans une communaute urbaine as discussed by the authors.
Abstract: Vaste etude monographique sur un groupe d'immigrants et les problemes d'assimilation qu'ils rencontrent dans une communaute urbaine

1,603 citations

Book ChapterDOI
TL;DR: In this article, the authors make explicit the logical structure of a typology and the criteria by which types are to be distinguished must be selected carefully, and make a distinction between emigrants motives and the social causes of emigration analysis.
Abstract: The best known model for the analysis of migration is the typology constructed some years ago by Fairchild who classifies migration into invasion conquest colonization and immigration. Fairchild uses 2 main criteria as his axes: the difference in level of culture; and whether or not the movement was predominantly peaceful. His 4 types can be represented schematically. This criticism of Fairchilds classification illustrates 2 general points: that it is useful to make explicit the logical structure of a typology; and that the criteria by which types are to be distinguished must be selected carefully. Together with most other analysts of migration Fairchild implies that man/woman is everywhere sedentary remaining fixed until impelled to move by some force. This can be matched by an opposite i.e. man/woman migrates because of wanderlust. Like all such universals these cannot explain differential behavior. It might be better to say that a social group at rest or a social group in motion tends to remain so unless impelled to change for with any viable pattern of life a value system is developed to support that pattern. Sometimes the basic problem is not why people migrate but why they do not. The fact that the familiar push pull polarity implies a universal sedentary quality is only 1 of its faults. The push factors alleged to "cause" emigration ordinarily comprise a heterogeneous array ranging from an agricultural crisis to the spirit of adventure from the development of shipping to overpopulation. Few efforts are made to distinguish among underlying causes facilitative environment precipitants and motives. If no distinction is made between emigrants motives and the social causes of emigration analysis lacks logical clarity. When the push pull polarity has been refined in 2 senses by distinguishing innovating from conservative migration and by including in the analysis the migrants level of aspiration it can form the basis of an improved typology of migration. 5 broad classes of migration designated as primitive forced impelled free and mass are discussed. Such a typology is a tool and it is worth constructing only if it is useful. Possibly the most useful distinction in the typology is that between mass migration and all other types for it emphasizes the fact that the movement of Europeans to the New World during the 19th century does not constitute the whole of the phenomenon.

293 citations