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Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1021/ACSAMI.1C00639

Insulin Crystals Grown in Short-Peptide Supramolecular Hydrogels Show Enhanced Thermal Stability and Slower Release Profile.

04 Mar 2021-ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces (American Chemical Society)-Vol. 13, Iss: 10, pp 11672-11682
Abstract: Protein therapeutics have a major role in medicine in that they are used to treat diverse pathologies. Their three-dimensional structures not only offer higher specificity and lower toxicity than small organic compounds but also make them less stable, limiting their in vivo half-life. Protein analogues obtained by recombinant DNA technology or by chemical modification and/or the use of drug delivery vehicles has been adopted to improve or modulate the in vivo pharmacological activity of proteins. Nevertheless, strategies to improve the shelf-life of protein pharmaceuticals have been less explored, which has challenged the preservation of their activity. Herein, we present a methodology that simultaneously increases the stability of proteins and modulates the release profile, and implement it with human insulin as a proof of concept. Two novel thermally stable insulin composite crystal formulations intended for the therapeutic treatment of diabetes are reported. These composite crystals have been obtained by crystallizing insulin in agarose and fluorenylmethoxycarbonyl-dialanine (Fmoc-AA) hydrogels. This process affords composite crystals, in which hydrogel fibers are occluded. The insulin in both crystalline formulations remains unaltered at 50 °C for 7 days. Differential scanning calorimetry, high-performance liquid chromatography, mass spectrometry, and in vivo studies have shown that insulin does not degrade after the heat treatment. The nature of the hydrogel modifies the physicochemical properties of the crystals. Crystals grown in Fmoc-AA hydrogel are more stable and have a slower dissolution rate than crystals grown in agarose. This methodology paves the way for the development of more stable protein pharmaceuticals overcoming some of the existing limitations.

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Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1039/D1QM00477H
Abstract: Making use of the combination of multiparametric Fluorescence Lifetime Imaging Microscopy (FLIM) and single-molecule Fluorescence Lifetime Correlation Spectroscopy (FLCS), we have been able to study for the early stages of the fluorenylmethyloxycarbonyl-diphenylalanine (Fmoc-FF) self-assembly process with single-molecule resolution, the kinetics of fiber formation, the packaging of the peptides within the fibers and the capacity of the peptides to reassemble after disruption (self-healing) in the presence of different metallic cations. Other techniques such as FTIR, TEM, DSC and DFT calculations support our findings. The impact that the mechanism of self-assembly has on the physical (rigidity and self-healing) properties of the resulting gels have also been evaluated by rheology. Calcium ions are able to promote the self-assembly of Fmoc-FF faster and more efficiently, forming more rigid hydrogels than do cesium ions. The reasons behind this effect may be explained by the different capacities that these two cations have to coordinate with the peptide, modulate its hydrophobicity and stabilize the water–solute interphase. These findings shed light on the impact that small changes have on the process of self-assembly and can help to understand the influence of the environmental conditions on the in vivo uncontrolled self-assembly of certain proteins.

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Topics: Supramolecular polymers (51%)

3 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1021/ACS.BIOMAC.1C00474
02 Jul 2021-Biomacromolecules
Abstract: There are 150 million people with diabetes worldwide who require insulin replacement therapy, and the prevalence of diabetes is rising the fastest in middle- and low-income countries. The current formulations require costly refrigerated transport and storage to prevent loss of insulin integrity. This study shows the development of simple "drop-in" amphiphilic copolymer excipients to maintain formulation integrity, bioactivity, pharmacokinetics, and pharmacodynamics for over 6 months when subjected to severe stressed aging conditions that cause current commercial formulation to fail in under 2 weeks. Further, when these copolymers are added to Humulin R (Eli Lilly) in original commercial packaging, they prevent insulin aggregation for up to 4 days at 50 °C compared to less than 1 day for Humulin R alone. These copolymers demonstrate promise as simple formulation additives to increase the cold chain resilience of commercial insulin formulations, thereby expanding global access to these critical drugs for treatment of diabetes.

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Topics: Insulin (51%)

2 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.3390/CRYST11050466
22 Apr 2021-
Abstract: Agarose gels provide the ideal environment for studying the nucleation step of complex biomacromolecules under diffusion-controlled conditions. In the present paper, we characterized the influence of agarose on the nucleation of three model proteins, i.e., lysozyme, insulin, and proteinase K, as a function of the agarose concentration using a batch method set-up inside flat capillaries. By using this set-up, we were able to directly count the number of crystals in a given volume and correlate it with the amount of agarose and with the average crystal size. We also studied the crystallization behavior of proteinase K with free-interface diffusion so that batch conditions were achieved through slow diffusion of the precipitant. Thanks to the control over the protein mass transport imposed by the network, a previously unknown crystal form, P212121, was obtained, and the three-dimensional structure was determined at a 1.6 A resolution. Overall, the versatility of agarose gels makes them ideal candidates for the preparation of microcrystalline suspensions of biopharmaceuticals with precise and reproducible crystal attributes or for the exploration of the existence of different polymorphs.

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Topics: Agarose (61%), Nucleation (55%), Crystallization (50%)

1 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1039/D1SC02347K
Demetra Giuri1, Libby J. Marshall2, Bart Dietrich2, Daniel McDowall2  +5 moreInstitutions (2)
14 Jun 2021-Chemical Science
Abstract: Multicomponent supramolecular gels provide opportunities to form materials that are not accessible when using the single components alone. Different scenarios are possible when mixing multiple components, from complete co-assembly (mixing of the components within the self-assembled structures formed) to complete self-sorting such that each structure contains only one of the components. Most examples of multicomponent gels that currently exist form stable gels. Here, we show that this can be used to control the mechanical properties of the gels, but what is probably most exciting is that we show that we can use a magnetic field to control the shape of the crystals. The gelling component aligns in a magnetic field and so results in anisotropic crystals being formed.

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1 Citations


Open accessPosted ContentDOI: 10.1101/2021.04.13.439582
14 Apr 2021-bioRxiv
Abstract: There are 150 million people with diabetes worldwide who require insulin replacement therapy and the prevalence of diabetes is rising fastest in middle and low-income countries. Current formulations require costly refrigerated transport and storage to prevent loss of insulin integrity. This study shows the development of simple "drop-in" amphiphilic copolymer excipients to maintain formulation integrity, bioactivity, pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics for over 6 months when subjected to severe stressed aging conditions that cause current commercial formulation to fail in under 2 weeks. Further, when these copolymers are added to Humulin R (Eli Lilly) in original commercial packaging they prevent insulin aggregation for up to 4 days at 50 degrees Celsius compared to less than 1 day for Humulin R alone. These copolymers demonstrate promise as simple formulation additives to increase the cold chain resilience of commercial insulin formulations, thereby expanding global access to these critical drugs for treatment of diabetes.

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Topics: Insulin (50%)

References
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38 results found


Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1021/CR940351U
26 Oct 1999-Chemical Reviews
Abstract: s, and 360 patents, and edited 12 books. He has also received over 80 major awards including the Gairdner Foundation International Award, Lemelson-MIT prize, ACS’s Applied Polymer Science and Polymer Chemistry Awards, AICHE’s Professional Progress, Bioengineering, Walker and Stine Materials Science and Engineering Awards. In 1989, Dr. Langer was elected to the Institute of Medicine of the National Academy of Sciences, and in 1992 he was elected to both the National Academy of Engineering and the National Academy of Sciences. He is the only active member of all three National Academies. Kevin Shakesheff was born in Ashington, Northumberland, U.K., in 1969. He received his Bacheclor of Pharmacy degree from the University of Nottingham in 1991 and a Ph.D. from the same institution in 1995. In 1996 he became a NATO Postdoctoral Fellow at MIT, Department of Chemical Engineering. He is currently an EPSRC Advanced Fellow at the School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, The University of Nottingham. His research group investigates new methods of engineering polymer surfaces and the application of these engineered materials in drug delivery and tissue engineering. 3182 Chemical Reviews, 1999, Vol. 99, No. 11 Uhrich et al.

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2,411 Citations


Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1038/NRD2399
Abstract: Once a rarely used subset of medical treatments, protein therapeutics have increased dramatically in number and frequency of use since the introduction of the first recombinant protein therapeutic--human insulin--25 years ago. Protein therapeutics already have a significant role in almost every field of medicine, but this role is still only in its infancy. This article overviews some of the key characteristics of protein therapeutics, summarizes the more than 130 protein therapeutics used currently and suggests a new classification of these proteins according to their pharmacological action.

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1,493 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1038/NRD4363
Abstract: The formulation and delivery of biopharmaceutical drugs, such as monoclonal antibodies and recombinant proteins, poses substantial challenges owing to their large size and susceptibility to degradation. In this Review we highlight recent advances in formulation and delivery strategies — such as the use of microsphere-based controlled-release technologies, protein modification methods that make use of polyethylene glycol and other polymers, and genetic manipulation of biopharmaceutical drugs — and discuss their advantages and limitations. We also highlight current and emerging delivery routes that provide an alternative to injection, including transdermal, oral and pulmonary delivery routes. In addition, the potential of targeted and intracellular protein delivery is discussed.

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Topics: Drug delivery (53%), Biopharmaceutical (53%)

1,021 Citations


Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1002/ADMA.200701221
Andrew M. Smith1, Richard J. Williams1, Claire Tang1, Paolo Coppo1  +4 moreInstitutions (1)
07 Jan 2008-Advanced Materials
Abstract: The self assembly of peptide hydrogelators that carry aromatic substituents can be modeled by a novel nanocylindrical architecture. The proposed model suggests that the nanocylinders are formed by anti-parallel β-sheets interlocked by the π-stacking interactions of fluorenyl groups and phenyl rings. This explanation is consistent with the structures observed in TEM and the data obtained by a variety of spectroscopic techniques.

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Topics: Diphenylalanine (56%)

722 Citations


Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1039/C4CS00247D
Scott Fleming1, Rein V. Ulijn1, Rein V. Ulijn2Institutions (2)
Abstract: Aromatic peptide amphiphiles are gaining popularity as building blocks for the bottom-up fabrication of nanomaterials, including gels. These materials combine the simplicity of small molecules with the versatility of peptides, with a range of applications proposed in biomedicine, nanotechnology, food science, cosmetics, etc. Despite their simplicity, a wide range of self-assembly behaviours have been described. Due to varying conditions and protocols used, care should be taken when attempting to directly compare results from the literature. In this review, we rationalise the structural features which govern the self-assembly of aromatic peptide amphiphiles by focusing on four segments, (i) the N-terminal aromatic component, (ii) linker segment, (iii) peptide sequence, and (iv) C-terminus. It is clear that the molecular structure of these components significantly influences the self-assembly process and resultant supramolecular architectures. A number of modes of assembly have been proposed, including parallel, antiparallel, and interlocked antiparallel stacking conformations. In addition, the co-assembly arrangements of aromatic peptide amphiphiles are reviewed. Overall, this review elucidates the structural trends and design rules that underpin the field of aromatic peptide amphiphile assembly, paving the way to a more rational design of nanomaterials based on aromatic peptide amphiphiles.

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Topics: Peptide amphiphile (60%)

518 Citations


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