scispace - formally typeset
Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1161/CIRCGEN.120.003304

Integrated Polygenic Tool Substantially Enhances Coronary Artery Disease Prediction.

02 Mar 2021-Vol. 14, Iss: 2, pp 192-200
Abstract: Background: There is considerable interest in whether genetic data can be used to improve standard cardiovascular disease risk calculators, as the latter are routinely used in clinical practice to ...

... read more

Citations
  More

13 results found


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1038/S43586-021-00056-9
26 Aug 2021-
Abstract: Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) test hundreds of thousands of genetic variants across many genomes to find those statistically associated with a specific trait or disease. This methodology has generated a myriad of robust associations for a range of traits and diseases, and the number of associated variants is expected to grow steadily as GWAS sample sizes increase. GWAS results have a range of applications, such as gaining insight into a phenotype’s underlying biology, estimating its heritability, calculating genetic correlations, making clinical risk predictions, informing drug development programmes and inferring potential causal relationships between risk factors and health outcomes. In this Primer, we provide the reader with an introduction to GWAS, explaining their statistical basis and how they are conducted, describe state-of-the art approaches and discuss limitations and challenges, concluding with an overview of the current and future applications for GWAS results. Uffelmann et al. describe the key considerations and best practices for conducting genome-wide association studies (GWAS), techniques for deriving functional inferences from the results and applications of GWAS in understanding disease risk and trait architecture. The Primer also provides information on the best practices for data sharing and discusses important ethical considerations when considering GWAS populations and data.

... read more

14 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/J.AMJCARD.2021.02.032
Abstract: The American College of Cardiology / American Heart Association pooled cohort equations tool (ASCVD-PCE) is currently recommended to assess 10-year risk for atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD). ASCVD-PCE does not currently include genetic risk factors. Polygenic risk scores (PRSs) have been shown to offer a powerful new approach to measuring genetic risk for common diseases, including ASCVD, and to enhance risk prediction when combined with ASCVD-PCE. Most work to date, including the assessment of tools, has focused on performance in individuals of European ancestries. Here we present evidence for the clinical validation of a new integrated risk tool (IRT), ASCVD-IRT, which combines ASCVD-PCE with PRS to predict 10-year risk of ASCVD across diverse ethnicity and ancestry groups. We demonstrate improved predictive performance of ASCVD-IRT over ASCVD-PCE, not only in individuals of self-reported White ethnicities (net reclassification improvement [NRI]; with 95% confidence interval = 2.7% [1.1 to 4.2]) but also Black / African American / Black Caribbean / Black African (NRI = 2.5% [0.6–4.3]) and South Asian (Indian, Bangladeshi or Pakistani) ethnicities (NRI = 8.7% [3.1 to 14.4]). NRI confidence intervals were wider and included zero for ethnicities with smaller sample sizes, including Hispanic (NRI = 7.5% [−1.4 to 16.5]), but PRS effect sizes in these ethnicities were significant and of comparable size to those seen in individuals of White ethnicities. Comparable results were obtained when individuals were analyzed by genetically inferred ancestry. Together, these results validate the performance of ASCVD-IRT in multiple ethnicities and ancestries, and favor their generalization to all ethnicities and ancestries.

... read more

8 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1136/HEARTJNL-2021-319742
14 Sep 2021-Heart
Abstract: Objective Familial hypercholesterolaemia (FH) is a common inherited disorder that remains mostly undetected in the general population. Through FH case-finding and direct access to genetic testing in primary care, this intervention study described the genetic and lipid profile of patients found at increased risk of FH and the outcomes in those with positive genetic test results. Methods In 14 Central England general practices, a novel case-finding tool (Familial Hypercholetserolaemia Case Ascertainment Tool, FAMCAT1) was applied to the electronic health records of 86 219 patients with cholesterol readings (44.5% of total practices’ population), identifying 3375 at increased risk of FH. Of these, a cohort of 336 consenting to completing Family History Questionnaire and detailed review of their clinical data, were offered FH genetic testing in primary care. Results Genetic testing was completed by 283 patients, newly identifying 16 with genetically confirmed FH and 10 with variants of unknown significance. All 26 (9%) were recommended for referral and 19 attended specialist assessment. In a further 153 (54%) patients, the test suggested polygenic hypercholesterolaemia who were managed in primary care. Total cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol levels were higher in those patients with FH-causing variants than those with other genetic test results (p=0.010 and p=0.002). Conclusion Electronic case-finding and genetic testing in primary care could improve identification of FH; and the better targeting of patients for specialist assessment. A significant proportion of patients identified at risk of FH are likely to have polygenic hypercholesterolaemia. There needs to be a clearer management plan for these individuals in primary care. Trial registration number NCT03934320.

... read more

Topics: Genetic testing (59%), Population (52%)

2 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1002/CLC.23627
Robert Roberts1, Jacques Fair1Institutions (1)
Abstract: Epidemiologists have claimed for decades that about 50% of predisposition for coronary artery disease (CAD) is genetic. Advances in technology made possible the discovery of hundreds of genetic risk variants predisposing to CAD. Multiple clinical trials have shown that cardiac events can be prevented by drugs to lower plasma low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C). A major barrier to primary prevention is the lack of markers to identify those individuals at risk prior to the development of symptoms of the disease. Conventional risk factors are age-dependent, occurring mostly in the sixth or seventh decade, which is less than desirable for early primary prevention. A polygenic risk score, derived from the number of genetic risk variants predisposing to CAD inherited by an individual, has been evaluated in over 1 million individuals. The risk for CAD is stratified into high, intermediate, and low. Polygenic risk scores derived from retrospective genotyping of several clinical trials evaluating the effect of statin therapy or PCSK9 inhibitors show the genetic risk is reduced 40%-50% by decreasing plasma LDL-C. Prospective randomized placebo-controlled clinical trials document a 40%-50% reduction in cardiac events in individuals at high genetic risk associated with favorable lifestyle changes and increased physical activity. The polygenic risk score is not age-dependent and remains the same throughout life. Thus, the GRS is superior to conventional risk factors in identifying asymptomatic individuals at risk for CAD early in life for primary prevention. These results indicate clinical embracement of the GRS in primary prevention would be a paradigm shift in the treatment of the number one killer, CAD.

... read more

Topics: Disease (51%)

2 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1161/CIRCGEN.120.003168
24 May 2021-
Abstract: Background: Atrial fibrillation (AF) is associated with a five-fold increased risk of ischemic stroke. A portion of this risk is heritable; however, current risk stratification tools (CHA2DS2-VASc)...

... read more

Topics: Risk factor (60%), Stroke (57%), Atrial fibrillation (54%)

2 Citations


References
  More

30 results found


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1161/01.CIR.97.18.1837
01 May 1998-Circulation
Abstract: Background—The objective of this study was to examine the association of Joint National Committee (JNC-V) blood pressure and National Cholesterol Education Program (NCEP) cholesterol categories with coronary heart disease (CHD) risk, to incorporate them into coronary prediction algorithms, and to compare the discrimination properties of this approach with other noncategorical prediction functions. Methods and Results—This work was designed as a prospective, single-center study in the setting of a community-based cohort. The patients were 2489 men and 2856 women 30 to 74 years old at baseline with 12 years of follow-up. During the 12 years of follow-up, a total of 383 men and 227 women developed CHD, which was significantly associated with categories of blood pressure, total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, and HDL cholesterol (all P,.001). Sex-specific prediction equations were formulated to predict CHD risk according to age, diabetes, smoking, JNC-V blood pressure categories, and NCEP total cholesterol and LDL cholesterol categories. The accuracy of this categorical approach was found to be comparable to CHD prediction when the continuous variables themselves were used. After adjustment for other factors, ’28% of CHD events in men and 29% in women were attributable to blood pressure levels that exceeded high normal ($130/85). The corresponding multivariable-adjusted attributable risk percent associated with elevated total cholesterol ($200 mg/dL) was 27% in men and 34% in women. Conclusions—Recommended guidelines of blood pressure, total cholesterol, and LDL cholesterol effectively predict CHD risk in a middle-aged white population sample. A simple coronary disease prediction algorithm was developed using categorical variables, which allows physicians to predict multivariate CHD risk in patients without overt CHD. (Circulation. 1998;97:1837-1847.)

... read more

8,777 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/S0140-6736(18)32203-7
Gregory A. Roth1, Gregory A. Roth2, Degu Abate3, Kalkidan Hassen Abate4  +1025 moreInstitutions (333)
10 Nov 2018-The Lancet
Abstract: Background Global development goals increasingly rely on country-specific estimates for benchmarking a nation's progress. To meet this need, the Global Burden of Diseases, Injuries, and Risk Factors Study (GBD) 2016 estimated global, regional, national, and, for selected locations, subnational cause-specific mortality beginning in the year 1980. Here we report an update to that study, making use of newly available data and improved methods. GBD 2017 provides a comprehensive assessment of cause-specific mortality for 282 causes in 195 countries and territories from 1980 to 2017. Methods The causes of death database is composed of vital registration (VR), verbal autopsy (VA), registry, survey, police, and surveillance data. GBD 2017 added ten VA studies, 127 country-years of VR data, 502 cancer-registry country-years, and an additional surveillance country-year. Expansions of the GBD cause of death hierarchy resulted in 18 additional causes estimated for GBD 2017. Newly available data led to subnational estimates for five additional countries—Ethiopia, Iran, New Zealand, Norway, and Russia. Deaths assigned International Classification of Diseases (ICD) codes for non-specific, implausible, or intermediate causes of death were reassigned to underlying causes by redistribution algorithms that were incorporated into uncertainty estimation. We used statistical modelling tools developed for GBD, including the Cause of Death Ensemble model (CODEm), to generate cause fractions and cause-specific death rates for each location, year, age, and sex. Instead of using UN estimates as in previous versions, GBD 2017 independently estimated population size and fertility rate for all locations. Years of life lost (YLLs) were then calculated as the sum of each death multiplied by the standard life expectancy at each age. All rates reported here are age-standardised. Findings At the broadest grouping of causes of death (Level 1), non-communicable diseases (NCDs) comprised the greatest fraction of deaths, contributing to 73·4% (95% uncertainty interval [UI] 72·5–74·1) of total deaths in 2017, while communicable, maternal, neonatal, and nutritional (CMNN) causes accounted for 18·6% (17·9–19·6), and injuries 8·0% (7·7–8·2). Total numbers of deaths from NCD causes increased from 2007 to 2017 by 22·7% (21·5–23·9), representing an additional 7·61 million (7·20–8·01) deaths estimated in 2017 versus 2007. The death rate from NCDs decreased globally by 7·9% (7·0–8·8). The number of deaths for CMNN causes decreased by 22·2% (20·0–24·0) and the death rate by 31·8% (30·1–33·3). Total deaths from injuries increased by 2·3% (0·5–4·0) between 2007 and 2017, and the death rate from injuries decreased by 13·7% (12·2–15·1) to 57·9 deaths (55·9–59·2) per 100 000 in 2017. Deaths from substance use disorders also increased, rising from 284 000 deaths (268 000–289 000) globally in 2007 to 352 000 (334 000–363 000) in 2017. Between 2007 and 2017, total deaths from conflict and terrorism increased by 118·0% (88·8–148·6). A greater reduction in total deaths and death rates was observed for some CMNN causes among children younger than 5 years than for older adults, such as a 36·4% (32·2–40·6) reduction in deaths from lower respiratory infections for children younger than 5 years compared with a 33·6% (31·2–36·1) increase in adults older than 70 years. Globally, the number of deaths was greater for men than for women at most ages in 2017, except at ages older than 85 years. Trends in global YLLs reflect an epidemiological transition, with decreases in total YLLs from enteric infections, respiratory infections and tuberculosis, and maternal and neonatal disorders between 1990 and 2017; these were generally greater in magnitude at the lowest levels of the Socio-demographic Index (SDI). At the same time, there were large increases in YLLs from neoplasms and cardiovascular diseases. YLL rates decreased across the five leading Level 2 causes in all SDI quintiles. The leading causes of YLLs in 1990—neonatal disorders, lower respiratory infections, and diarrhoeal diseases—were ranked second, fourth, and fifth, in 2017. Meanwhile, estimated YLLs increased for ischaemic heart disease (ranked first in 2017) and stroke (ranked third), even though YLL rates decreased. Population growth contributed to increased total deaths across the 20 leading Level 2 causes of mortality between 2007 and 2017. Decreases in the cause-specific mortality rate reduced the effect of population growth for all but three causes: substance use disorders, neurological disorders, and skin and subcutaneous diseases. Interpretation Improvements in global health have been unevenly distributed among populations. Deaths due to injuries, substance use disorders, armed conflict and terrorism, neoplasms, and cardiovascular disease are expanding threats to global health. For causes of death such as lower respiratory and enteric infections, more rapid progress occurred for children than for the oldest adults, and there is continuing disparity in mortality rates by sex across age groups. Reductions in the death rate of some common diseases are themselves slowing or have ceased, primarily for NCDs, and the death rate for selected causes has increased in the past decade. Funding Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation.

... read more

Topics: Mortality rate (64%), Years of potential life lost (58%), Cause of death (56%) ... read more

3,396 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1161/01.CIR.0000437741.48606.98
24 Jun 2014-Circulation
Abstract: Preamble and Transition to ACC/AHA Guidelines to Reduce Cardiovascular Risk S50 The goals of the American College of Cardiology (ACC) and the American Heart Association (AHA) are to prevent cardiovascular diseases (CVD); improve the management of people who have these diseases through professional education and research; and develop guidelines, standards, and policies that promote optimal patient care and cardiovascular health. Toward these objectives, the ACC and AHA have collaborated with the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (NHLBI) and stakeholder and professional organizations to develop …

... read more

2,811 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1161/CIR.0000000000000625
Abstract: Glenn N. Levine, MD, FACC, FAHA, Chair Patrick T. O’Gara, MD, MACC, FAHA, Chair-Elect Jonathan L. Halperin, MD, FACC, FAHA, Immediate Past Chair [‡‡‡][1] Sana M. Al-Khatib, MD, MHS, FACC, FAHA Joshua A. Beckman, MD, MS, FAHA Kim K. Birtcher, PharmD, MS, AACC Biykem Bozkurt, MD, PhD,

... read more

2,333 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1038/S41588-018-0183-Z
Amit Khera1, Mark Chaffin2, Krishna G. Aragam, Mary E. Haas2  +9 moreInstitutions (2)
13 Aug 2018-Nature Genetics
Abstract: A key public health need is to identify individuals at high risk for a given disease to enable enhanced screening or preventive therapies. Because most common diseases have a genetic component, one important approach is to stratify individuals based on inherited DNA variation1. Proposed clinical applications have largely focused on finding carriers of rare monogenic mutations at several-fold increased risk. Although most disease risk is polygenic in nature2-5, it has not yet been possible to use polygenic predictors to identify individuals at risk comparable to monogenic mutations. Here, we develop and validate genome-wide polygenic scores for five common diseases. The approach identifies 8.0, 6.1, 3.5, 3.2, and 1.5% of the population at greater than threefold increased risk for coronary artery disease, atrial fibrillation, type 2 diabetes, inflammatory bowel disease, and breast cancer, respectively. For coronary artery disease, this prevalence is 20-fold higher than the carrier frequency of rare monogenic mutations conferring comparable risk6. We propose that it is time to contemplate the inclusion of polygenic risk prediction in clinical care, and discuss relevant issues.

... read more

Topics: Disease (53%), Population (51%), Multifactorial Inheritance (51%)

1,216 Citations