Abstract: In many countries, the regulation of activities and development in the marine environment has begun to evolve from a compartmentalised, fragmented, sectoral and uncoordinated system into a more strategic, comprehensive, integrated and transparent one. A remaining challenge, however, is the effective integration of marine and terrestrial planning, because the tools and mechanisms necessary for its achievement have been slow to be implemented. The introduction of the England's Coastal Concordat in 2013, as a voluntary framework for better integrating marine and terrestrial planning consents, represents an atypical mechanism to secure these goals. This paper is a preliminary survey of the perceived effectiveness of the Coastal Concordat, based on a survey of 32 professionals from the terrestrial planning authorities, marine statutory agencies and marine-sector businesses. While this evaluation is made less than two years after the introduction of the Coastal Concordat, it is important to undertake a preliminary examination, from various stakeholder perspectives, of the factors likely to be influential in the integration of regulatory systems, before the approach is ‘rolled out’ across other parts of England's inter-tidal coastal zone. The results indicate that the Coastal Concordat has produced benefits for marine planning in coastal areas, but that these improvements are largely experienced within the public sector in terms of better communication, early engagement, and a single point of contact. The marine sector businesses are more neutral about the benefits of the Concordat. It is clear, however, that marine sector businesses must participate in the formulation of any reforms if an effective integrated system of planning and management of coastal environments is to be achieved.
Abstract: As the data acquisition is difficult, not only the ecological sensitivity study of tidal flats is relatively less, moreover, ecological sensitivity analysis is rarely correlated with ecological safety evaluation, and the temporal and spatial correlation of adjacent mudflats is rarely focused on. In the present study, we build a new index system integrated biological, ecological process and development and utilization sensitivities, to evaluate the ecological sensitivity of the seven main tidal flats of Shanghai. Then, we associate ecological sensitivity with ecological security and construct an index system for evaluating their ecological security based on the Pressure-State-Response (PSR) model, using the entropy method and analytic hierarchy process (AHP) to determine the weights. The results were as follows: (1) Chongming East beach and Jiuduansha are the highly ecologically sensitive type, Chongming North beach and Nanhui beach are the medium ecologically sensitive type, Hengsha and Changxing beaches are the relatively low ecological sensitive type, and the North beach along Hangzhou Bay is the low ecological sensitive type. The ecological security indices of these seven beaches from high to low are: Chongming East, Jiuduansha, Changxing, North beach along Hangzhou Bay, Hengsha, Chongming North and Nanhui. (2) There is a close relationship between the ecological sensitivity and ecological security index of the tidal flats. (3) There is the temporal and spatial relevance of adjacent tidal flats.
Abstract: Ocean- and coastal-based economic activities are increasingly recognised as key drivers for supporting global economies. This move towards the “blue economy” is becoming globally widespread, with the recognition that if ocean-based activities are to be sustainable, they will need to move beyond solely extractive and exploitative endeavours, aligning more closely with marine conservation and effective marine spatial planning. In this paper we define the “blue economy” as a “platform for strategic, integrated and participatory coastal and ocean development and protection that incorporates a low carbon economy, the ecosystem approach and human well-being through advancing regional industries, services and activities”. In Peru, while the seas contribute greatly to the national economy, the full potential of the blue economy has yet to be realised. This paper presents the findings of an early career scientist workshop in Lima, Peru, in March 2016. The workshop “Advancing Green Growth in Peru” brought together researchers to identify challenges and opportunities for green growth across three Peruvian economic sectors—tourism, transport and the blue economy with this paper exploring in detail the priorities generated from the “blue economy” stream. These priorities include themes such as marine spatial planning, detailed evaluations of existing maritime industries (e.g. guano collection and fisheries), development of an effective MPA network, support for sustainable coastal tourism, and better inclusion of social science disciplines in understanding societal and political support for a Peruvian blue economy. In addition, the paper discusses the research requirements associated with these priorities. While not a comprehensive list, these priorities provide a starting point for future dialogue on a co-ordinated scientific platform supporting the blue growth agenda in Peru, and in other regions working towards a successful “blue economy”.
Abstract: Coastal areas are worldwide characterized by multiple pressures generated by high levels of urbanization and by conflictual and inappropriate uses. The establishment of protected areas represents a tool to contrast such pressures. The integration between planning tools represents a key issue, in particular in the Mediterranean area; hence, it has been addressed by both legally binding acts and voluntary agreements and charters concerning coastal zone management as well as marine spatial planning. By looking at two Italian case studies and analyzing their planning documents currently in force, our study aims at assessing the level of integration in relation to planning and management of areas characterized by the coexistence of various nature protection regimes. Our analysis shows that, although integration seems to be a key point in the planning agenda and in spite of some improvements, an integrated management approach in Mediterranean coastal and marine areas is still in its infancy. The results of the analysis show that, rather than contributing to building an integrated approach to marine and coastal zone management, each planning tool focuses on complying with its sectoral, normative framework. This situation can partly be attributed to the multilayered, and complex, Italian framework, characterized by several categories of protected areas with their own legal act and objectives.
Cites background from "Integrated terrestrial and marine p..."
...Such integration, currently mostly lacking, is achieved when mechanisms whereby implications of the development of marine spaces on land (and vice versa) (Turner and Essex, 2016) are accounted for and implemented....
Abstract: Integrated coastal and marine management (ICM) holds considerable promise for addressing gaps in conventional sector-based approaches to the management of coastal and marine areas. Progress in operationalizing ICM has been hindered by a lack of appropriate governance arrangements (e.g., mechanisms for making collective decisions about the use and management of coastal systems). This paper develops a framework for analyzing ICM governance based upon a preliminary scoping review, and uses the framework to conduct a structured systematic review of the peer-reviewed literature on ICM between 2010 and 2019 (n = 69). Results suggest that coastal stakeholders have struggled to fully operationalize ICM across many contexts, and that certain characteristics appear to enhance prospects for operationalizing ICM. These include formal governance structures, engagement with diverse actors and innovative mechanisms for coordination and cooperation among multi-actor groups. The paper concludes by revising the ICM framework, based upon the relative importance of topics discussed in the literature, with particular attention to monitoring, evaluation and adaptation stages. The resulting Elements and Characteristics of ICM framework summarizes the state of the field while providing a practical resource for planning and management.
Abstract: 1. The History and Sources of the International Law of the Sea 2. Coastal Waters 3. Territorial Sea and Contiguous Zone 4. The Exclusive Economic Zone 5. The Continental Shelf 6. The Deep Seabed 7. High Seas 8. Archipelagic States 9. Landlocked and Geographically Disadvantaged States 10. Navigational Rights and Freedoms 11. International Straits and Archipelagic Navigation 12. Military Uses of the Oceans 13. Marine Resource Management 14. Marine Scientific Research 15. Marine Environmental Protection 16. Delimitation of Maritime Boundaries 17. Maritime Regulation and Enforcement 18. Dispute Settlement in the Law of the Sea 19. Oceans Governance
TL;DR: The EU is a pre-eminent player in sustainable development, adopting more than 200 pieces of legislation that have direct repercussions for marine environmental policy and management and here is an overview of this change.
Abstract: The EU is a pre-eminent player in sustainable development, adopting more than 200 pieces of legislation that have direct repercussions for marine environmental policy and management. Over five decades, measures have aimed to protect the marine environment by tackling the impact of human activities, but maritime affairs have been dealt with by separate sectoral policies without fully integrating all relevant sectors. Such compartmentalisation has resulted in a patchwork of EU legislation and resultant national legislation leading to a piecemeal approach to marine protection. These are superimposed on international obligations emanating from UN and other bodies and are presented here as complex ‘horrendograms’ showing the complexity across vertical governance. These horrendograms have surprised marine experts despite them acknowledging the many uses and users of the marine environment. Encouragingly since 2000, the evolution in EU policy has progressed to more holistic directives and here we give an overview of this change.
Abstract: This paper aims to contribute to the current debate on Marine Spatial Planning (MSP) by exploring the issue of stakeholder engagement. MSP is an emergent policy field that is subject to an increasing body of research, yet the role, scope and nature of participatory engagement within the process remains a neglected topic. This paper briefly reviews the nature of the ‘marine problem’, to which MSP is seen to be the response and describes the emergence of MSP policy in the UK with specific emphasis on participatory aspects. Drawing on the experience of terrestrial planning it discusses the potential benefits of stakeholder engagement in MSP and highlights some of the key issues that need to be taken into account when shaping stakeholder input into the process. It then goes on to describe the findings from a series of interviews with key stakeholders in the Irish Sea Region, which suggest that we need to develop a more critical and deeper understanding of how various interests frame the ‘marine problem’, and ...
"Integrated terrestrial and marine p..." refers background in this paper
...…and control can be more problematic.
terrestrial planning, which involve the securing of ‘public good’ from private development decisions driven by the operation of property markets, were not relevant in an environment where commons rights were predominant (Jay, 2010; Ritchie and Ellis, 2010)....
...…led by the precautionary principle, rather than as an offshore extension of existing terrestrial planning practices, which has evolved from a scientific approach in the 1960s to incorporate communicative forms of rationality from the 1990s (Jay, 2010; Ritchie and Ellis, 2010; Taylor, 1999)....
Abstract: Whilst spatial planning has evolved as a tool to manage the development and use of the terrestrial environment over decades, the development of spatial planning systems for the marine environment are in their infancy. This paper focuses on the integration of land and marine based spatial planning systems. This is informed by a brief overview of the regional development of the lands and seas of Europe which underlie spatial planning systems and by a discussion of respective spatial planning systems in terms of economic sectors, land use, and sea use. The integration of spatial planning systems is then considered, followed by evaluation of relationships between spatial planning, and the wider field of environmental management. This includes consideration of organisational and geographical scales, technical management including legal aspects, policy, strategic planning and time scales of decision-making. The paper identifies the significant factors which must be considered in the integration of marine and terrestrial planning systems over the coming decades.
Abstract: Over the last 5–10 years, marine spatial planning (MSP) has emerged as a new management regime for national and international waters and has already attracted a substantial body of multi-disciplinary research on its goals and policy processes. This paper argues that this literature has generally lacked deeper reflexive engagement with the emerging system of governance for our seas that has meant that many of MSP's core concepts, assumptions and institutional arrangements have not been subject rigorous intellectual debate. In an attempt to initiate such an approach, this article explores the relationship between MSP and its land-based cousin, terrestrial spatial planning (TSP). While it is recognized that there are inherent limitations to a comparison of these two systems, it is argued that the tradition of social science debate over the purpose and processes of TSP can be used as a useful stimulus for a more rigorous reflection of such issues as they relate to MSP. The article therefore explores some of t...