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Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1002/CAM4.3649

Integration of comprehensive genomic profiling, tumor mutational burden, and PD-L1 expression to identify novel biomarkers of immunotherapy in non-small cell lung cancer.

02 Mar 2021-Cancer Medicine (John Wiley & Sons, Ltd)-Vol. 10, Iss: 7, pp 2216-2231
Abstract: Objectives This study aimed to explore the novel biomarkers for immune checkpoint inhibitor (ICI) responses in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) by integrating genomic profiling, tumor mutational burden (TMB), and expression of programmed death receptor 1 ligand (PD-L1). Materials and methods Tumor and blood samples from 637 Chinese patients with NSCLC were collected for targeted panel sequencing. Genomic alterations, including single nucleotide variations, insertions/deletions, copy number variations, and gene rearrangements, were assessed and TMB was computed. TMB-high (TMB-H) was defined as ≥10 mutations/Mb. PD-L1 positivity was defined as ≥1% tumor cells with membranous staining. Genomic data and ICI outcomes of 240 patients with NSCLC were derived from cBioPortal. Results EGFR-sensitizing mutations, ALK, RET, and ROS1 rearrangements were associated with lower TMB and PD-L1+/TMB-H proportions, whereas KRAS, ALK, RET, and ROS1 substitutions/indels correlated with higher TMB and PD-L1+/TMB-H proportions than wild-type genotypes. Histone-lysine N-methyltransferase 2 (KMT2) family members (KMT2A, KMT2C, and KMT2D) were frequently mutated in NSCLC tumors, and these mutations were associated with higher TMB and PD-L1 expression, as well as higher PD-L1+/TMB-H proportions. Specifically, patients with KMT2C mutations had higher TMB and PD-L1+/TMB-H proportions than wild-type patients. The median progression-free survival (PFS) was 5.47 months (95% CI 2.5-NA) in patients with KMT2C mutations versus 3.17 months (95% CI 2.6-4.27) in wild-type patients (p = 0.058). Furthermore, in patients with NSCLC who underwent ICI treatment, patients with TP53/KMT2C co-mutations had significantly longer PFS and greater durable clinical benefit (HR: 0.48, 95% CI: 0.24-0.94, p = 0.033). TP53 mutation combined with KMT2C or KRAS mutation was a better biomarker with expanded population benefit from ICIs therapy and increased the predictive power (HR: 0.46, 95% CI: 0.26-0.81, p = 0.007). Conclusion We found that tumors with different alterations in actionable target genes had variable expression of PD-L1 and TMB in NSCLC. TP53/KMT2C co-mutation might serve as a predictive biomarker for ICI responses in NSCLC. Implications for practice Cancer immunotherapies, especially immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs), have revolutionized the treatment of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC); however, only a proportion of patients derive durable responses to this treatment. Biomarkers with greater accuracy are highly needed. In total, 637 Chinese patients with NSCLC were analyzed using next-generation sequencing and IHC to characterize the unique features of genomic alterations and TMB and PD-L1 expression. Our study demonstrated that KMT2C/TP53 co-mutation might be an accurate, cost-effective, and reliable biomarker to predict responses to PD-1 blockade therapy in NSCLC patients and that adding KRAS to the biomarker combination creates a more robust parameter to identify the best responders to ICI therapy.

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Topics: KRAS (53%), Cancer (52%), Biomarker (medicine) (52%) ... show more

5 results found

Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.3389/FONC.2021.684025
Abstract: Malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) is a rare and aggressive malignancy with limited therapeutic options beyond surgery and cytotoxic chemotherapy. The success of immune checkpoint inhibition has been found to correlate with expression of immune-related genes such as CD274 (PD-L1) in lung and other solid cancers. However, only a small subset of MPM patients respond to checkpoint inhibition, and this response has been varied and unpredictable across several clinical trials. Recent advances in next-generation sequencing (NGS) technology have improved our understanding of the molecular features of MPM, also with respect to its genetic signature and how this impacts the immune microenvironment. This article will review current evidence surrounding the interplay between MPM genetics, including epigenetics and transcriptomics, and the immune response.

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Topics: Immune checkpoint (58%)

3 Citations

Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.2217/IMT-2021-0035
Naleen Raj Bhandari1, Lisa M. Hess1, Yimei Han1, Yajun E Zhu1  +1 moreInstitutions (1)
18 Jun 2021-Immunotherapy
Abstract: Aim: To describe outcomes of patients with rearraned during transfection (RET) fusion-positive non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) who received immune checkpoint inhibitor (ICI)-based treatments in the US. Patients & methods: Using de-identified Flatiron Health-Foundation Medicine NSCLC Clinico-Genomic and Guardant Health databases, treatment patterns and outcomes of 69 patients with advanced/metastatic RET fusion-positive NSCLC who received ICI-based treatment were described. Results: Median real-world progression-free survival and overall survival months were 4.2 (95% CI: 1.4-8.4) and 19.1 (6.9-not reached), respectively, among patients in Clinico-Genomic database (n = 17) receiving first-line ICI-based therapy. In the Guardant Health database, progression-free survival was unavailable, and the median overall survival was not reached (n = 29). Conclusion: Outcomes associated with ICI-based treatments in the first-line setting among patients with RET fusion-positive NSCLC are consistent with unselected populations reported in literature.

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Topics: RET Fusion Positive (60%), Lung cancer (53%)

2 Citations

Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.3389/FONC.2021.646883
Sven H. Loosen1, Sven H. Loosen2, Joao Gorgulho2, Markus S. Jördens1  +13 moreInstitutions (3)
Abstract: Background Immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) have led to a paradigm shift in cancer therapy, improving outcomes in the treatment of various malignancies. However, not all patients benefit to the same extend from ICI. Reliable tools to predict treatment response and outcome are missing. Soluble urokinase plasminogen activator receptor (suPAR) is a marker of immune activation, whose levels are prognostic in various cancers. We evaluated circulating suPAR levels as a novel predictive and prognostic biomarker in patients receiving ICI therapy for solid tumors. Methods A total of n = 87 patients receiving ICI therapy for different solid malignancies as well as 32 healthy controls were included into this study. Serum levels of suPAR were measured by ELISA prior to and sequentially at two time points during ICI therapy. Results Baseline suPAR serum levels were significantly higher in solid tumor patients compared to healthy controls. Importantly, patients with low suPAR levels both before or during ICI treatment were more likely to have a favorable response to treatment at three and six months, respectively. This finding was confirmed by multivariate binary logistic regression analysis including several clinicopathological parameters. Moreover, circulating suPAR levels before and during therapy were an independent prognostic factor for overall survival (OS). As such, patients with initial suPAR levels above our ideal prognostic cut-off value (4.86 ng/ml) had a median OS of only 160 days compared to 705 days for patients with suPAR levels below this cut-off value. Finally, low baseline suPAR levels identified a subgroup of patients who experienced ICI-related side effects which in turn were associated with favorable treatment response and outcome. Conclusion Our data suggest that measurements of suPAR serum levels are a previously unknown, easily accessible tool to predict individual treatment response and outcome to ICI therapy. Circulating suPAR might therefore be implemented into stratification algorithms to identify the ideal candidates for ICI treatment.

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Topics: SuPAR (78%)

1 Citations

Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1080/2162402X.2021.1928365
Hua You1, Hua You2, Zijun Y. Xu-Monette1, Li Wei2  +26 moreInstitutions (18)
01 Jan 2021-OncoImmunology
Abstract: Diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) is the most common type of lymphoma with high mutation burdens but a low response rate to immune checkpoint inhibitors. In this study, we performed targeted next-generation sequencing and fluorescent multiplex immunohistochemistry, and investigated the clinical significance and immunological effect of mutation numbers in 424 DLBCL patients treated with standard immunochemotherapy. We found that KMT2D and TP53 nonsynonymous mutations (MUT) were significantly associated with increased nonsynonymous mutation numbers, and that high mutation numbers (MUThigh) were associated with significantly poorer clinical outcome in germinal center B-cell-like DLBCL with wild-type TP53. To understand the underlying mechanisms, we identified a gene-expression profiling signature and the association of MUThigh with decreased T cells in DLBCL patients with wild-type TP53. On the other hand, in overall cohort, MUThigh was associated with lower PD-1 expression in T cells and PD-L1 expression in macrophages, suggesting a positive role of MUThigh in immune responses. Analysis in a whole-exome sequencing dataset of 304 patients deposited by Chapuy et al. validated the correlation of MUT-KMT2D with genomic complexity and the significantly poorer survival associated with higher numbers of genomic single nucleotide variants in activated B-cell-like DLBCL with wild-type TP53. Together, these results suggest that KMT2D inactivation or epigenetic dysregulation has a role in driving DLBCL genomic instability, and that genomic complexity has adverse impact on clinical outcome in DLBCL patients with wild-type TP53 treated with standard immunochemotherapy. The oncoimmune data in this study have important implications for biomarker and therapeutic studies in DLBCL.

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Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/J.CANRAD.2021.06.032
Cyrus Chargari1, Cyrus Chargari2, C. Robert1, C. Robert2  +3 moreInstitutions (2)
Abstract: Resume De nombreuses etudes cliniques visent a integrer l’immunotherapie en oncologie radiotherapie, soit pour favoriser des reponses abscopales en association a la radiotherapie chez des patients atteints de cancer metastatique, soit dans le cadre du traitement d’une tumeur localement evoluee. La recherche de biomarqueurs de reponse au traitement est un axe majeur du developpement de ces associations therapeutiques, pour permettre l’identification precoce des patients qui tireront benefice du traitement, dans une approche personnalisee. Nous passons en revue certaines des strategies applicables pour la personnalisation aux traitements associant radiotherapie et immunotherapie.

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55 results found

Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.3322/CAAC.21338
Wanqing Chen, Rongshou Zheng, Peter D. Baade1, Siwei Zhang  +5 moreInstitutions (3)
Abstract: With increasing incidence and mortality, cancer is the leading cause of death in China and is a major public health problem. Because of China's massive population (1.37 billion), previous national incidence and mortality estimates have been limited to small samples of the population using data from the 1990s or based on a specific year. With high-quality data from an additional number of population-based registries now available through the National Central Cancer Registry of China, the authors analyzed data from 72 local, population-based cancer registries (2009-2011), representing 6.5% of the population, to estimate the number of new cases and cancer deaths for 2015. Data from 22 registries were used for trend analyses (2000-2011). The results indicated that an estimated 4292,000 new cancer cases and 2814,000 cancer deaths would occur in China in 2015, with lung cancer being the most common incident cancer and the leading cause of cancer death. Stomach, esophageal, and liver cancers were also commonly diagnosed and were identified as leading causes of cancer death. Residents of rural areas had significantly higher age-standardized (Segi population) incidence and mortality rates for all cancers combined than urban residents (213.6 per 100,000 vs 191.5 per 100,000 for incidence; 149.0 per 100,000 vs 109.5 per 100,000 for mortality, respectively). For all cancers combined, the incidence rates were stable during 2000 through 2011 for males (+0.2% per year; P = .1), whereas they increased significantly (+2.2% per year; P < .05) among females. In contrast, the mortality rates since 2006 have decreased significantly for both males (-1.4% per year; P < .05) and females (-1.1% per year; P < .05). Many of the estimated cancer cases and deaths can be prevented through reducing the prevalence of risk factors, while increasing the effectiveness of clinical care delivery, particularly for those living in rural areas and in disadvantaged populations.

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Topics: Mortality rate (66%), Cancer registry (63%), Causes of cancer (56%) ... show more

10,557 Citations

Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1158/2159-8290.CD-12-0095
Ethan Cerami1, Jianjiong Gao, Ugur Dogrusoz, Benjamin Gross  +11 moreInstitutions (1)
01 May 2012-Cancer Discovery
Abstract: The cBio Cancer Genomics Portal ( is an open-access resource for interactive exploration of multidimensional cancer genomics data sets, currently providing access to data from more than 5,000 tumor samples from 20 cancer studies. The cBio Cancer Genomics Portal significantly lowers the barriers between complex genomic data and cancer researchers who want rapid, intuitive, and high-quality access to molecular profiles and clinical attributes from large-scale cancer genomics projects and empowers researchers to translate these rich data sets into biologic insights and clinical applications.

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8,873 Citations

Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1126/SCISIGNAL.2004088
02 Apr 2013-Science Signaling
Abstract: The cBioPortal for Cancer Genomics ( provides a Web resource for exploring, visualizing, and analyzing multidimensional cancer genomics data. The portal reduces molecular profiling data from cancer tissues and cell lines into readily understandable genetic, epigenetic, gene expression, and proteomic events. The query interface combined with customized data storage enables researchers to interactively explore genetic alterations across samples, genes, and pathways and, when available in the underlying data, to link these to clinical outcomes. The portal provides graphical summaries of gene-level data from multiple platforms, network visualization and analysis, survival analysis, patient-centric queries, and software programmatic access. The intuitive Web interface of the portal makes complex cancer genomics profiles accessible to researchers and clinicians without requiring bioinformatics expertise, thus facilitating biological discoveries. Here, we provide a practical guide to the analysis and visualization features of the cBioPortal for Cancer Genomics.

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8,134 Citations

Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1038/NATURE11252
Donna M. Muzny1, Matthew N. Bainbridge1, Kyle Chang1, Huyen Dinh1  +317 moreInstitutions (24)
19 Jul 2012-Nature
Abstract: To characterize somatic alterations in colorectal carcinoma, we conducted a genome-scale analysis of 276 samples, analysing exome sequence, DNA copy number, promoter methylation and messenger RNA and microRNA expression. A subset of these samples (97) underwent low-depth-of-coverage whole-genome sequencing. In total, 16% of colorectal carcinomas were found to be hypermutated: three-quarters of these had the expected high microsatellite instability, usually with hypermethylation and MLH1 silencing, and one-quarter had somatic mismatch-repair gene and polymerase e (POLE) mutations. Excluding the hypermutated cancers, colon and rectum cancers were found to have considerably similar patterns of genomic alteration. Twenty-four genes were significantly mutated, and in addition to the expected APC, TP53, SMAD4, PIK3CA and KRAS mutations, we found frequent mutations in ARID1A, SOX9 and FAM123B. Recurrent copy-number alterations include potentially drug-targetable amplifications of ERBB2 and newly discovered amplification of IGF2. Recurrent chromosomal translocations include the fusion of NAV2 and WNT pathway member TCF7L1. Integrative analyses suggest new markers for aggressive colorectal carcinoma and an important role for MYC-directed transcriptional activation and repression.

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Topics: KRAS (56%), MLH1 (56%), Exome (55%) ... show more

5,784 Citations

Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1038/NATURE07423
Li Ding1, Gad Getz2, David A. Wheeler3, Elaine R. Mardis1  +93 moreInstitutions (9)
23 Oct 2008-Nature
Abstract: Determining the genetic basis of cancer requires comprehensive analyses of large collections of histopathologically well-classified primary tumours. Here we report the results of a collaborative study to discover somatic mutations in 188 human lung adenocarcinomas. DNA sequencing of 623 genes with known or potential relationships to cancer revealed more than 1,000 somatic mutations across the samples. Our analysis identified 26 genes that are mutated at significantly high frequencies and thus are probably involved in carcinogenesis. The frequently mutated genes include tyrosine kinases, among them the EGFR homologue ERBB4; multiple ephrin receptor genes, notably EPHA3; vascular endothelial growth factor receptor KDR; and NTRK genes. These data provide evidence of somatic mutations in primary lung adenocarcinoma for several tumour suppressor genes involved in other cancers--including NF1, APC, RB1 and ATM--and for sequence changes in PTPRD as well as the frequently deleted gene LRP1B. The observed mutational profiles correlate with clinical features, smoking status and DNA repair defects. These results are reinforced by data integration including single nucleotide polymorphism array and gene expression array. Our findings shed further light on several important signalling pathways involved in lung adenocarcinoma, and suggest new molecular targets for treatment.

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Topics: Carcinogenesis (58%), Mutation (57%), Tumor suppressor gene (57%) ... show more

2,454 Citations