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Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1109/ACCESS.2021.3063104

Integration of D2D, Network Slicing, and MEC in 5G Cellular Networks: Survey and Challenges

02 Mar 2021-IEEE Access (IEEE)-Vol. 9, pp 37590-37612
Abstract: With the tremendous demand for connectivity anywhere and anytime, existing network architectures should be modified. To cope with the challenges that arise due to the increasing flood of devices/users and a diverse range of application requirements, new technologies and concepts must be integrated to enable their benefits. Service providers and business companies are looking for new areas of research to enhance overall system performance. This article gives a detailed survey about the recent 5G technologies, the solutions they provide, and the effect caused by their addition to current cellular networks. It is based on the three most important 5G concepts: Device to Device (D2D), Network Slicing (NS), and Mobile Edge Computing (MEC). This study proposes to design the future 5G networks by the integration of all three technologies. It is believed that spectrum efficiency, energy efficiency, and overall throughput will be greatly improved by using D2D. The system delay and computational load will be reduced as tasks will be handled by edge routers located at the base stations. Thus offloading the core network and the system capital expenses and operational expenses will be reduced significantly by slicing the network.

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Topics: Mobile edge computing (66%), Core network (58%), Network architecture (57%) ... show more
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9 results found


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1109/ACCESS.2021.3108423
27 Aug 2021-IEEE Access
Abstract: A 5G campus network is a 5G network for the users affiliated with the campus organization, e.g., an industrial campus, covering a prescribed geographical area. A 5G campus network can operate as a so-called 5G non-standalone (NSA) network (which requires 4G Long-Term Evolution (LTE) spectrum access) or as a 5G standalone (SA) network (without 4G LTE spectrum access). 5G campus networks are envisioned to enable new use cases, which require cyclic delay-sensitive industrial communication, such as robot control. We design a rigorous testbed for measuring the one-way packet delays between a 5G end device via a radio access network (RAN) to a packet core with sub-microsecond precision as well as for measuring the packet core delay with nanosecond precision. With our testbed design, we conduct detailed measurements of the one-way download (downstream, i.e., core to end device) as well as one-way upload (upstream, i.e., end device to core) packet delays and losses for both 5G SA and 5G NSA hardware and network operation. We also measure the corresponding 5G SA and 5G NSA packet core processing delays for download and upload. We find that typically 95% of the SA download packet delays are in the range from 4–10 ms, indicating a fairly wide spread of the packet delays. Also, existing packet core implementations regularly incur packet processing latencies up to 0.4 ms, with outliers above one millisecond. Our measurement results inform the further development and refinement of 5G SA and 5G NSA campus networks for industrial use cases. We make the measurement data traces publicly available as the IEEE DataPort 5G Campus Networks: Measurement Traces dataset (DOI 10.21227/xe3c-e968).

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Topics: Packet processing (61%), Campus network (61%), Network packet (59%) ... show more

2 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.3390/NETWORK1020012
04 Sep 2021-IEEE Network
Abstract: Cooperative edge offloading to nearby end devices via Device-to-Device (D2D) links in edge networks with sliced computing resources has mainly been studied for end devices (helper nodes) that are stationary (or follow predetermined mobility paths) and for independent computation tasks. However, end devices are often mobile, and a given application request commonly requires a set of dependent computation tasks. We formulate a novel model for the cooperative edge offloading of dependent computation tasks to mobile helper nodes. We model the task dependencies with a general task dependency graph. Our model employs the state-of-the-art deep-learning-based PECNet mobility model and offloads a task only when the sojourn time in the coverage area of a helper node or Multi-access Edge Computing (MEC) server is sufficiently long. We formulate the minimization problem for the consumed battery energy for task execution, task data transmission, and waiting for offloaded task results on end devices. We convert the resulting non-convex mixed integer nonlinear programming problem into an equivalent quadratically constrained quadratic programming (QCQP) problem, which we solve via a novel Energy-Efficient Task Offloading (EETO) algorithm. The numerical evaluations indicate that the EETO approach consistently reduces the battery energy consumption across a wide range of task complexities and task completion deadlines and can thus extend the battery lifetimes of mobile devices operating with sliced edge computing resources.

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Topics: Task (project management) (59%), Edge computing (56%), Mobility model (54%) ... show more

1 Citations


Open accessPosted Content
Abstract: Edge computing is one of the key driving forces to enable Beyond 5G (B5G) and 6G networks. Due to the unprecedented increase in traffic volumes and computation demands of future networks, Multi-access Edge Computing (MEC) is considered as a promising solution to provide cloud-computing capabilities within the radio access network (RAN) closer to the end users. There has been a huge amount of research on MEC and its potential applications; however, very little has been said about the key factors of MEC deployment to meet the diverse demands of future applications. In this article, we present key considerations for edge deployments in B5G/6G networks including edge architecture, server location and capacity, user density, security etc. We further provide state-of-the-art edge-centric services in future B5G/6G networks. Lastly, we present some interesting insights and open research problems in edge computing for 6G networks.

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1 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.3390/S21093158
02 May 2021-Sensors
Abstract: In this paper, we propose an unobtrusive method and architecture for monitoring a person’s presence and collecting his/her health-related parameters simultaneously in a home environment. The system is based on using a single ultra-wideband (UWB) impulse-radar as a sensing device. Using UWB radars, we aim to recognize a person and some preselected movements without camera-type monitoring. Via the experimental work, we have also demonstrated that, by using a UWB signal, it is possible to detect small chest movements remotely to recognize coughing, for example. In addition, based on statistical data analysis, a person’s posture in a room can be recognized in a steady situation. In addition, we implemented a machine learning technique (k-nearest neighbour) to automatically classify a static posture using UWB radar data. Skewness, kurtosis and received power are used in posture classification during the postprocessing. The classification accuracy achieved is more than 99%. In this paper, we also present reliability and fault tolerance analyses for three kinds of UWB radar network architectures to point out the weakest item in the installation. This information is highly important in the system’s implementation.

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Topics: Radar (53%)

1 Citations


Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/J.COMNET.2021.108222
04 Sep 2021-Computer Networks
Abstract: Self-organizing network (SON) is a well-known approach to reduce the complexity and the cost of cellular network management. It aims at replacing the manual configuration and optimization with the functionalities of self-configuration, self-optimization and self-healing. Due to the important role of SON, the problem of conflicts between SON functions has been seriously considered over the last decade. In order to resolve this problem, 3GPP has introduced the functionality of self-coordination which is responsible for conflict avoidance and resolution. However, the conflict-free execution of SON functions remains a challenge as it requires the coordination mechanisms to address all potential interactions between SON functionalities, anticipate their impact on the network and evaluate their execution results. Self-coordination in SON is therefore considered as an open research field since it directly affects the performance of SON functionalities and as a result affects the network stability. In this paper, we provide a survey of SON conflicts and self-coordination methodologies that can be used for conflicts avoidance and resolution, and review the recent solutions to state-of-the-art, including papers in this research area. Finally, we point out major challenges and research issues to be addressed in the future.

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References
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168 results found


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1109/COMST.2017.2745201
Yuyi Mao1, Changsheng You2, Jun Zhang1, Kaibin Huang2  +1 moreInstitutions (2)
Abstract: Driven by the visions of Internet of Things and 5G communications, recent years have seen a paradigm shift in mobile computing, from the centralized mobile cloud computing toward mobile edge computing (MEC). The main feature of MEC is to push mobile computing, network control and storage to the network edges (e.g., base stations and access points) so as to enable computation-intensive and latency-critical applications at the resource-limited mobile devices. MEC promises dramatic reduction in latency and mobile energy consumption, tackling the key challenges for materializing 5G vision. The promised gains of MEC have motivated extensive efforts in both academia and industry on developing the technology. A main thrust of MEC research is to seamlessly merge the two disciplines of wireless communications and mobile computing, resulting in a wide-range of new designs ranging from techniques for computation offloading to network architectures. This paper provides a comprehensive survey of the state-of-the-art MEC research with a focus on joint radio-and-computational resource management. We also discuss a set of issues, challenges, and future research directions for MEC research, including MEC system deployment, cache-enabled MEC, mobility management for MEC, green MEC, as well as privacy-aware MEC. Advancements in these directions will facilitate the transformation of MEC from theory to practice. Finally, we introduce recent standardization efforts on MEC as well as some typical MEC application scenarios.

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Topics: Mobile edge computing (69%), Mobile cloud computing (59%), Mobile computing (57%) ... show more

2,024 Citations


Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1109/MCOM.2014.6815890
Afif Osseiran1, Federico Boccardi2, Volker Braun3, Katsutoshi Kusume4  +10 moreInstitutions (11)
Abstract: METIS is the EU flagship 5G project with the objective of laying the foundation for 5G systems and building consensus prior to standardization. The METIS overall approach toward 5G builds on the evolution of existing technologies complemented by new radio concepts that are designed to meet the new and challenging requirements of use cases today?s radio access networks cannot support. The integration of these new radio concepts, such as massive MIMO, ultra dense networks, moving networks, and device-to-device, ultra reliable, and massive machine communications, will allow 5G to support the expected increase in mobile data volume while broadening the range of application domains that mobile communications can support beyond 2020. In this article, we describe the scenarios identified for the purpose of driving the 5G research direction. Furthermore, we give initial directions for the technology components (e.g., link level components, multinode/multiantenna, multi-RAT, and multi-layer networks and spectrum handling) that will allow the fulfillment of the requirements of the identified 5G scenarios.

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Topics: Mobile computing (57%), Mobile broadband (54%), Wired communication (54%) ... show more

1,753 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1109/COMST.2014.2319555
Arash Asadi1, Qing Wang1, Vincenzo Mancuso1Institutions (1)
Abstract: Device-to-device (D2D) communications was initially proposed in cellular networks as a new paradigm for enhancing network performance. The emergence of new applications such as content distribution and location-aware advertisement introduced new user cases for D2D communications in cellular networks. The initial studies showed that D2D communications has advantages such as increased spectral efficiency and reduced communication delay. However, this communication mode introduces complications in terms of interference control overhead and protocols that are still open research problems. The feasibility of D2D communications in Long-Term Evolution Advanced is being studied by academia, industry, and standardization bodies. To date, there are more than 100 papers available on D2D communications in cellular networks, but there is no survey on this field. In this paper, we provide a taxonomy based on the D2D communicating spectrum and review the available literature extensively under the proposed taxonomy. Moreover, we provide new insights into the over-explored and under-explored areas that lead us to identify open research problems of D2D communications in cellular networks.

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1,568 Citations


Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1109/MCOM.2012.6163598
Gabor Fodor1, Erik Dahlman1, Gunnar Mildh1, Stefan Parkvall1  +3 moreInstitutions (1)
Abstract: Device-to-device (D2D) communications underlaying a cellular infrastructure has been proposed as a means of taking advantage of the physical proximity of communicating devices, increasing resource utilization, and improving cellular coverage. Relative to the traditional cellular methods, there is a need to design new peer discovery methods, physical layer procedures, and radio resource management algorithms that help realize the potential advantages of D2D communications. In this article we use the 3GPP Long Term Evolution system as a baseline for D2D design, review some of the key design challenges, and propose solution approaches that allow cellular devices and D2D pairs to share spectrum resources and thereby increase the spectrum and energy efficiency of traditional cellular networks. Simulation results illustrate the viability of the proposed design.

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Topics: Cellular network (53%), Resource management (52%), Power control (52%)

1,349 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1109/COMST.2015.2477041
Abstract: Network function virtualization (NFV) has drawn significant attention from both industry and academia as an important shift in telecommunication service provisioning. By decoupling network functions (NFs) from the physical devices on which they run, NFV has the potential to lead to significant reductions in operating expenses (OPEX) and capital expenses (CAPEX) and facilitate the deployment of new services with increased agility and faster time-to-value. The NFV paradigm is still in its infancy and there is a large spectrum of opportunities for the research community to develop new architectures, systems and applications, and to evaluate alternatives and trade-offs in developing technologies for its successful deployment. In this paper, after discussing NFV and its relationship with complementary fields of software defined networking (SDN) and cloud computing, we survey the state-of-the-art in NFV, and identify promising research directions in this area. We also overview key NFV projects, standardization efforts, early implementations, use cases, and commercial products.

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Topics: Virtualization (52%), Software-defined networking (52%), Provisioning (52%) ... show more

1,337 Citations


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