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Journal ArticleDOI

Intensification and Sprawl: Residential Density Trajectories in Canada's Largest Metropolitan Regions

01 May 2010-Urban Geography (Taylor & Francis Group)-Vol. 31, Iss: 4, pp 541-569
TL;DR: In this article, the authors investigated the balance between forces of standardization and differentiation in the evolution of residential density in Canada's four largest metropolitan regions between 1971 and 2006 and found that the leading factors of standardized development are the continentwide postwar adaptation of urban form to the automobile and growing housing space consumption.
Abstract: This study investigates the balance between forces of standardization and differentiation in the evolution of residential density in Canada's four largest metropolitan regions between 1971 and 2006. The leading factors of standardized development are the continentwide postwar adaptation of urban form to the automobile and growing housing space consumption. The influence of these factors is manifested in increasing convergence in the density levels of the four metropolitan regions as one moves from older to newer zones. Nonetheless, inherited urban forms, topography, economic and demographic performance, and land-use and transportation policies all have the potential to shape distinct density patterns. Each metropolitan region presents a specific density trajectory: Toronto registers a pattern that can be qualified as stable and recentralized; Montreal emerges as a decentralizing metropolitan region; Vancouver shows clear signs of intensification; and in Ottawa-Hull the trajectory combines decentralization...
Citations
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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: A condition is the on that will make you feel that you must read as discussed by the authors, which is the condition that makes us feel that reading is a need and a hobby at once.
Abstract: Some people may be laughing when looking at you reading in your spare time. Some may be admired of you. And some may want be like you who have reading hobby. What about your own feel? Have you felt right? Reading is a need and a hobby at once. This condition is the on that will make you feel that you must read. If you know are looking for the book enPDFd the transit metropolis a global inquiry as the choice of reading, you can find here.

443 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors examined the spatial distribution of household debt in Canadian cities at multiple scales of analysing, and found that higher and unsustainable levels of indebtedness might be associated with urban growth, decline, suburbanization, gentrification, immigration, racialization, and greying.
Abstract: Vulnerability resulting from debt is part and parcel of the risk society and a salient characteristic of current neoliberal times under financialized global capitalism. Rising indebtedness increases the susceptibility of homeowners to housing and labor market restructuring, and if the degree of leverage is very high, can threaten the solvency, living standards, and social stability of local communities. However, very little is understood regarding how levels of household indebtedness are spatially distributed within or across cities, and how private debt maps onto the geography of race, class, housing, urban form, and other social variables, especially outside of the United States. It remains unknown whether and how higher and unsustainable levels of indebtedness might be associated with urban growth, decline, suburbanization, gentrification, immigration, racialization, and/or greying. This article examines the spatial distribution of household debt in Canadian cities at multiple scales of analys...

89 citations


Cites result from "Intensification and Sprawl: Residen..."

  • ...Crump, J., Newman, K., Belsky, E. S., Ashton, P., Kaplan, D. H., Hammel, D. J. and Wyly, E., 2008, Cities destroyed (again) for cash: Forum on the U.S. Foreclosure Crisis....

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  • ...Much of the scholarly literature in this area is derived from the U.S. and UK experiences....

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  • ...The most salient and publicized aspect of this relates to the growth of “subprime” mortgage lending in the U.S. and its relationship to the GFC (Engel and McCoy, 2011)....

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  • ...Increasingly U.S. employers are using credit checks in the determination of who to hire, while landlords use them in assessing rental housing applicants (Bayot, 2004; Martin, 2010)....

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  • ...In the U.S., the senior Bush administration promoted deregulation and financialization as steps toward a new “ownership society,” while in the UK policy reform was couched in a new discourse of “asset-based welfare” (Ronald, 2008; Finlayson, 2009; Wainwright, 2009)....

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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, the authors demonstrate that today's young adult residential ecology is increasingly defined by proximity to transit, high-density housing, and walkability to urban amenities, and the residential pattern is one of concentrated decentralization in Vancouver.
Abstract: Considering Vancouver and Montreal as case studies, this article demonstrates the increasing centralization of the young adult population since the early 1980s. Gentrification, which brings higher income earners to the inner city, is often explained as a class-based process associated with post-industrial, post-Fordist, and, more recently, neo-liberal restructuring. However, delays in child-bearing, increasing educational attainment, and the growing amenity and housing component in inner cities have also sharpened the division of space by demographic variables such as age and household size—variables that relate to life-cycle stage, consumption practices, and generational differences. This article contributes to the understanding of the factors delineating urban space by considering residential location patterns of two different generations of young adults in two metropolitan areas. The findings show that today's young adult residential ecology is increasingly defined by proximity to transit, high-density housing, and walkability to urban amenities. Due to the higher-priced housing market and land use planning policies emphasizing densification, the residential pattern is one of concentrated decentralization in Vancouver. In Montreal, centralization of young adults is mostly associated with changing household profiles. In both metropolitan areas, the inner city residential ecology is increasingly delineated by young adults.

60 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, the authors compared patterns of accelerated increase in sprawl in the Montreal and Quebec Census Metropolitan Areas in Canada with the Zurich metropolitan area in Switzerland between 1951 and 2011, and applied the recent metrics of urban permeation and weighted urban proliferation (WUP) to measure urban sprawl.

53 citations

References
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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, the authors evaluate whether or not the promotion of compact cities is a worthwhile planning goal and find that the social equity of compactness does not support the case for promoting compact cities.
Abstract: This paper considers some key issues that help to evaluate whether or not the promotion of compact cities is a worthwhile planning goal. These are: the pressures on prime agricultural land; residential density preferences; energy resource savings; the potential for expanding transit use and promoting TODs (transit-oriented developments); the costs and benefits of suburbanization; the efficiency gains from compactness; the impact of telecommunications on the density of development; the prospects for downtowns; the influence of rent-seeking on the promotion of downtown projects; the social equity of compactness; and the effects of competition among cities. Our evaluation of these issues does not support the case for promoting compact cities.

1,181 citations


"Intensification and Sprawl: Residen..." refers background in this paper

  • ...…considered expenses expands redevelopment becomes more cost-effective relative to greenfield construction (for different sides of this debate, see Gordon and Richardson, 1997, and De Sousa, 2002). balanced planning and were, before the recent trend toward intensification, content to adopt a…...

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Book
01 Jan 1998
TL;DR: A transit metropolis is a region where a workable fit exists between transit services and urban form as mentioned in this paper, and it is defined as "a region where transit services are well suited for rail services and flexible, fleet-footed bus services well suited to spread-out development".
Abstract: A transit metropolis is a region where a workable fit exists between transit services and urban form. In some cases this means compact, mixed-use development well suited for rail services, and in others it means flexible, fleetfooted bus services well suited to spread-out development. Part 1 of the book introduces the transit metropolis as a paradigm for sustainable regional development; part 2 provides four case studies - Stockholm, Copenhagen, Singapore and Tokyo - featuring cityscapes that have been designed and contoured, largely as a result of farsighted and proactive land use planning to support very intense rail transit services; part 3 discusses the hybrids, places that have struck a workable balance between concentrating development along trunkline transit corridors and adapting transit to serve spread-out suburbs efficiently; part 4 covers the strong-core cities that have effectively tied rail transit improvements to central city revitalization; part 5 discusses adaptive transit, i.e., tailoring transit to serve cities and suburbs; and, part 6 summarizes the key lessons learned from the case studies presented in this book and it then reviews efforts under way in five North American metropolitan areas: Portland, Oregon; Vancouver, British Columbia; San Diego, California; St. Louis, Missouri; and Houston, Texas. The book closes with a discussion of the challenges of nurturing and growing transit metropolises in the 21st century.

658 citations

Book
01 Nov 2005
TL;DR: Bruegmann argues that sprawl is neither recent nor particularly American but as old as cities themselves, just as characteristic of ancient Rome and eighteenth-century Paris as it is of Atlanta or Los Angeles as mentioned in this paper.
Abstract: As anyone who has flown into Los Angeles at dusk or Houston at midday knows, urban areas today defy traditional notions of what a city is. Our old definitions of urban, suburban, and rural fail to capture the complexity of these vast regions with their superhighways, subdivisions, industrial areas, office parks, and resort areas pushing far out into the countryside. Detractors call it sprawl and assert that it is economically inefficient, socially inequitable, environmentally irresponsible, and aesthetically ugly. Robert Bruegmann calls it a logical consequence of economic growth and the democratization of society, with benefits that urban planners have failed to recognize. In his incisive history of the expanded city, Bruegmann overturns every assumption we have about sprawl. Taking a long view of urban development, he demonstrates that sprawl is neither recent nor particularly American but as old as cities themselves, just as characteristic of ancient Rome and eighteenth-century Paris as it is of Atlanta or Los Angeles. Nor is sprawl the disaster claimed by many contemporary observers. Although sprawl, like any settlement pattern, has undoubtedly produced problems that must be addressed, it has also provided millions of people with the kinds of mobility, privacy, and choice that were once the exclusive prerogatives of the rich and powerful. The first major book to strip urban sprawl of its pejorative connotations, "Sprawl" offers a completely new vision of the city and its growth. Bruegmann leads readers to the powerful conclusion that "in its immense complexity and constant change, the city-whether dense and concentrated at its core, looser and more sprawling in suburbia, or in the vast tracts of exurban penumbra that extend dozens, even hundreds, of miles-is the grandest and most marvelous work of mankind." Largely missing from this debate [over sprawl] has been a sound and reasoned history of this pattern of living. With Robert Bruegmann s "Sprawl: A Compact History," we now have one. What a pleasure it is: well-written, accessible and eager to challenge the current cant about sprawl. Joel Kotkin, "The Wall Street Journal""" There are scores of books offering solutions to sprawl. Their authors would do well to read this book. Witold Rybczynski, "Slate ""

549 citations


"Intensification and Sprawl: Residen..." refers background in this paper

  • ...Although the urban geography and planning literature adopts a predominantly critical tone toward postwarstyle development, some studies celebrate this form (e.g., Gordon et al., 1991; Bruegmann, 2005)....

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Book
13 Sep 2013
TL;DR: The Geography of Nowhere as discussed by the authors traces America's evolution from a nation of Main Streets and coherent communities to a land where everyplace is like noplace in particular, where the city is a dead zone and the countryside a wasteland of cars and blacktop.
Abstract: Eighty percent of everything ever built in America has been built since the end of World War II. This tragic landscape of highway strips, parking lots, housing tracts, mega-malls, junked cities, and ravaged countryside is not simply an expression of our economic predicament, but in large part a cause. It is the everyday environment where most Americans live and work, and it represents a gathering calamity whose effects we have hardly begun to measure. In The Geography of Nowhere, James Howard Kunstler traces America's evolution from a nation of Main Streets and coherent communities to a land where everyplace is like noplace in particular, where the city is a dead zone and the countryside a wasteland of cars and blacktop. Now that the great suburban build-out is over, Kunstler argues, we are stuck with the consequences: a national living arrangement that destroys civic life while imposing enormous social costs and economic burdens. Kunstler explains how our present zoning laws impoverish the life of our communities, and how all our efforts to make automobiles happy have resulted in making human beings miserable. He shows how common building regulations have led to a crisis in affordable housing, and why street crime is directly related to our traditional disregard for the public realm. Kunstler takes the reader on a historical journey to understand how Americans came to view their landscape as a commodity for exploitation rather than a social resource. He explains why our towns and cities came to be wounded by the abstract dogmas of Modernism, and reveals the paradox of a people who yearn for places worthy of their affection, yet bend their efforts in an economic enterprise ofdestruction that degrades and defaces what they most deeply desire. Kunstler proposes sensible remedies for this American crisis of landscape and townscape: a return to sound principles of planning and the lost art of good place-making, an end to the tyranny of compulsive commuting, the un

547 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: A condition is the on that will make you feel that you must read as discussed by the authors, which is the condition that makes us feel that reading is a need and a hobby at once.
Abstract: Some people may be laughing when looking at you reading in your spare time. Some may be admired of you. And some may want be like you who have reading hobby. What about your own feel? Have you felt right? Reading is a need and a hobby at once. This condition is the on that will make you feel that you must read. If you know are looking for the book enPDFd the transit metropolis a global inquiry as the choice of reading, you can find here.

443 citations


"Intensification and Sprawl: Residen..." refers background in this paper

  • ...The foremost transportation initiative undertaken by the OttawaCarleton regional government was the transitway system (Cervero, 1998)....

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