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Journal ArticleDOI

Interfacial morphology and nanomechanics of cement of the barnacle, Amphibalanus reticulatus on metallic and non-metallic substrata.

08 Jun 2011-Biofouling (Taylor & Francis)-Vol. 27, Iss: 6, pp 569-577
TL;DR: Structural characterization studies using scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscope in conjunction with nanomechanical characterization and infrared spectroscopy are used to understand the differences in the adhesion of primary barnacle cement to the different substrata.
Abstract: The barnacle exhibits a high degree of control over its attachment onto different types of solid surface. The structure and composition of barnacle cement have been reported previously, but mostly for barnacles growing on low surface energy materials. This article focuses on the strategies used by barnacles when they attach to engineering materials such as polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA), titanium (Ti) and stainless steel 316L (SS316L). Adhesion to these substrata is compared in terms of morphological structure, thickness and functional groups of the primary cement, the molting cycle and the nanomechanical properties of the cement. Structural characterization studies using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) in conjunction with nanomechanical characterization and infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) are used to understand the differences in the adhesion of primary barnacle cement to the different substrata. The results provide new insights into understanding the mechanisms ...
Citations
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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: This mini-review attempts to bring together aspects of the adhesion of adult barnacles by looking at the achievements of research focused on both fouling and adhesion.
Abstract: Barnacles are intriguing, not only with respect to their importance as fouling organisms, but also in terms of the mechanism of underwater adhesion, which provides a platform for biomimetic and bioinspired research. These aspects have prompted questions regarding how adult barnacles attach to surfaces under water. The multidisciplinary and interdisciplinary nature of the studies makes an overview covering all aspects challenging. This mini-review, therefore, attempts to bring together aspects of the adhesion of adult barnacles by looking at the achievements of research focused on both fouling and adhesion. Biological and biochemical studies, which have been motivated mainly by understanding the nature of the adhesion, indicate that the molecular characteristics of barnacle adhesive are unique. However, it is apparent from recent advances in molecular techniques that much remains undiscovered regarding the complex event of underwater attachment. Barnacles attached to silicone-based elastomeric coatings hav...

110 citations


Cites background from "Interfacial morphology and nanomech..."

  • ...SEM observation without fixation of both the fracture surfaces, the external calcareous base and the PMMA, which had been physically detached showed a sponge-like structure (A. reticulatus; Raman & Kumar 2011)....

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  • ...The cement samples formed on Ti and SS were also investigated (A. reticulatus; Raman & Kumar 2011)....

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  • ...The barnacle also attaches strongly to some synthetic polymers, although the adhesive strength to others, eg poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA; Berglin & Gatenholm 1999; Raman & Kumar 2011), was sometimes much weaker than normal....

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  • ...There appeared to be a difference in the mesoscopic structure in the bulk of the adhesive joint in the direction normal to the Ti substratum (Raman & Kumar 2011)....

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  • ...The study showed that the inside bulk of the cement on PMMA had no clearly defined difference or gradient in pore diameter in the direction normal to the substratum, unlike the cement of barnacles on Ti (Raman & Kumar 2011)....

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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: It appears that both the conformation of the protein as building blocks and non‐covalent molecular interactions between the building blocks, possibly hydrophobic interactions and hydrogen bonds, are crucial for curing of the cement.
Abstract: Barnacles are a unique sessile crustacean that attach irreversibly and firmly to foreign underwater surfaces. Its biological underwater adhesive is a peculiar extracellular multi-protein complex. Here we characterize one of the two major proteins, a 52 kDa protein found in the barnacle cement complex. Cloning of the cDNA revealed that the protein has no homolog in the nonredundant database. The primary structure consists of four long sequence repeats. The process of dissolving the protein at the adhesive joint of the animal by various treatments was monitored in order to obtain insight into the molecular mechanism involved in curing of the adhesive bulk. Treatments with protein denaturant, reducing agents and/or chemical-specific proteolysis in combination with 2D diagonal PAGE indicated no involvement of the protein in intermolecular cross-linkage/polymerization, including formation of intermolecular disulfide bonds. As solubilization of the proteins required high concentrations of denaturing agents, it appears that both the conformation of the protein as building blocks and non-covalent molecular interactions between the building blocks, possibly hydrophobic interactions and hydrogen bonds, are crucial for curing of the cement. It was also suggested that the protein contributes to surface coupling by an anchoring effect to micro- to nanoscopic roughness of surfaces. Database Sequence of Megabalanus rosa cp52k mRNA for 52 kDa cement protein has been submitted to the DNA Data Bank of Japan under accession number AB623048.

73 citations

BookDOI
01 Jan 2013
TL;DR: The first comprehensive treatment of physiologic attachment from the engineering perspective and the first treatment of engineering attachment in the context of schemes observed in nature are presented.
Abstract: Attachment of dissimilar materials in engineering and surgical practice is a perennial challenge. Bimaterial attachment sites are common locations for injury, repeated injury, and mechanical failure. Nature presents several highly effective solutions to the challenge of bimaterial attachment that differ from those found in engineering practice. Structural Interfaces and Attachments in Biology describes the attachment of dissimilar materials from multiple perspectives. The text will simultaneously elucidate natural bimaterial attachments and outline engineering principles underlying successful attachments to the communities of tissue engineers and surgeons. Included an in-depth analysis of the biology of attachments in the body and mechanisms by which robust attachments are formed, a review of current concepts of attaching dissimilar materials in surgical practice and a discussion of bioengineering approaches that are currently being developed. This book also:Provides the first comprehensive treatment of physiologic attachment from the engineering perspective Presents the first treatment of engineering attachment in the context of schemes observed in natureDiscusses current surgical techniques for soft tissue to bone healing and repairExplains synthesis of bioengineered and biomimetic interfaces Structural Interfaces and Attachments in Biology is an ideal book for graduate students in mechanical and biomedical engineering, researchers in the area of orthopedic biomechanics, structural engineers, and residents in orthopedic surgery.

67 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: An integrated system of building information modelling (BIM) and geographic information system (GIS) to improve the performance of current maintenance management system is proposed and required maintenance management functions are also developed based on practice demands.

61 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
11 Jul 2012-Langmuir
TL;DR: The experiments point to the need to reexamine the role of phenolic components in barnacle adhesion, long discounted despite their prevalence in structural membranes of arthropods and crustaceans, as they may contribute to chemical processes that strengthen adhesion through intermolecular cross-linking.
Abstract: Barnacles adhere permanently to surfaces by secreting and curing a thin interfacial adhesive underwater. Here, we show that the acorn barnacle Balanus amphitrite adheres by a two-step fluid secretion process, both contributing to adhesion. We found that, as barnacles grow, the first barnacle cement secretion (BCS1) is released at the periphery of the expanding base plate. Subsequently, a second, autofluorescent fluid (BCS2) is released. We show that secretion of BCS2 into the interface results, on average, in a 2-fold increase in adhesive strength over adhesion by BCS1 alone. The two secretions are distinguishable both spatially and temporally, and differ in morphology, protein conformation, and chemical functionality. The short time window for BCS2 secretion relative to the overall area increase demonstrates that it has a disproportionate, surprisingly powerful, impact on adhesion. The dramatic change in adhesion occurs without measurable changes in interface thickness and total protein content. A fractu...

48 citations

References
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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors used a Berkovich indenter to determine hardness and elastic modulus from indentation load-displacement data, and showed that the curve of the curve is not linear, even in the initial stages of the unloading process.
Abstract: The indentation load-displacement behavior of six materials tested with a Berkovich indenter has been carefully documented to establish an improved method for determining hardness and elastic modulus from indentation load-displacement data. The materials included fused silica, soda–lime glass, and single crystals of aluminum, tungsten, quartz, and sapphire. It is shown that the load–displacement curves during unloading in these materials are not linear, even in the initial stages, thereby suggesting that the flat punch approximation used so often in the analysis of unloading data is not entirely adequate. An analysis technique is presented that accounts for the curvature in the unloading data and provides a physically justifiable procedure for determining the depth which should be used in conjunction with the indenter shape function to establish the contact area at peak load. The hardnesses and elastic moduli of the six materials are computed using the analysis procedure and compared with values determined by independent means to assess the accuracy of the method. The results show that with good technique, moduli can be measured to within 5%.

22,557 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: This review discusses the application of infrared spectroscopy to the study of proteins by focusing on the mid-infrared spectral region and theStudy of protein reactions by reaction-induced infrared difference spectroscopic.

3,596 citations


"Interfacial morphology and nanomech..." refers background in this paper

  • ...The remaining peaks correspond to the typical protein band positions reported earlier (Barth 2007; Barlow et al. 2009)....

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  • ...The band position between 2515 to 2590 cm71 suggests the presence of the S H bearing amino acid cystine that contributes to forming disulfide bonds (Barth 2007)....

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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: A single-molecule study of the substrate and oxidation-dependent adhesive properties of dopa is reported, in which dopa exploits a remarkable combination of high strength and chemical multifunctionality to accomplish adhesion to substrates of widely varying composition.
Abstract: The glue proteins secreted by marine mussels bind strongly to virtually all inorganic and organic surfaces in aqueous environments in which most adhesives function poorly. Studies of these functionally unique proteins have revealed the presence of the unusual amino acid 3,4-dihydroxy-L-phenylalanine (dopa), which is formed by posttranslational modification of tyrosine. However, the detailed binding mechanisms of dopa remain unknown, and the chemical basis for mussels' ability to adhere to both inorganic and organic surfaces has never been fully explained. Herein, we report a single-molecule study of the substrate and oxidation-dependent adhesive properties of dopa. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) measurements of a single dopa residue contacting a wet metal oxide surface reveal a surprisingly high strength yet fully reversible, noncovalent interaction. The magnitude of the bond dissociation energy as well as the inability to observe this interaction with tyrosine suggests that dopa is critical to adhesion and that the binding mechanism is not hydrogen bond formation. Oxidation of dopa, as occurs during curing of the secreted mussel glue, dramatically reduces the strength of the interaction to metal oxide but results in high strength irreversible covalent bond formation to an organic surface. A new picture of the interfacial adhesive role of dopa emerges from these studies, in which dopa exploits a remarkable combination of high strength and chemical multifunctionality to accomplish adhesion to substrates of widely varying composition from organic to metallic.

1,859 citations


"Interfacial morphology and nanomech..." refers background in this paper

  • ...The adhesion of mussels, barnacles and tubeworms have provided a challenge for many scientists and a number of publications have examined the morphological structure and chemical composition of the secreted adhesives (Crisp et al. 1985; Stewart et al. 2004; Sun et al. 2004; Lee et al. 2006; Kamino 2010a)....

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  • ...…of mussels, barnacles and tubeworms have provided a challenge for many scientists and a number of publications have examined the morphological structure and chemical composition of the secreted adhesives (Crisp et al. 1985; Stewart et al. 2004; Sun et al. 2004; Lee et al. 2006; Kamino 2010a)....

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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The results suggest that mcfp-6 may provide a cohesive link between the surface-coupling Dopa-rich proteins and the bulk of the plaque proteins.

250 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Variation in the adhesive protein gene sequences of Mytilus edulis, M. galloprovincialis, and M. trossulus collected in Delaware, Kamaishi (Japan), and Alaska, respectively, was analyzed by the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using two sets of oligonucleotide primers.
Abstract: Variation in the adhesive protein gene se- quences of Mytilus edulis, M. galloprovincialis, and M. trossulus collected in Delaware, Kamaishi (Japan), and Alaska, respectively, was analyzed by the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using two sets of oligonucleotide primers. The first set, Me 13 and Me 14, was designed to amplify the repetitive region. The length of the amplified fragments was highly variable, even among samples of the same species. Another set, Me 1.5 and Me 16, was designed to amplify a part of the nonrepetitive region. The length of the amplified fragments was uniform in each species and differed interspecifically; 180, 168, and 126 bp for M. edulis, M. trossulus, and M. galloprovincialis, respectively. The amplified sequence of M. trossulus resembled that of M. edulis. Mussels from other sites were also examined by PCR using Me 15 and Me 16. Wild mussels from Tromso (Norway) and cultured mussels from Brittany (France) were identified as M. edulis. Cultured mussels from the Mediterranean coast of France and wild mussels from Shimizu (Japan) were identified as M. galloprovin- cialis. Some wild mussels from Hiura (Japan) were iden- tified as a hybrid between M. galloprovincialis and M. trossulus. Thus, the length of this part (variable region) of the sequence is proposed as a diagnostic marker for

236 citations


"Interfacial morphology and nanomech..." refers background in this paper

  • ...Mussels secrete byssal threads of a collagen core protected by a hard cuticle that incorporates metal ions (Inoue et al. 1995; Zhao and Waite 2005, 2006)....

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