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Journal ArticleDOI

Interferometric Fiber Optic Sensors

23 Feb 2012-Sensors (Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute (MDPI))-Vol. 12, Iss: 3, pp 2467-2486

TL;DR: Each type of interferometric sensor is reviewed in terms of operating principles, fabrication methods, and application fields and some specific examples of recently reported interferometeric sensor technologies are presented in detail to show their large potential in practical applications.

AbstractFiber optic interferometers to sense various physical parameters including temperature, strain, pressure, and refractive index have been widely investigated. They can be categorized into four types: Fabry-Perot, Mach-Zehnder, Michelson, and Sagnac. In this paper, each type of interferometric sensor is reviewed in terms of operating principles, fabrication methods, and application fields. Some specific examples of recently reported interferometeric sensor technologies are presented in detail to show their large potential in practical applications. Some of the simple to fabricate but exceedingly effective Fabry-Perot interferometers, implemented in both extrinsic and intrinsic structures, are discussed. Also, a wide variety of Mach-Zehnder and Michelson interferometric sensors based on photonic crystal fibers are introduced along with their remarkable sensing performances. Finally, the simultaneous multi-parameter sensing capability of a pair of long period fiber grating (LPG) is presented in two types of structures; one is the Mach-Zehnder interferometer formed in a double cladding fiber and the other is the highly sensitive Sagnac interferometer cascaded with an LPG pair.

Topics: Fiber optic sensor (65%), Interferometry (60%), Photonic-crystal fiber (60%), Optical fiber (58%), Long-period fiber grating (56%)

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Citations
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Journal ArticleDOI
30 Jul 2015-Sensors
TL;DR: Recent research and applications in structural health monitoring of composite aircraft structures using FOS have been critically reviewed, considering both the multi-point and distributed sensing techniques.
Abstract: In-service structural health monitoring of composite aircraft structures plays a key role in the assessment of their performance and integrity. In recent years, Fibre Optic Sensors (FOS) have proved to be a potentially excellent technique for real-time in-situ monitoring of these structures due to their numerous advantages, such as immunity to electromagnetic interference, small size, light weight, durability, and high bandwidth, which allows a great number of sensors to operate in the same system, and the possibility to be integrated within the material. However, more effort is still needed to bring the technology to a fully mature readiness level. In this paper, recent research and applications in structural health monitoring of composite aircraft structures using FOS have been critically reviewed, considering both the multi-point and distributed sensing techniques.

329 citations


Cites background or methods from "Interferometric Fiber Optic Sensors..."

  • ...Sensors based on the Mach-Zender, and Michelson interferometers, also using long period gratings (LPGs) and photonic crystal fibres (PCFs) [14,15], have been used preferably for refractive index [16], temperature [17] or velocity measurement [18], while the Sagnac interferometer has been applied mainly to rotation measurements [19]....

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  • ...The operation of interferometric sensors [14] is based on the change of the optical phase difference between two light waves with the same frequency, caused by the variation of a physical quantity....

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Journal ArticleDOI
24 Apr 2014-Sensors
TL;DR: A wide variety of FPI sensors are reviewed in terms of fabrication methods, principle of operation and their sensing applications in a study on interferometric optical fiber sensors.
Abstract: Optical fibers have been involved in the area of sensing applications for more than four decades. Moreover, interferometric optical fiber sensors have attracted broad interest for their prospective applications in sensing temperature, refractive index, strain measurement, pressure, acoustic wave, vibration, magnetic field, and voltage. During this time, numerous types of interferometers have been developed such as Fabry-Perot, Michelson, Mach-Zehnder, Sagnac Fiber, and Common-path interferometers. Fabry-Perot interferometer (FPI) fiber-optic sensors have been extensively investigated for their exceedingly effective, simple fabrication as well as low cost aspects. In this study, a wide variety of FPI sensors are reviewed in terms of fabrication methods, principle of operation and their sensing applications. The chronology of the development of FPI sensors and their implementation in various applications are discussed.

217 citations


Cites background from "Interferometric Fiber Optic Sensors..."

  • ...To the extent of the authors‘ knowledge, there are a few review articles that have partly talked about the common fabrication, sensing technologies and measurands of Fabry-Perot Interferometric fiber-optic sensors, including [44], which only covers microcavities that play a significant role in forming FPI, vibration sensing in [45], strain measurement in [46], acousto-ultrasonic sensing in [47], and also includes a number of recent reviews given in [48] where the recent trends of FPI fabrication, methods and application are presented....

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Journal ArticleDOI
15 Jan 2016-Sensors
TL;DR: An overview of the different types of FOS used for strain/temperature sensing in composite materials and their compatibility with and suitability for embedding inside a composite material is presented.
Abstract: This paper provides an overview of the different types of fiber optic sensors (FOS) that can be used with composite materials and also their compatibility with and suitability for embedding inside a composite material. An overview of the different types of FOS used for strain/temperature sensing in composite materials is presented. Recent trends, and future challenges for FOS technology for condition monitoring in smart composite materials are also discussed. This comprehensive review provides essential information for the smart materials industry in selecting of appropriate types of FOS in accordance with end-user requirements.

186 citations


Cites background from "Interferometric Fiber Optic Sensors..."

  • ...A Fabry-Perot interferometer (FPI) generally comprises of two parallel reflecting surfaces separated by a certain distance [66]....

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  • ...It is possible to tune the intensity of the interferometric modes of an EFPI sensor by varying the gap between the two reflecting surfaces [66]....

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  • ...Interferometric fiber sensors [66] can also be employed for strain/temperature measurements in composite materials and this is discussed in detail in this section....

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  • ...The reflection or transmission spectrum of an FPI is a wavelength dependent intensity modulation of the input light spectrum, resulting from the optical phase difference between the reflected and transmitted beams [66,67]....

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  • ...The optical phase difference between reflected or transmitted beams at a particular wavelength of the FPI is basically specified as [66]:...

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Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: Humidity and moisture sensing is becoming increasingly important in industry and through a wide spectrum of applications and a review of research activity in the field across a range of technologies was presented previously by some of the authors. Recognizing the major developments in the last few years, especially in the field of fibre optic humidity and moisture sensing, this paper aims to extend that approach to review and categorize recent progress in the optical fibre field for the measurement of humidity and moisture and examine, as a result, the breadth of applications that now are being discussed.

167 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
18 Oct 2013-Sensors
TL;DR: The working principles of the most promising MR-compatible FOS are reviewed in terms of their relevant advantages and disadvantages, together with their applications in medicine.
Abstract: During last decades, Magnetic Resonance (MR)—compatible sensors based on different techniques have been developed due to growing demand for application in medicine. There are several technological solutions to design MR-compatible sensors, among them, the one based on optical fibers presents several attractive features. The high elasticity and small size allow designing miniaturized fiber optic sensors (FOS) with metrological characteristics (e.g., accuracy, sensitivity, zero drift, and frequency response) adequate for most common medical applications; the immunity from electromagnetic interference and the absence of electrical connection to the patient make FOS suitable to be used in high electromagnetic field and intrinsically safer than conventional technologies. These two features further heightened the potential role of FOS in medicine making them especially attractive for application in MRI. This paper provides an overview of MR-compatible FOS, focusing on the sensors employed for measuring physical parameters in medicine (i.e., temperature, force, torque, strain, and position). The working principles of the most promising FOS are reviewed in terms of their relevant advantages and disadvantages, together with their applications in medicine.

152 citations


References
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MonographDOI
21 Dec 2017
Abstract: Introduction to Optics is now available in a re-issued edition from Cambridge University Press. Designed to offer a comprehensive and engaging introduction to intermediate and upper level undergraduate physics and engineering students, this text also allows instructors to select specialized content to suit individual curricular needs and goals. Specific features of the text, in terms of coverage beyond traditional areas, include extensive use of matrices in dealing with ray tracing, polarization, and multiple thin-film interference; three chapters devoted to lasers; a separate chapter on the optics of the eye; and individual chapters on holography, coherence, fiber optics, interferometry, Fourier optics, nonlinear optics, and Fresnel equations.

889 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: Since the introduction of optical fiber technology in the field of sensor based on the technique of surface plasmon resonance (SPR), fiber-optic SPR sensors have witnessed a lot of advancements. This paper reports on the past, present, and future scope of fiber-optic SPR sensors in the field of sensing of different chemical, physical, and biochemical parameters. A detailed mechanism of the SPR technique for sensing purposes has been discussed. Different new techniques and models in this area that have been introduced are discussed in quite a detail. We have tried to put the different advancements in the order of their chronological evolution. The content of the review article may be of great importance for the research community who are to take the field of fiber-optic SPR sensors as its research endeavors.

692 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: An approach to achieve simultaneous measurement of refractive index and temperature is proposed by using a Mach–Zehnder interferometer realized on tapered single-mode optical fiber. The attenuation peak wavelength of the interference with specific order in the transmission spectrum shifts with changes in the environmental refractive index and temperature. By utilizing S-band and C/L-band light sources, simultaneous discrimination of refractive index and temperature with the tapered fiber Mach–Zehnder interferometer is demonstrated with the corresponding sensitivities of −23.188 nm/RIU (refractive index unit) and 0.071 nm/ °C, and −26.087 nm/RIU (blueshift) and 0.077 nm/°C (redshift) for the interference orders of 169 and 144, respectively.

500 citations


"Interferometric Fiber Optic Sensors..." refers background in this paper

  • ...By tapering a fiber at two points along the fiber, we can form an effective in-line MZI as shown in Figure 7(f) [55,56]....

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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: As potential applications of the all-PCF interferometer, strain sensing is experimentally demonstrated and ultra-high temperature sensing is proposed.
Abstract: We propose simple and compact methods for implementing all-fiber interferometers. The interference between the core and the cladding modes of a photonic crystal fiber (PCF) is utilized. To excite the cladding modes from the fundamental core mode of a PCF, a coupling point or region is formed by using two methods. One is fusion splicing two pieces of a PCF with a small lateral offset, and the other is partially collapsing the air-holes in a single piece of PCF. By making another coupling point at a different location along the fiber, the proposed all-PCF interferometer is implemented. The spectral response of the interferometer is investigated mainly in terms of its wavelength spectrum. The spatial frequency of the spectrum was proportional to the physical length of the interferometer and the difference between the modal group indices of involved waveguide modes. For the splicing type interferometer, only a single spatial frequency component was dominantly observed, while the collapsing type was associated with several components at a time. By analyzing the spatial frequency spectrum of the wavelength spectrum, the modal group index differences of the PCF were obtained from 2.83×10-3 to 4.65 ×10-3 . As potential applications of the all-PCF interferometer, strain sensing is experimentally demonstrated and ultra-high temperature sensing is proposed.

400 citations


"Interferometric Fiber Optic Sensors..." refers background or methods in this paper

  • ...However, in this case, coupling to several cladding modes was observed and controlling the number of involved modes was not so simple [51]....

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  • ...Even with PCF, an MZI can be formed by simply fusion-splicing a piece of PCF between fibers with a small intentional deviation [51]....

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  • ...In reference [51], as low as 2 dB splicing loss was achieved by making the mode coupling to dominantly one cladding mode of the PCF....

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Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: We have realized a fiber-based Fabry-Perot cavity with CO2 laser-machined mirrors. It combines very small size, high finesse F>=130000, small waist and mode volume, and good mode matching between the fiber and cavity modes. This combination of features is a major advance for cavity quantum electrodynamics (CQED), as shown in recent CQED experiments with Bose-Einstein condensates enabled by this cavity [Y. Colombe et al., Nature 450, 272 (2007)]. It should also be suitable for a wide range of other applications, including coupling to solid-state emitters, gas detection at the single-particle level, fiber-coupled single-photon sources and high-resolution optical filters with large stopband.

366 citations


"Interferometric Fiber Optic Sensors..." refers background in this paper

  • ...Since it can utilize high reflecting mirrors, the extrinsic structure is useful to obtain a high finesse interference signal [23]....

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