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Proceedings ArticleDOI

Interferometry with a photon-number resolving detector

31 May 2009-pp 1-2

AbstractWith photon-number resolving detectors, we show compression of interference fringes with increasing photon numbers for both Michelson and Fabry-Perot interferometers. We also theoretically show supersensitivity for nonclassical light.

Topics: Nonclassical light (56%), Interferometry (55%), Photon (51%), Astronomical interferometer (50%)

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References
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Journal ArticleDOI
12 May 2000
TL;DR: It is shown how to write arbitrary 2D patterns by using the nonclassical photon-number states method, and a factor of N = 2 can be achieved easily with entangled photon pairs generated from optical parametric down-conversion.
Abstract: Summary form only given. It has been known for some time that entangled photon pairs, such as generated by spontaneous parametric down conversion, have unusual imaging characteristics with sub-shot-noise interferometric phase measurement. In fact, Fonseca, et al., recently demonstrated resolution of a two-slit diffraction patterned at half the Rayleigh limit in a coincidence counting experiment. What we show is that this type of effect is possible not only in coincidence counting experiments, but also in real two-photon absorbing systems, such as those used in classical interferometric lithography. In particular, we will demonstrate that quantum entanglement is the resource that allows sub-diffraction limited lithography.

1,153 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The fabrication and evaluation of a fiber-coupled, photon-number-resolving TES detector optimized for absorption at 1550 and 1310 nm wavelengths is described, which to the authors' knowledge is the highest system detection efficiency reported for a near-infrared single-photon detector.
Abstract: Single-photon detectors operating at visible and near-infrared wavelengths with high detection efficiency and low noise are a requirement for many quantum-information applications. Superconducting transition-edge sensors (TESs) are capable of detecting visible and near-infrared light at the single-photon level and are capable of discriminating between one-and two-photon absorption events; however these capabilities place stringent design requirements on the TES heat capacity, thermometry, and optical detection efficiency. We describe the fabrication and evaluation of a fiber-coupled, photon-number-resolving TES detector optimized for absorption at 1550 and 1310 nm wavelengths. The measured system detection efficiency at 1556 nm is 95 %±2 %, which to our knowledge is the highest system detection efficiency reported for a near-infrared single-photon detector.Work of US government: not subject to US copyright

655 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The key insight is to use the inherent time-reversal symmetry of quantum mechanics: the theory shows that it is possible to measure, as opposed to prepare, entangled states, to demonstrate phase super-resolution in the absence of entangled states.
Abstract: We demonstrate phase super-resolution in the absence of entangled states. The key insight is to use the inherent time-reversal symmetry of quantum mechanics: our theory shows that it is possible to measure, as opposed to prepare, entangled states. Our approach is robust, requiring only photons that exhibit classical interference: we experimentally demonstrate high-visibility phase super-resolution with three, four, and six photons using a standard laser and photon counters. Our six-photon experiment demonstrates the best phase super-resolution yet reported with high visibility and resolution.

220 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: The spatial resolution of an imaging apparatus is limited by the Rayleigh diffraction bound, a consequence of the imager's finite spatial extent. We show some $N$-photon strategies that permit resolution of details that are smaller than this bound, attaining either a $1∕\sqrt{N}$ enhancement (standard quantum limit) or a $1∕N$ enhancement (Heisenberg-like scaling) over standard techniques. In the incoherent imaging regime, the methods presented are loss resistant, since classical light sources suffice. Our results may be of importance in many applications: microscopy, telescopy, lithography, metrology, etc.

97 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: The quantum limits on measurements of small changes in the length of a Fabry-Perot cavity are calculated. The cavity is modelled by a pair of dissimilar mirrors oriented perpendicular to a one-dimensional axis of infinite extent. The continuous spectrum of spatial modes of the system is derived, and the electromagnetic field is quantized in terms of a continuous set of mode creation and destruction operators. Coherent state and squeezed vacuum-state excitations of the field are characterized by energy flow, or intensity, variables. The determination of small changes in the cavity length by observations of fringe intensity is considered for schemes in which the cavity is simultaneously excited by coherent and squeezed vacuum-state inputs. The contributions to the limiting resolution from photocount and radiation-pressure length uncertainties are evaluated. These properties of the Fabry-Perot cavity are compared with the corresponding results for the Michelson interferometer.

65 citations