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Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1038/S41375-021-01183-8

Interferon-alpha for treating polycythemia vera yields improved myelofibrosis-free and overall survival.

02 Mar 2021-Leukemia (Springer Science and Business Media LLC)-Vol. 35, Iss: 9, pp 2592-2601
Abstract: Interferon-alpha (rIFNα) is the only disease-modifying treatment for polycythemia vera (PV), but whether or not it prolongs survival is unknown. This large single center retrospective study of 470 PV patients compares the myelofibrosis-free survival (MFS) and overall survival (OS) with rIFNα to two other primary treatments, hydroxyurea (HU) and phlebotomy-only (PHL-O). The median age at diagnosis was 54 years (range 20-94) and the median follow-up was 10 years (range 0-45). Two hundred and twenty-nine patients were women (49%) and 208 were high-risk (44%). The primary treatment was rIFNα in 93 (20%), HU in 189 (40%), PHL-O in 133 (28%) and other cytoreductive drugs in 55 (12%). The treatment groups differed by ELN risk score (p < 0.001). In low-risk patients, 20-year MFS for rIFNα, HU, and PHL-O was 84%, 65% and 55% respectively (p < 0.001) and 20-year OS was 100%, 85% and 80% respectively (p = 0.44). In high-risk patients, 20-year MFS for rIFNα, HU, and PHL-O was 89%, 41% and 36% respectively (p = 0.19) and 20-year OS was 66%, 40%, 14% respectively (p = 0.016). In multivariable analysis, longer time on rIFNα was associated with a lower risk of myelofibrosis (HR: 0.91, p < 0.001) and lower mortality (HR: 0.94, p = 0.012). In conclusion, this study supports treatment of PV with rIFNα to prevent myelofibrosis and potentially prolong survival.

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Topics: Survival rate (51%)
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Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1111/EJH.13700
Abstract: BACKGROUND Hydroxyurea (HU) treatment of patients with essential thrombocythemia (ET), polycythemia vera (PV), and primary myelofibrosis (PMF) (MPNs) normalizes elevated blood cell counts within weeks in the large majority of patients. Studies on the impact of HU upon the kinetics of the JAK2V617F allele burden, leukocyte, and platelet counts over time are scarce. PURPOSE Using data-driven analysis as a novel tool to model the kinetics of the JAK2V617F allele burden and blood cell counts over time during treatment with HU. MATERIAL AND METHODS Using serial measurements of JAK2V617F and correlation analysis of routine hematological values (the Hb-concentration, leukocyte count, platelet count, and lactic dehydrogenase), we present a detailed description and analysis of the kinetics of the JAK2V617F, leukocyte, and platelet counts and lactic dehydrogenase in 27 patients (PV = 18; ET = 7; PMF = 2), who were followed in the Danish randomized trial (DALIAH). To further analyze the JAK2V617F kinetics, we use a machine learning clustering algorithm to group the response patterns. RESULTS Response patterns were highly heterogeneous, with clustering resulting in 3 groups and 3 outliers. In the large majority of patients, HU treatment was initially associated with a modest decline in the JAK2V617F allele burden in concert with a decline in leukocyte and platelet counts. However, HU did not induce a sustained and continuous decrease in the JAK2V617F allele burden. CONCLUSION Using data-driven analysis of the JAK2V617F allele burden, leukocyte, and platelet kinetics during treatment with HU, we have shown that HU does not induce a sustained decrease in the JAK2V617F allele burden and neither induces sustained normalization of elevated cell counts in MPN patients. Our results may explain why MPN patients during treatment with HU still have a substantially increased risk of thrombosis.

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1 Citations


Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1080/14728214.2021.1945579
Abstract: Introduction: Polycythemia vera is a chronic hematologic malignancy frequently presented with constitutional symptoms and associated with an increased risk of thrombosis, hemorrhage, and progression to myelofibrosis or acute myeloid leukemia. Current treatment strategies reduce thrombohemorrhagic risk by controlling blood counts and inhibiting platelets, but often fail to address disease-related symptoms or biologically modify the disease.Areas covered: We review the current paradigm for treating polycythemia vera, highlight areas of unmet need, review therapeutic agents in late stage clinical development, and provide an overarching view of how these emerging agent may fit into the future armamentarium of polycythemia vera treatments.Expert opinion: The shift from focusing solely on secondary prevention of thrombohemorrhagic events to a comprehensive treatment strategy that additionally aims to improve quality of life and prevent disease progression has resulted in a rapidly evolving therapeutic landscape that promises to move the treatment of polycythemia vera out of antiquity into the modern age.

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Topics: Polycythemia vera (58%), Myelofibrosis (57%)

1 Citations


Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1007/S11899-021-00649-X
Joan How1, Gabriela S. Hobbs1Institutions (1)
Abstract: Essential thrombocythemia (ET) and polycythemia vera (PV) are the most common myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPNs). Treatment of ET and PV is based on the risk for subsequent thrombosis. High-risk patients, defined as older than 60, JAK2 V617F–positive patients, or patients with a history of prior thrombosis, merit cytoreduction to control blood counts, whereas a watchful waiting paradigm is utilized in low-risk patients. However, low-risk patients have a host of other specific management issues that arise during their disease course. This review will discuss the most common management issues specific to the care of low-risk patients, including anti-platelet therapy dosing, pregnancy, and indications for early cytoreduction. Although low-dose aspirin is well established in PV, its indications and dosing regimens are less clear in ET. Recent evidence has supported twice daily low-dose aspirin in ET and observation alone in very low–risk ET patients. Pregnancy is not contraindicated in MPNs, and we recommend aspirin throughout pregnancy with consideration for prophylactic postpartum anticoagulation. High phlebotomy needs, symptom burden, and extreme thrombocytosis are common reasons for initiation of cytoreduction in low-risk patients, although we typically do not start cytoreduction for an isolated high platelet count alone. Recent data has also demonstrated a potential disease-modifying effect of interferons in MPNs, with some experts now advocating the early use of interferon in low-risk patients, although more mature data is needed before practice guidelines change. We evaluate the literature to inform clinical decision-making regarding these controversies, including most recent data that has challenged the “watchful waiting” paradigm. Our discussion provides guidance on common clinical scenarios seen in low-risk ET and PV patients, who face a myriad of complex management decisions in their care.

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Topics: Watchful waiting (54%), Thrombocytosis (53%), Polycythemia vera (50%) ... show more


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1111/BJH.17850
Abstract: Breakpoint cluster region-Abelson (BCR-ABL) negative myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPNs) are chronic myeloid neoplasms initiated by the acquisition of gene mutation(s) in a haematopoietic stem cell, leading to clonal expansion and over-production of blood cells and their progenitors. MPNs encompass a spectrum of disorders with overlapping but distinct molecular, laboratory and clinical features. This includes polycythaemia vera, essential thrombocythaemia and myelofibrosis. Dysregulation of the immune system is key to the pathology of MPNs, supporting clonal evolution, mediating symptoms and resulting in varying degrees of immunocompromise. Targeting immune dysfunction is an important treatment strategy. In the present review, we focus on the immune landscape in patients with MPNs - the role of inflammation in disease pathogenesis, susceptibility to infection and emerging strategies for therapeutic immune modulation. Further detailed work is required to delineate immune perturbation more precisely in MPNs to determine how and why vulnerability to infection differs between clinical subtypes and to better understand how inflammation results in a competitive advantage for the MPN clone. These studies may help shed light on new designs for disease-modifying therapies.

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Topics: Gene mutation (53%), Myelofibrosis (50%)

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Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1182/BLOOD-2016-03-643544
19 May 2016-Blood
Abstract: The World Health Organization (WHO) classification of tumors of the hematopoietic and lymphoid tissues was last updated in 2008. Since then, there have been numerous advances in the identification of unique biomarkers associated with some myeloid neoplasms and acute leukemias, largely derived from gene expression analysis and next-generation sequencing that can significantly improve the diagnostic criteria as well as the prognostic relevance of entities currently included in the WHO classification and that also suggest new entities that should be added. Therefore, there is a clear need for a revision to the current classification. The revisions to the categories of myeloid neoplasms and acute leukemia will be published in a monograph in 2016 and reflect a consensus of opinion of hematopathologists, hematologists, oncologists, and geneticists. The 2016 edition represents a revision of the prior classification rather than an entirely new classification and attempts to incorporate new clinical, prognostic, morphologic, immunophenotypic, and genetic data that have emerged since the last edition. The major changes in the classification and their rationale are presented here.

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5,255 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1200/JCO.2010.31.8436
Abstract: We present a review of critical concepts and produce recommendations on the management of Philadelphia-negative classical myeloproliferative neoplasms, including monitoring, response definition, fi ...

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Topics: European LeukemiaNet (68%)

671 Citations


Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1200/JCO.2005.07.062
Abstract: Purpose The clinical course of polycythemia vera is often complicated by thrombosis as well as by the possible transition to myeloid metaplasia with myelofibrosis or acute myeloid leukemia. The aim of this study was to assess the rate of these complications in subjects receiving currently recommended treatments. Patients and Methods Overall, 1,638 patients from 12 countries were enrolled onto a large, prospective multicenter project aimed at describing the clinical history of polycythemia vera for the following outcomes: survival, the cumulative rate of cardiovascular death and thrombosis, the cumulative rate of leukemia, myelodysplasia, and myelofibrosis. The mean duration of the disease at entry and the duration of the follow-up were 4.9 and 2.7 years, respectively. Results The overall mortality rate of 3.7 deaths per 100 persons per year resulted from a moderate risk of cardiovascular death and a high risk of death from noncardiovascular causes (mainly hematologic transformations). Age older than 65 years and a positive history of thrombosis were the most important predictors of cardiovascular events. Antiplatelet therapy, but not cytoreductive treatment, was significantly associated with a lower risk of cardiovascular events. We found a consistent association between age and risk of leukemia, and between duration of the disease with risk of myelofibrosis. Conclusion The European Collaboration on Low-Dose Aspirin in Polycythemia Vera study documents that large international collaborative studies are feasible in this field, in which few epidemiologic data are available. The persistently high mortality rate from hematologic malignancies characterizes the unmet therapeutic need of polycythemic patients and suggests a priority for future studies in this disease.

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Topics: Myelofibrosis (58%), Polycythemia vera (58%), Mortality rate (57%) ... show more

544 Citations



Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1056/NEJMOA1208500
Abstract: A b s t r ac t Background Current treatment recommendations for patients with polycythemia vera call for maintaining a hematocrit of less than 45%, but this therapeutic strategy has not been tested in a randomized clinical trial. Methods We randomly assigned 365 adults with JAK2-positive polycythemia vera who were being treated with phlebotomy, hydroxyurea, or both to receive either more intensive treatment (target hematocrit, <45%) (low-hematocrit group) or less intensive treatment (target hematocrit, 45 to 50%) (high-hematocrit group). The primary composite end point was the time until death from cardiovascular causes or major thrombotic events. The secondary end points were cardiovascular events, cardiovascular hospitalizations, incidence of cancer, progression to myelofibrosis, myelodysplasia or leukemic transformation, and hemorrhage. An intention-to-treat analysis was performed. Results After a median follow-up of 31 months, the primary end point was recorded in 5 of 182 patients in the low-hematocrit group (2.7%) and 18 of 183 patients in the highhematocrit group (9.8%) (hazard ratio in the high-hematocrit group, 3.91; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.45 to 10.53; P = 0.007). The primary end point plus superficial-vein thrombosis occurred in 4.4% of patients in the low-hematocrit group, as compared with 10.9% in the high-hematocrit group (hazard ratio, 2.69; 95% CI, 1.19 to 6.12; P = 0.02). Progression to myelofibrosis, myelodysplasia or leukemic transformation, and bleeding were observed in 6, 2, and 2 patients, respectively, in the low-hematocrit group, as compared with 2, 1, and 5 patients, respectively, in the high-hematocrit group. There was no significant between-group difference in the rate of adverse events. Conclusions In patients with polycythemia vera, those with a hematocrit target of less than 45% had a significantly lower rate of cardiovascular death and major thrombosis than did those with a hematocrit target of 45 to 50%. (Funded by the Italian Medicines Agency and others; ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT01645124, and EudraCT number, 2007–006694-91.)

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Topics: Polycythemia vera (59%), Hematocrit (58%), Myelofibrosis (53%) ... show more

522 Citations


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