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Journal ArticleDOI

Internet of Things: A Survey on Enabling Technologies, Protocols, and Applications

15 Jun 2015-IEEE Communications Surveys and Tutorials (IEEE)-Vol. 17, Iss: 4, pp 2347-2376
TL;DR: An overview of the Internet of Things with emphasis on enabling technologies, protocols, and application issues, and some of the key IoT challenges presented in the recent literature are provided and a summary of related research work is provided.

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Abstract: This paper provides an overview of the Internet of Things (IoT) with emphasis on enabling technologies, protocols, and application issues. The IoT is enabled by the latest developments in RFID, smart sensors, communication technologies, and Internet protocols. The basic premise is to have smart sensors collaborate directly without human involvement to deliver a new class of applications. The current revolution in Internet, mobile, and machine-to-machine (M2M) technologies can be seen as the first phase of the IoT. In the coming years, the IoT is expected to bridge diverse technologies to enable new applications by connecting physical objects together in support of intelligent decision making. This paper starts by providing a horizontal overview of the IoT. Then, we give an overview of some technical details that pertain to the IoT enabling technologies, protocols, and applications. Compared to other survey papers in the field, our objective is to provide a more thorough summary of the most relevant protocols and application issues to enable researchers and application developers to get up to speed quickly on how the different protocols fit together to deliver desired functionalities without having to go through RFCs and the standards specifications. We also provide an overview of some of the key IoT challenges presented in the recent literature and provide a summary of related research work. Moreover, we explore the relation between the IoT and other emerging technologies including big data analytics and cloud and fog computing. We also present the need for better horizontal integration among IoT services. Finally, we present detailed service use-cases to illustrate how the different protocols presented in the paper fit together to deliver desired IoT services.

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Topics: The Internet (53%), Emerging technologies (50%), Big data (50%)
Citations
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Journal ArticleDOI
Yuyi Mao1, Changsheng You2, Jun Zhang1, Kaibin Huang2  +1 moreInstitutions (2)
Abstract: Driven by the visions of Internet of Things and 5G communications, recent years have seen a paradigm shift in mobile computing, from the centralized mobile cloud computing toward mobile edge computing (MEC). The main feature of MEC is to push mobile computing, network control and storage to the network edges (e.g., base stations and access points) so as to enable computation-intensive and latency-critical applications at the resource-limited mobile devices. MEC promises dramatic reduction in latency and mobile energy consumption, tackling the key challenges for materializing 5G vision. The promised gains of MEC have motivated extensive efforts in both academia and industry on developing the technology. A main thrust of MEC research is to seamlessly merge the two disciplines of wireless communications and mobile computing, resulting in a wide-range of new designs ranging from techniques for computation offloading to network architectures. This paper provides a comprehensive survey of the state-of-the-art MEC research with a focus on joint radio-and-computational resource management. We also discuss a set of issues, challenges, and future research directions for MEC research, including MEC system deployment, cache-enabled MEC, mobility management for MEC, green MEC, as well as privacy-aware MEC. Advancements in these directions will facilitate the transformation of MEC from theory to practice. Finally, we introduce recent standardization efforts on MEC as well as some typical MEC application scenarios.

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2,024 citations


Posted Content
Yuyi Mao1, Changsheng You2, Jun Zhang1, Kaibin Huang2  +1 moreInstitutions (2)
TL;DR: A comprehensive survey of the state-of-the-art MEC research with a focus on joint radio-and-computational resource management and recent standardization efforts on MEC are introduced.

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Abstract: Driven by the visions of Internet of Things and 5G communications, recent years have seen a paradigm shift in mobile computing, from the centralized Mobile Cloud Computing towards Mobile Edge Computing (MEC). The main feature of MEC is to push mobile computing, network control and storage to the network edges (e.g., base stations and access points) so as to enable computation-intensive and latency-critical applications at the resource-limited mobile devices. MEC promises dramatic reduction in latency and mobile energy consumption, tackling the key challenges for materializing 5G vision. The promised gains of MEC have motivated extensive efforts in both academia and industry on developing the technology. A main thrust of MEC research is to seamlessly merge the two disciplines of wireless communications and mobile computing, resulting in a wide-range of new designs ranging from techniques for computation offloading to network architectures. This paper provides a comprehensive survey of the state-of-the-art MEC research with a focus on joint radio-and-computational resource management. We also present a research outlook consisting of a set of promising directions for MEC research, including MEC system deployment, cache-enabled MEC, mobility management for MEC, green MEC, as well as privacy-aware MEC. Advancements in these directions will facilitate the transformation of MEC from theory to practice. Finally, we introduce recent standardization efforts on MEC as well as some typical MEC application scenarios.

...read more

1,548 citations


Cites background from "Internet of Things: A Survey on Ena..."

  • ...generation Internet, such as Tactile Internet (with millisecondscale reaction time) [6], Internet of Things (IoT) [7], and Internet of Me [8]....

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Journal ArticleDOI
Jie Lin1, Wei Yu2, Nan Zhang3, Xinyu Yang1  +2 moreInstitutions (5)
TL;DR: The relationship between cyber-physical systems and IoT, both of which play important roles in realizing an intelligent cyber- physical world, are explored and existing architectures, enabling technologies, and security and privacy issues in IoT are presented to enhance the understanding of the state of the art IoT development.

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Abstract: Fog/edge computing has been proposed to be integrated with Internet of Things (IoT) to enable computing services devices deployed at network edge, aiming to improve the user’s experience and resilience of the services in case of failures. With the advantage of distributed architecture and close to end-users, fog/edge computing can provide faster response and greater quality of service for IoT applications. Thus, fog/edge computing-based IoT becomes future infrastructure on IoT development. To develop fog/edge computing-based IoT infrastructure, the architecture, enabling techniques, and issues related to IoT should be investigated first, and then the integration of fog/edge computing and IoT should be explored. To this end, this paper conducts a comprehensive overview of IoT with respect to system architecture, enabling technologies, security and privacy issues, and present the integration of fog/edge computing and IoT, and applications. Particularly, this paper first explores the relationship between cyber-physical systems and IoT, both of which play important roles in realizing an intelligent cyber-physical world. Then, existing architectures, enabling technologies, and security and privacy issues in IoT are presented to enhance the understanding of the state of the art IoT development. To investigate the fog/edge computing-based IoT, this paper also investigate the relationship between IoT and fog/edge computing, and discuss issues in fog/edge computing-based IoT. Finally, several applications, including the smart grid, smart transportation, and smart cities, are presented to demonstrate how fog/edge computing-based IoT to be implemented in real-world applications.

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1,475 citations


Cites background from "Internet of Things: A Survey on Ena..."

  • ...is implemented as the top layer in IoT architecture [7]....

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  • ...4 is a protocol designed for the physical layer and the MAC layer in wireless personal area networks (WPANs) [7], [37]....

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  • ...[7] presented the enabling technologies, protocols, and possible applications of IoT, in which the horizontal overview of IoT was provided and the key IoT challenges were presented to point out the future directions....

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  • ...8) Data Distribution Service: Data distribution service (DDS) is a publish/subscribe protocol for supporting high performance device-to-device communication [7], [44]....

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  • ...(MQTT) is a messaging protocol, which is used to collect measured data on remote sensors and transmit the data to servers [7]....

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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The definition of MEC, its advantages, architectures, and application areas are provided; where the security and privacy issues and related existing solutions are also discussed.

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Abstract: Mobile edge computing (MEC) is an emergent architecture where cloud computing services are extended to the edge of networks leveraging mobile base stations. As a promising edge technology, it can be applied to mobile, wireless, and wireline scenarios, using software and hardware platforms, located at the network edge in the vicinity of end-users. MEC provides seamless integration of multiple application service providers and vendors toward mobile subscribers, enterprises, and other vertical segments. It is an important component in the 5G architecture which supports variety of innovative applications and services where ultralow latency is required. This paper is aimed to present a comprehensive survey of relevant research and technological developments in the area of MEC. It provides the definition of MEC, its advantages, architectures, and application areas; where we in particular highlight related research and future directions. Finally, security and privacy issues and related existing solutions are also discussed.

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1,049 citations


16


Cites background from "Internet of Things: A Survey on Ena..."

  • ...useful information that may benefit to different business segments [58]....

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01 Jan 2013-
TL;DR: From the experience of several industrial trials on smart grid with communication infrastructures, it is expected that the traditional carbon fuel based power plants can cooperate with emerging distributed renewable energy such as wind, solar, etc, to reduce the carbon fuel consumption and consequent green house gas such as carbon dioxide emission.

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Abstract: A communication infrastructure is an essential part to the success of the emerging smart grid. A scalable and pervasive communication infrastructure is crucial in both construction and operation of a smart grid. In this paper, we present the background and motivation of communication infrastructures in smart grid systems. We also summarize major requirements that smart grid communications must meet. From the experience of several industrial trials on smart grid with communication infrastructures, we expect that the traditional carbon fuel based power plants can cooperate with emerging distributed renewable energy such as wind, solar, etc, to reduce the carbon fuel consumption and consequent green house gas such as carbon dioxide emission. The consumers can minimize their expense on energy by adjusting their intelligent home appliance operations to avoid the peak hours and utilize the renewable energy instead. We further explore the challenges for a communication infrastructure as the part of a complex smart grid system. Since a smart grid system might have over millions of consumers and devices, the demand of its reliability and security is extremely critical. Through a communication infrastructure, a smart grid can improve power reliability and quality to eliminate electricity blackout. Security is a challenging issue since the on-going smart grid systems facing increasing vulnerabilities as more and more automation, remote monitoring/controlling and supervision entities are interconnected.

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966 citations


References
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Journal ArticleDOI
01 Oct 2010-Computer Networks
TL;DR: This survey is directed to those who want to approach this complex discipline and contribute to its development, and finds that still major issues shall be faced by the research community.

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Abstract: This paper addresses the Internet of Things. Main enabling factor of this promising paradigm is the integration of several technologies and communications solutions. Identification and tracking technologies, wired and wireless sensor and actuator networks, enhanced communication protocols (shared with the Next Generation Internet), and distributed intelligence for smart objects are just the most relevant. As one can easily imagine, any serious contribution to the advance of the Internet of Things must necessarily be the result of synergetic activities conducted in different fields of knowledge, such as telecommunications, informatics, electronics and social science. In such a complex scenario, this survey is directed to those who want to approach this complex discipline and contribute to its development. Different visions of this Internet of Things paradigm are reported and enabling technologies reviewed. What emerges is that still major issues shall be faced by the research community. The most relevant among them are addressed in details.

...read more

11,254 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: Ubiquitous sensing enabled by Wireless Sensor Network (WSN) technologies cuts across many areas of modern day living. This offers the ability to measure, infer and understand environmental indicators, from delicate ecologies and natural resources to urban environments. The proliferation of these devices in a communicating-actuating network creates the Internet of Things (IoT), wherein sensors and actuators blend seamlessly with the environment around us, and the information is shared across platforms in order to develop a common operating picture (COP). Fueled by the recent adaptation of a variety of enabling wireless technologies such as RFID tags and embedded sensor and actuator nodes, the IoT has stepped out of its infancy and is the next revolutionary technology in transforming the Internet into a fully integrated Future Internet. As we move from www (static pages web) to web2 (social networking web) to web3 (ubiquitous computing web), the need for data-on-demand using sophisticated intuitive queries increases significantly. This paper presents a Cloud centric vision for worldwide implementation of Internet of Things. The key enabling technologies and application domains that are likely to drive IoT research in the near future are discussed. A Cloud implementation using Aneka, which is based on interaction of private and public Clouds is presented. We conclude our IoT vision by expanding on the need for convergence of WSN, the Internet and distributed computing directed at technological research community.

...read more

8,564 citations



Journal ArticleDOI
Shancang Li1, Li Da Xu2, Shanshan Zhao3Institutions (3)
TL;DR: The definitions, architecture, fundamental technologies, and applications of IoT are systematically reviewed and the major challenges which need addressing by the research community and corresponding potential solutions are investigated.

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Abstract: In recent year, the Internet of Things (IoT) has drawn significant research attention. IoT is considered as a part of the Internet of the future and will comprise billions of intelligent communicating `things'. The future of the Internet will consist of heterogeneously connected devices that will further extend the borders of the world with physical entities and virtual components. The Internet of Things (IoT) will empower the connected things with new capabilities. In this survey, the definitions, architecture, fundamental technologies, and applications of IoT are systematically reviewed. Firstly, various definitions of IoT are introduced; secondly, emerging techniques for the implementation of IoT are discussed; thirdly, some open issues related to the IoT applications are explored; finally, the major challenges which need addressing by the research community and corresponding potential solutions are investigated.

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4,563 citations


"Internet of Things: A Survey on Ena..." refers background in this paper

  • ...[2] covers the main communication enabling technologies, wired and wireless and the elements of wireless sensor networks (WSNs)....

    [...]

  • ...research attempts [2], [3], [15]–[20]....

    [...]

  • ...In the recent literature, however, some other models have been proposed that add more abstraction to the IoT architecture [2], [3], [17]–[20]....

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Proceedings ArticleDOI
17 Aug 2012-
TL;DR: This paper argues that the above characteristics make the Fog the appropriate platform for a number of critical Internet of Things services and applications, namely, Connected Vehicle, Smart Grid, Smart Cities, and, in general, Wireless Sensors and Actuators Networks (WSANs).

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Abstract: Fog Computing extends the Cloud Computing paradigm to the edge of the network, thus enabling a new breed of applications and services. Defining characteristics of the Fog are: a) Low latency and location awareness; b) Wide-spread geographical distribution; c) Mobility; d) Very large number of nodes, e) Predominant role of wireless access, f) Strong presence of streaming and real time applications, g) Heterogeneity. In this paper we argue that the above characteristics make the Fog the appropriate platform for a number of critical Internet of Things (IoT) services and applications, namely, Connected Vehicle, Smart Grid, Smart Cities, and, in general, Wireless Sensors and Actuators Networks (WSANs).

...read more

3,845 citations


Performance
Metrics
No. of citations received by the Paper in previous years
YearCitations
202230
2021816
20201,024
20191,075
2018932
2017630