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Book ChapterDOI

Interspecies Cultures and Future Design

10 Apr 2022-pp 183-236
TL;DR: Parker et al. as discussed by the authors introduced the notion of interspecies cultures and highlighted its consequences for the ethics and practice of design, and presented interspecies design as an approach that incorporates human and nonhuman cultural knowledge in the management of future habitats.
Abstract: Open AccessInterspecies Cultures and Future DesignDan Parker, Kylie Soanes, Stanislav RoudavskiDan Parker University of Melbourne Australia Search for more papers by this author, Kylie Soanes University of Melbourne Australia Search for more papers by this author, Stanislav Roudavski University of Melbourne Australia Search for more papers by this authorhttps://doi.org/10.14220/9783737013826.183SectionsPDF/EPUB ToolsAdd to favoritesDownload CitationsTrack Citations ShareShare onFacebookTwitterLinkedInRedditEmail AboutAbstract: This article introduces the notion of interspecies cultures and highlights its consequences for the ethics and practice of design. This discussion is critical because anthropogenic activities reduce the abundance, richness, and diversity of human and nonhuman cultures. Design that aims to address these issues will depend on interspecies cultures that support the flourishing of all organisms. Combining research in architecture and urban ecology, we focus on the design of urban habitat-structures. Design of such structures presents practical, theoretical, and ethical challenges. In response, we seek to align design to advancing knowledge of nonhuman cultures and more-than-human justice. We present interspecies design as an approach that incorporates human and nonhuman cultural knowledge in the management of future habitats. We ask: what is an ethically justifiable and practically plausible theoretical framework for interspecies design? Our central hypothesis is that the capabilities approach to justice can establish goals and evaluative practices for interspecies design. To test this hypothesis, we refer to an ongoing research project that aims to help the powerful owl (Ninox strenua) thrive in Australian cities. To establish possible goals for future interspecies design, we discuss powerful-owl capabilities in past, present, and possible future situations. We then consider the broader relevance of the capabilities approach by examining human-owl cultures in other settings, globally. Our case-study indicates that: 1) owl capabilities offer a useful baseline for future design; 2) cities diminish many owl capabilities but present opportunities for new cultural expressions; and 3) more ambitious design aspirations can support owl wellbeing in cities. The results demonstrate the capabilities approach can inform interspecies design processes, establish more equitable design goals, and set clearer criteria for success. These findings have important implications for researchers and built-environment practitioners who share the goal of supporting multispecies cohabitation in cities. Keywords: Animal culture, capabilities approach, environmental ethics, interspecies design, multispecies justice, powerful owl Previous chapter FiguresReferencesRelatedDetails Download book cover 1. AuflageISBN: 978-3-8471-1382-9 eISBN: 978-3-7370-1382-6HistoryPublished online:April 2022 Information© 2022 V&R unipress, Theaterstraße 13, D-37073 Göttingen, ein Imprint der Brill-GruppeThis work is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License. To view a copy of this license, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/.KeywordsAnimal culturecapabilities approachenvironmental ethicsinterspecies designmultispecies justicepowerful owlPDF download
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Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: Increasingly, people are becoming less likely to have direct contact with nature (natural environments and their associated wildlife) in their everyday lives. Over 20 years ago, Robert M Pyle termed this ongoing alienation the “extinction of experience”, but the phenomenon has continued to receive surprisingly limited attention. Here, we present current understanding of the extinction of experience, with particular emphasis on its causes and consequences, and suggest future research directions. Our review illustrates that the loss of interaction with nature not only diminishes a wide range of benefits relating to health and well-being, but also discourages positive emotions, attitudes, and behavior with regard to the environment, implying a cycle of disaffection toward nature. Such serious implications highlight the importance of reconnecting people with nature, as well as focusing research and public policy on addressing and improving awareness of the extinction of experience.

842 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: A novel model proposes a novel approach that relates the diversity of both species and interactions along a gradient of environmental deterioration and explores how the rate of loss of ecological functions, and consequently of ecosystem services, can be accelerated or restrained depending on how the rates of species loss covaries with the rateof interactions loss.
Abstract: Summary 1. The effects of the present biodiversity crisis have been largely focused on the loss of species. However, a missed component of biodiversity loss that often accompanies or even precedes species disappearance is the extinction of ecological interactions. 2. Here, we propose a novel model that (i) relates the diversity of both species and interactions along a gradient of environmental deterioration and (ii) explores how the rate of loss of ecological functions, and consequently of ecosystem services, can be accelerated or restrained depending on how the rate of species loss covaries with the rate of interactions loss. 3. We find that the loss of species and interactions are decoupled, such that ecological interactions are often lost at a higher rate. This implies that the loss of ecological interactions may occur well before species disappearance, affecting species functionality and ecosystems services at a faster rate than species extinctions. We provide a number of empirical case studies illustrating these points. 4. Our approach emphasizes the importance of focusing on species interactions as the major biodiversity component from which the ‘health’ of ecosystems depends.

603 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
26 Feb 2015-Nature
TL;DR: In providing the first experimental demonstration of conformity in a wild non-primate, and of cultural norms in foraging techniques in any wild animal, the results suggest a much broader taxonomic occurrence of such an apparently complex cultural behaviour.
Abstract: In human societies, cultural norms arise when behaviours are transmitted through social networks via high-fidelity social learning. However, a paucity of experimental studies has meant that there is no comparable understanding of the process by which socially transmitted behaviours might spread and persist in animal populations. Here we show experimental evidence of the establishment of foraging traditions in a wild bird population. We introduced alternative novel foraging techniques into replicated wild sub-populations of great tits (Parus major) and used automated tracking to map the diffusion, establishment and long-term persistence of the seeded innovations. Furthermore, we used social network analysis to examine the social factors that influenced diffusion dynamics. From only two trained birds in each sub-population, the information spread rapidly through social network ties, to reach an average of 75% of individuals, with a total of 414 knowledgeable individuals performing 57,909 solutions over all replicates. The sub-populations were heavily biased towards using the technique that was originally introduced, resulting in established local traditions that were stable over two generations, despite a high population turnover. Finally, we demonstrate a strong effect of social conformity, with individuals disproportionately adopting the most frequent local variant when first acquiring an innovation, and continuing to favour social information over personal information. Cultural conformity is thought to be a key factor in the evolution of complex culture in humans. In providing the first experimental demonstration of conformity in a wild non-primate, and of cultural norms in foraging techniques in any wild animal, our results suggest a much broader taxonomic occurrence of such an apparently complex cultural behaviour.

541 citations

BookDOI
05 Apr 2002
TL;DR: This work is an account of the dependent fauna of Australia, and introduces a considerable amount of new data on development of hollows, selection by fauna, pests and introduced species, and artificial hollows.
Abstract: More than 300 species of Australian native animals - mammals, birds, reptiles and amphibians - use tree hollows. Many of these species are threatened, or are in decline, because of land-use practices such as grazing, timber production and firewood collection. This work is an account of the dependent fauna of Australia, and introduces a considerable amount of new data on development of hollows, selection by fauna, pests and introduced species, and artificial hollows.

510 citations

Book
01 Jan 2007
TL;DR: Defining environmental justice, Defining Environmental justice, defining environmental justice, Defining environmental injustice, کتابخانه دیجیتال شاپور اهواز as discussed by the authors
Abstract: Defining environmental justice , Defining environmental justice , کتابخانه دیجیتال جندی شاپور اهواز

444 citations

Trending Questions (2)
What is Multispecies Design?

Multispecies design integrates human and nonhuman cultural knowledge to create habitats supporting the flourishing of all organisms, emphasizing environmental ethics and justice for diverse species.

How can the values of non-human entities be incorporated into the design process?

The paper discusses the concept of interspecies design, which aims to incorporate the knowledge and needs of non-human entities into the design process.