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Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/J.AJOG.2021.02.035

Intrapartum sonographic assessment of the fetal head flexion in protracted active phase of labor and association with labor outcome: a multicenter, prospective study.

04 Mar 2021-American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology (Mosby)-Vol. 225, Iss: 2
Abstract: Background To date, no research has focused on the sonographic quantification of the degree of flexion of the fetal head in relation to the labor outcome in women with protracted active phase of labor. Objective This study aimed to assess the relationship between the transabdominal sonographic indices of fetal head flexion and the mode of delivery in women with protracted active phase of labor. Study Design Prospective evaluation of women with protracted active phase of labor recruited across 3 tertiary maternity units. Eligible cases were submitted to transabdominal ultrasound for the evaluation of the fetal head position and flexion, which was measured by means of the occiput-spine angle in fetuses in nonocciput posterior position and by means of the chin-to-chest angle in fetuses in occiput posterior position. The occiput-spine angle and the chin-to-chest angle were compared between women who had vaginal delivery and those who had cesarean delivery. Cases where obstetrical intervention was performed solely based on suspected fetal distress were excluded. Results A total of 129 women were included, of whom 43 (33.3%) had occiput posterior position. Spontaneous vaginal delivery, instrumental delivery, and cesarean delivery were recorded in 66 (51.2%), 17 (13.1%), and 46 (35.7%) cases, respectively. A wider occiput-spine angle was measured in women who had vaginal delivery compared with those submitted to cesarean delivery owing to labor dystocia (126±14 vs 115±24; P Conclusion In women with protracted active phase of labor, the sonographic demonstration of fetal head deflexion in occiput posterior and in nonocciput posterior fetuses is associated with an increased incidence of cesarean delivery owing to labor dystocia. Such findings suggest that intrapartum ultrasound may contribute in the categorization of the etiology of labor dystocia.

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Topics: Fetal head (56%), Vaginal delivery (56%), Fetal distress (52%)
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Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/J.AJOGMF.2021.100427
B.H. Kahrs1, Torbjørn Moe Eggebø1Institutions (1)
15 Jul 2021-
Abstract: The first stage of labor is from the start of active labor until the cervix is fully dilatated. To assess labor progress during this stage, a clinical examination has traditionally been done. The cervical dilatation, fetal head position, and fetal head station are evaluated. Moreover, these observations can be made with an ultrasound examination. Studies have shown that traditional clinical examinations are subjective, have poor reproducibility, and are unreliable. Ultrasound examinations of the fetal head station and fetal head position in the first stage of labor might predict labor outcome and mode of delivery and can help in decision making when prolonged first stage of labor is diagnosed.

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Topics: Fetal head (59%)

1 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/J.AJOGMF.2021.100438
Alexis C. Gimovsky1Institutions (1)
22 Jul 2021-
Abstract: Fetuses with malpresentation and malposition during labor represent important clinical challenges. Women with fetuses presenting with malpresentation or malposition are at risk of increased perinatal complications, such as cesarean delivery, failure of operative vaginal delivery, neonatal acidemia, and neonatal intensive care admission. Intrapartum ultrasound has been found to be more reliable than digital examination in assessing malpresentation and malposition. The use of intrapartum ultrasound to assess fetal position and presentation, in addition to fetal attitude, to predict and aid in decision making regarding delivery can help in improving management decision making. Cephalic malpresentation and malposition is a unique subset of fetal orientation and can benefit from intrapartum ultrasound identification and assessment for delivery.

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1 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/J.AJOG.2021.07.030
R. Kamel1, S. Negm1, Islam Badr1, B.H. Kahrs2  +2 moreInstitutions (3)
Abstract: Background Determining fetal head descent, expressed as fetal head station and engagement is an essential part of monitoring progression in labor. Assessing fetal head station is based on the distal part of the fetal skull, whereas assessing engagement is based on the proximal part. Prerequisites for assisted vaginal birth are that the fetal head should be engaged and its lowermost part at or below the level of the ischial spines. The part of the fetal head above the pelvic inlet reflects the true descent of the largest diameter of the skull. In molded (reshaped) fetal heads, the leading bony part of the skull may be below the ischial spines while the largest diameter of the fetal skull still remains above the pelvic inlet. An attempt at assisted vaginal birth in such a situation would be associated with risks. Therefore, the vaginal or transperineal assessments of station should be supplemented with a transabdominal examination. We suggest a method for the assessment of fetal head descent with transabdominal ultrasound. Objective To investigate the correlation between transabdominal and transperineal assessment of fetal head descent, and to study fetal head shape at different labor stages and head positions. Study Design Women with term singleton cephalic pregnancies admitted to the labor ward for induction of labor or in spontaneous labor, at the Cairo University Hospital and Oslo University Hospital from December 2019 to December 2020 were included. Fetal head descent was assessed with transabdominal ultrasound as the suprapubic descent angle between a longitudinal line through the symphysis pubis and a line from the upper part of the symphysis pubis extending tangentially to the fetal skull. We compared measurements with transperineally assessed angle of progression and investigated interobserver agreement. We also measured the part of fetal head above and below the symphysis pubis at different labor stages. Results The study population comprised 123 women, of whom 19 (15%) were examined before induction of labor, 8 (7%) in the latent phase, 52 (42%) in the active first stage and 44 (36%) in the second stage. The suprapubic descent angle and the angle of progression could be measured in all cases. The correlation between the transabdominal and transperineal measurements was −0.90 (95% confidence interval, −0.86 to −0.93). Interobserver agreement was examined in 30 women and the intraclass correlation coefficient was 0.98 (95% confidence interval, 0.95–0.99). The limits of agreement were from −9.5 to 7.8 degrees. The fetal head was more elongated in occiput posterior position than in non-occiput posterior positions in the second stage of labor. Conclusion We present a novel method of examining fetal head descent by assessing the proximal part of the fetal skull with transabdominal ultrasound. The correlation with transperineal ultrasound measurements was strong, especially early in labor. The fetal head was elongated in the occiput posterior position during the second stage of labor.

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Topics: Fetal head (65%), Fetal Skull (62%), Fetal position (58%)

1 Citations



Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/J.AJOG.2021.08.030
Abstract: Fetal head descent can be expressed as fetal station and engagement. Station is traditionally based on clinical vaginal examination of the distal part of the fetal skull and related to the level of the ischial spines. Engagement is based on a transabdominal examination of the proximal part of the fetal head above the pelvic inlet. Clinical examinations are subjective, and objective measurements of descent are warranted. Ultrasound is a feasible diagnostic tool in labor, and fetal lie, station, position, presentation, and attitude can be examined. This review presents an overview of fetal descent examined with ultrasound. Ultrasound was first introduced for examining fetal descent in 1977. The distance from the sacral tip to the fetal skull was measured with A-mode ultrasound, but more convenient transperineal methods have since been published. Of those, progression distance, angle of progression, and head-symphysis distance are examined in the sagittal plane, using the inferior part of the symphysis pubis as reference point. Head-perineum distance is measured in the frontal plane (transverse transperineal scan) as the shortest distance from perineum to the fetal skull, representing the remaining part of the birth canal for the fetus to pass. At high stations, the fetal head is directed downward, followed with a horizontal and then an upward direction when the fetus descends in the birth canal and deflexes the head. Head descent may be assessed transabdominally with ultrasound and measured as the suprapubic descent angle. Many observational studies have shown that fetal descent assessed with ultrasound can predict labor outcome before induction of labor, as an admission test, and during the first and second stage of labor. Labor progress can also be examined longitudinally. The International Society of Ultrasound in Obstetrics and Gynecology recommends using ultrasound in women with prolonged or arrested first or second stage of labor, when malpositions or malpresentations are suspected, and before an operative vaginal delivery. One single ultrasound parameter cannot tell for sure whether an instrumental delivery is going to be successful. Information about station and position is a prerequisite, but head direction, presentation, and attitude also should be considered.

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Topics: Fetal Station (64%), Fetal head (61%), Fetal Skull (57%) ... show more

References
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60 results found


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/J.IJSU.2014.07.013
Erik von Elm1, Douglas G. Altman2, Matthias Egger3, Matthias Egger4  +3 moreInstitutions (7)
16 Oct 2007-PLOS Medicine
Abstract: Much biomedical research is observational. The reporting of such research is often inadequate, which hampers the assessment of its strengths and weaknesses and of a study's generalisability. The Strengthening the Reporting of Observational Studies in Epidemiology (STROBE) Initiative developed recommendations on what should be included in an accurate and complete report of an observational study. We defined the scope of the recommendations to cover three main study designs: cohort, case-control, and cross-sectional studies. We convened a 2-day workshop in September 2004, with methodologists, researchers, and journal editors to draft a checklist of items. This list was subsequently revised during several meetings of the coordinating group and in e-mail discussions with the larger group of STROBE contributors, taking into account empirical evidence and methodological considerations. The workshop and the subsequent iterative process of consultation and revision resulted in a checklist of 22 items (the STROBE Statement) that relate to the title, abstract, introduction, methods, results, and discussion sections of articles. 18 items are common to all three study designs and four are specific for cohort, case-control, or cross-sectional studies. A detailed Explanation and Elaboration document is published separately and is freely available on the Web sites of PLoS Medicine, Annals of Internal Medicine, and Epidemiology. We hope that the STROBE Statement will contribute to improving the quality of reporting of observational studies.

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12,675 Citations


Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/J.AJOG.2014.01.026
Abstract: In 2011, 1 in 3 women who gave birth in the United States did so by cesarean delivery. Cesarean birth can be lifesaving for the fetus, the mother, or both in certain cases. However, the rapid increase in cesarean birth rates from 1996 through 2011 without clear evidence of concomitant decreases in maternal or neonatal morbidity or mortality raises significant concern that cesarean delivery is overused. Variation in the rates of nulliparous, term, singleton, vertex cesarean births also indicates that clinical practice patterns affect the number of cesarean births performed. The most common indications for primary cesarean delivery include, in order of frequency, labor dystocia, abnormal or indeterminate (formerly, nonreassuring) fetal heart rate tracing, fetal malpresentation, multiple gestation, and suspected fetal macrosomia. Safe reduction of the rate of primary cesarean deliveries will require different approaches for each of these, as well as other, indications. For example, it may be necessary to revisit the definition of labor dystocia because recent data show that contemporary labor progresses at a rate substantially slower than what was historically taught. Additionally, improved and standardized fetal heart rate interpretation and management may have an effect. Increasing women's access to nonmedical interventions during labor, such as continuous labor and delivery support, also has been shown to reduce cesarean birth rates. External cephalic version for breech presentation and a trial of labor for women with twin gestations when the first twin is in cephalic presentation are other of several examples of interventions that can contribute to the safe lowering of the primary cesarean delivery rate.

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Topics: External cephalic version (57%), Cephalic presentation (54%), Pregnancy (51%) ... show more

834 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1097/AOG.0B013E3181FDEF6E
Jun Zhang1, Helain J. Landy2, D. Ware Branch3, Ronald T. Burkman4  +13 moreInstitutions (12)
Abstract: OBJECTIVE:To use contemporary labor data to examine the labor patterns in a large, modern obstetric population in the United States.METHODS:Data were from the Consortium on Safe Labor, a multicenter retrospective study that abstracted detailed labor and delivery information from electronic medical r

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Topics: Population (54%)

524 Citations


Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1097/AOG.0B013E3182704880
Abstract: With more than one third of pregnancies in the United States being delivered by cesarean and the growing knowledge of morbidities associated with repeat cesarean deliveries, the Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, the Society for Maternal-Fetal Medicine, and the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists convened a workshop to address the concept of preventing the first cesarean delivery. The available information on maternal and fetal factors, labor management and induction, and nonmedical factors leading to the first cesarean delivery was reviewed as well as the implications of the first cesarean delivery on future reproductive health. Key points were identified to assist with reduction in cesarean delivery rates including that labor induction should be performed primarily for medical indication; if done for nonmedical indications, the gestational age should be at least 39 weeks or more and the cervix should be favorable, especially in the nulliparous patient. Review of the current literature demonstrates the importance of adhering to appropriate definitions for failed induction and arrest of labor progress. The diagnosis of "failed induction" should only be made after an adequate attempt. Adequate time for normal latent and active phases of the first stage, and for the second stage, should be allowed as long as the maternal and fetal conditions permit. The adequate time for each of these stages appears to be longer than traditionally estimated. Operative vaginal delivery is an acceptable birth method when indicated and can safely prevent cesarean delivery. Given the progressively declining use, it is critical that training and experience in operative vaginal delivery are facilitated and encouraged. When discussing the first cesarean delivery with a patient, counseling should include its effect on future reproductive health.

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Topics: Vaginal delivery (55%)

522 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1097/AOG.0B013E31821E5F65
Abstract: OBJECTIVE: To examine physician-documented indications for cesarean delivery in order to investigate the specific factors contributing to the increasing cesarean delivery rate. METHODS: We analyzed rates of primary and repeat cesarean delivery, including indications for the procedure, among 32,443 live births at a major academic hospital between 2003 and 2009. Time trends for each indication were modeled to estimate the absolute and cumulative annualized relative risk of cesarean by indication over time and the relative contribution of each indication to the overall increase in primary cesarean delivery rate. RESULTS: The cesarean delivery rate increased from 26% to 36.5% between 2003 and 2009; 50.0% of the increase was attributable to an increase in primary cesarean delivery. Among the documented indications, nonreassuring fetal status, arrest of dilation, multiple gestation, preeclampsia, suspected macrosomia, and maternal request increased over time, whereas arrest of descent, malpresentation, maternal-fetal indications, and other obstetric indications (eg, cord prolapse, placenta previa) did not increase. The relative contributions of each indication to the total increase in primary cesarean rate were: nonreassuring fetal status (32%), labor arrest disorders (18%), multiple gestation (16%), suspected macrosomia (10%), preeclampsia (10%), maternal request (8%), maternal-fetal conditions (5%), and other obstetric conditions (1%). CONCLUSION: Primary cesarean births accounted for 50% of the increasing cesarean rate. Among primary cesarean deliveries, more subjective indications (nonreassuring fetal status and arrest of dilation) contributed larger proportions than more objective indications (malpresentation, maternal-fetal, and obstetric conditions). (Obstet Gynecol 2011;118:29–38) DOI: 10.1097/AOG.0b013e31821e5f65 LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: III

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Topics: Placenta previa (51%)

495 Citations