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Journal ArticleDOI

Introductory Reflections on Perpetrators of Crimes Against Humanity and their Representation in Documentary Film

11 Apr 2020-Continuum: Journal of Media & Cultural Studies (Routledge)-Vol. 34, Iss: 2, pp 159-179
TL;DR: In recent years, the number of diverse forms of cultural productions focused on the perpetrators has increased significantly eliciting thus a turn toward this problematic figure as mentioned in this paper, and the originality of...
Abstract: In recent years the number of diverse forms of cultural productions focused on the perpetrators has increased significantly eliciting thus a turn toward this problematic figure. The originality of ...
Citations
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Book
25 Jul 2017
TL;DR: The Ordinary Men as discussed by the authors is a micro-history of a single unit in the Nazi killing machine, where Browning evaluates a wide range of evidence to seek to explain the actions of the "ordinary men" who made up reserve Police Battalion 101, taking advantage of the wide-range of resources prepared in the early 1960s for a proposed war crimes trial.
Abstract: Of all the controversies facing historians today, few are more divisive or more important than the question of how the Holocaust was possible. What led thousands of Germans – many of them middle-aged reservists with, apparently, little Nazi zeal – to willingly commit acts of genocide? Was it ideology? Was there something rotten in the German soul? Or was it – as Christopher Browning argues in this highly influential book – more a matter of conformity, a response to intolerable social and psychological pressure? Ordinary Men is a microhistory, the detailed study of a single unit in the Nazi killing machine. Browning evaluates a wide range of evidence to seek to explain the actions of the "ordinary men" who made up reserve Police Battalion 101, taking advantage of the wide range of resources prepared in the early 1960s for a proposed war crimes trial. He concludes that his subjects were not "evil;" rather, their actions are best explained by a desire to be part of a team, not to shirk responsibility that would otherwise fall on the shoulders of comrades, and a willingness to obey authority. Browning's ability to explore the strengths and weaknesses of arguments – both the survivors' and other historians' – is what sets his work apart from other studies that have attempted to get to the root of the motivations for the Holocaust, and it is also what marks Ordinary Men as one of the most important works of its generation.

195 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, a reflection on the role of images in the post-truth era and on the concept of image itself, which constitutes a central object of study in the field of communication sciences, is presented.
Abstract: A reflection on the role of images in the post-truth era and on the concept of image itself, which constitutes a central object of study in the field of communication sciences, is presented. The conceptual complexity –semiotic and symbolic– of the image is shown, which explains the diversity of approaches in studies on images. Then, several proposals are exposed for the study of images in the current context of disinformation. Finally, a brief reflection is developed on the need to analyse audiovisual texts in the society of spectacle and post-truth.

10 citations

Book
28 Jun 2010

5 citations

Book ChapterDOI
01 Jan 2018
TL;DR: In this paper, Luhmann analyses the affective economies displayed (and displaced) in an exhibition on female guards at the Ravensbruck concentration camp memorial site in Germany, showing how violence, survival, innocence and denial are narrated as and through gendered constructions.
Abstract: Luhmann analyses the affective economies displayed (and displaced) in an exhibition on female guards at the Ravensbruck concentration camp memorial site in Germany. Luhmann tests the declared curatorial aim of the exhibition, which is to interrupt the persistent exculpatory and sensationalising representations of female camp personnel. In order to do this, Luhmann demonstrates, the exhibition focuses in on ‘the ordinariness’ of the women guards. By way of a close reading of two conflicting memories of food in the camp (one by a female survivor, another by a female guard), which arguably together frame the entire exhibition, Luhmann shows how violence, survival, innocence and denial are narrativised as and through gendered constructions.

3 citations

References
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Book
01 Jan 1997
TL;DR: SelfSelf-Efficacy (SE) as discussed by the authors is a well-known concept in human behavior, which is defined as "belief in one's capabilities to organize and execute the courses of action required to produce given attainments".
Abstract: Albert Bandura and the Exercise of Self-Efficacy Self-Efficacy: The Exercise of Control Albert Bandura. New York: W. H. Freeman (www.whfreeman.com). 1997, 604 pp., $46.00 (hardcover). Enter the term "self-efficacy" in the on-line PSYCLIT database and you will find over 2500 articles, all of which stem from the seminal contributions of Albert Bandura. It is difficult to do justice to the immense importance of this research for our theories, our practice, and indeed for human welfare. Self-efficacy (SE) has proven to be a fruitful construct in spheres ranging from phobias (Bandura, Jeffery, & Gajdos, 1975) and depression (Holahan & Holahan, 1987) to career choice behavior (Betz & Hackett, 1986) and managerial functioning (Jenkins, 1994). Bandura's Self-Efficacy: The Exercise of Control is the best attempt so far at organizing, summarizing, and distilling meaning from this vast and diverse literature. Self-Efficacy may prove to be Bandura's magnum opus. Dr. Bandura has done an impressive job of summarizing over 1800 studies and papers, integrating these results into a coherent framework, and detailing implications for theory and practice. While incorporating prior works such as Social Learning Theory (Bandura, 1977) and "Self-efficacy mechanism in human agency" (Bandura, 1982), Self-Efficacy extends these works by describing results of diverse new research, clarifying and extending social cognitive theory, and fleshing out implications of the theory for groups, organizations, political bodies, and societies. Along the way, Dr. Bandura masterfully contrasts social cognitive theory with many other theories of human behavior and helps chart a course for future research. Throughout, B andura' s clear, firm, and self-confident writing serves as the perfect vehicle for the theory he espouses. Self-Efficacy begins with the most detailed and clear explication of social cognitive theory that I have yet seen, and proceeds to delineate the nature and sources of SE, the well-known processes via which SE mediates human behavior, and the development of SE over the life span. After laying this theoretical groundwork, subsequent chapters delineate the relevance of SE to human endeavor in a variety of specific content areas including cognitive and intellectual functioning; health; clinical problems including anxiety, phobias, depression, eating disorders, alcohol problems, and drug abuse; athletics and exercise activity; organizations; politics; and societal change. In Bandura's words, "Perceived self-efficacy refers to beliefs in one's capabilities to organize and execute the courses of action required to produce given attainments" (p. 3). People's SE beliefs have a greater effect on their motivation, emotions, and actions than what is objectively true (e.g., actual skill level). Therefore, SE beliefs are immensely important in choice of behaviors (including occupations, social relationships, and a host of day-to-day behaviors), effort expenditure, perseverance in pursuit of goals, resilience to setbacks and problems, stress level and affect, and indeed in our ways of thinking about ourselves and others. Bandura affirms many times that humans are proactive and free as well as determined: They are "at least partial architects of their own destinies" (p. 8). Because SE beliefs powerfully affect human behaviors, they are a key factor in human purposive activity or agency; that is, in human freedom. Because humans shape their environment even as they are shaped by it, SE beliefs are also pivotal in the construction of our social and physical environments. Bandura details over two decades of research confirming that SE is modifiable via mastery experiences, vicarious learning, verbal persuasion, and interpretation of physiological states, and that modified SE strongly and consistently predicts outcomes. SE beliefs, then, are central to human self-determination. STRENGTHS One major strength of Self-Efficacy is Bandura's ability to deftly dance from forest to trees and back again to forest, using specific, human examples and concrete situations to highlight his major theoretical premises, to which he then returns. …

46,839 citations


"Introductory Reflections on Perpetr..." refers background in this paper

  • ...…and Yishay-Krien 2009; Hollows and Fritzon 2012; Pettitt 2017; Anderson 2018), is vehemently endorsed by social cognitive theorists, such as Albert Bandura (1997, 1999, 2002), and it was already considered in the seminal Stanford prison experiment conducted in 1971 at Stanford University by…...

    [...]

  • ...This integrative approach, situational and dispositional, has become a common strategy in perpetrator research (Elizur and Yishay-Krien 2009; Hollows and Fritzon 2012; Pettitt 2017; Anderson 2018), is vehemently endorsed by social cognitive theorists, such as Albert Bandura (1997, 1999, 2002), and it was already considered in the seminal Stanford prison experiment conducted in 1971 at Stanford University by Philip Zimbardo and his colleagues in their study of the brutality reported among guards in U.S. prisons....

    [...]

Book
01 Jan 1954
TL;DR: In this article, the authors describe the dynamics of prejudgment, including: Frustration, Aggression and Hatred, Anxiety, Sex, and Guilt, Demagogy, and Tolerant Personality.
Abstract: Preferential Thinking * What Is the Problem? * The Normality of Prejudgment * Formation of In-Groups * Rejection of Out-Groups * Patterning and Extent of Prejudice Group Differences * The Scientific Study of Group Differences * Racial and Ethnic Differences * Visibility and Strangeness * Traits Due to Victimization Perceiving And Thinking About Group Differences * The Cognitive Process * Linguistic Factors * Stereotypes in Our Culture * Theories of Prejudice Sociocultural Factors * Social Structure And Cultural Pattern * Choice of Scapegoats * The Effect of Contact * Acquiring Prejudice * Conforming * The Young Child * Later Learning * Inner Conflict The Dynamics Of Prejudice * Frustration * Aggression and Hatred * Anxiety, Sex, and Guilt * Projection Character Structure * The Prejudiced Personality * Demagogy * The Tolerant Personality * Religion and Prejudice Reducing Group Tensions * Ought There to Be a Law? * Evaluation of Programs * Limitations and Horizons

13,470 citations

Book
01 Jan 1950
TL;DR: The Authoritarian Personality "invented a set of criteria by which to define personality traits, ranked these traits and their intensity in any given person on what it called the 'F scale' (F for fascist)".
Abstract: The Authoritarian Personality "invented a set of criteria by which to define personality traits, ranked these traits and their intensity in any given person on what it called the 'F scale' (F for fascist)." The personality type Adorno et al. identified can be defined by nine traits that were believed to cluster together as the result of childhood experiences. These traits include conventionalism, authoritarian submission, authoritarian aggression, anti-intellectualism, anti-intraception, superstition and stereotypy, power and "toughness", destructiveness and cynicism, projectivity, and exaggerated concerns over sex.

7,003 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
01 Jun 1954
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors describe the dynamics of prejudgment, including: Frustration, Aggression and Hatred, Anxiety, Sex, and Guilt, Demagogy, and Tolerant Personality.
Abstract: Preferential Thinking * What Is the Problem? * The Normality of Prejudgment * Formation of In-Groups * Rejection of Out-Groups * Patterning and Extent of Prejudice Group Differences * The Scientific Study of Group Differences * Racial and Ethnic Differences * Visibility and Strangeness * Traits Due to Victimization Perceiving And Thinking About Group Differences * The Cognitive Process * Linguistic Factors * Stereotypes in Our Culture * Theories of Prejudice Sociocultural Factors * Social Structure And Cultural Pattern * Choice of Scapegoats * The Effect of Contact * Acquiring Prejudice * Conforming * The Young Child * Later Learning * Inner Conflict The Dynamics Of Prejudice * Frustration * Aggression and Hatred * Anxiety, Sex, and Guilt * Projection Character Structure * The Prejudiced Personality * Demagogy * The Tolerant Personality * Religion and Prejudice Reducing Group Tensions * Ought There to Be a Law? * Evaluation of Programs * Limitations and Horizons

4,869 citations

Book
28 Mar 2011
TL;DR: The first edition of "Eichmann in Jerusalem" appeared as a series of articles in "The New Yorker" in 1963 and was later published as a book in 1970 as discussed by the authors.
Abstract: Hannah Arendt's portrayal of the terrible consequences of blind obedience, "Eichmann in Jerusalem: A Report on the Banality of Evil" contains an introduction by Amos Elon in "Penguin Classics". Sparking a flurry of heated debate, Hannah Arendt's authoritative and stunning report on the trial of German Nazi SS leader Adolf Eichmann first appeared as a series of articles in "The New Yorker" in 1963. This revised edition includes material that came to light after the trial, as well as Arendt's postscript commenting on the controversy that arose over her book. A major journalistic triumph by an intellectual of singular influence, "Eichmann in Jerusalem" is as shocking as it is informative - a meticulous and unflinching look at one of the most unsettling (and unsettled) issues of the twentieth century. Hannah Arendt (1906-1975) was for many years University Professor of Political Philosophy in the Graduate Faculty of the New School for Social Research and a Visiting Fellow of the Committee on Social Thought at the University of Chicago. She is also the author of "Eichmann in Jerusalem", "On Revolution", and "Between Past and Future". If you enjoyed "Eichmann in Jerusalem", you might like Elie Wiesel's "Night", available in "Penguin Modern Classics". "Deals with the greatest problem of our time ...the problem of the human being within a modern totalitarian system". (Bruno Bettelheim, "The New Republic"). "A profound and documented analysis...Bound to stir our minds and trouble our consciences". ("Chicago Tribune").

2,986 citations