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Journal ArticleDOI

Investigation of intrinsic defects in core-shell structured ZnO nanocrystals

08 Jun 2012-Journal of Applied Physics (American Institute of Physics)-Vol. 111, Iss: 11, pp 113712
TL;DR: In this paper, a semi-empirical core-shell model was proposed to explain the origin of the non-linearity of the U-I behavior in nanocrystalline ZnO.
Abstract: Nanocrystalline ZnO particles were prepared using the high-energy ball milling technique and investigated with electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR), impedance, and Raman spectroscopy to reveal the origin of surface and core defects. We observed two distinct EPR signals with different g-factors, g ∼ 2.0 and ∼1.96, indicating EPR-active defects on the surface and core, respectively. Using the semi-empirical core-shell model, we identified that sufficiently small nanocrystals (below 30 nm) can show p-type character. The model can also explain the origin of the non-linearity of the U-I behaviour in nanocrystalline ZnO.
Citations
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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Paramagnetic resonance and impedance spectroscopy have been undertaken in order to understand the origin of the performance of hybrid capacitor in more depth and obtained high capacitance value which is exceptionally related not only the quality of synthesis but also the choice of electrode and electrolyte materials.
Abstract: Multi-colored, water soluble fluorescent carbon nanodots (C-Dots) with quantum yield changing from 4.6 to 18.3% were synthesized in multi-gram using dated cola beverage through a simple thermal synthesis method and implemented as conductive and ion donating supercapacitor component. Various properties of C-Dots, including size, crystal structure, morphology and surface properties along with their Raman and electron paramagnetic resonance spectra were analyzed and compared by means of their fluorescence and electronic properties. α-Manganese Oxide-Polypyrrole (PPy) nanorods decorated with C-Dots were further conducted as anode materials in a supercapacitor. Reduced graphene oxide was used as cathode along with the dicationic bis-imidazolium based ionic liquid in order to enhance the charge transfer and wetting capacity of electrode surfaces. For this purpose, we used octyl-bis(3-methylimidazolium)diiodide (C8H16BImI) synthesized by N-alkylation reaction as liquid ionic membrane electrolyte. Paramagnetic resonance and impedance spectroscopy have been undertaken in order to understand the origin of the performance of hybrid capacitor in more depth. In particular, we obtained high capacitance value (C = 17.3 μF/cm2) which is exceptionally related not only the quality of synthesis but also the choice of electrode and electrolyte materials. Moreover, each component used in the construction of the hybrid supercapacitor is also played a key role to achieve high capacitance value.

221 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: It can be stated that, increasing the ionic conductivity by Fe-doping drastically increases the hybrid capacity of the SC electrodes, as well as a higher capacity compared to LTO/rGO and pure rGO-electrodes.
Abstract: In this work, reduced graphene oxide (rGO) based electrode materials were developed to achieve a hybrid supercapacitor (SC) function. Therefore, several synthesis methods were developed to prepare a cost effective and environmentally friendly rGO. Additionally, to maintain the high surface area, spinel lithium titanate (sLTO) nanoparticles (NPs) were synthesized and deposited on the rGO surface to inhibit the restacking of the rGO layers on graphite. Furthermore, the adequate Fe-doping of sLTO increased the ionic conductivity and the intercalation capacity, which is necessary for a SC performance. The sLTO/rGO-composites were electrochemically analysed by chronopotentiometry and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) to determine the stability during charge/discharge cycling and the capacity, respectively. To overcome the drawback of LTO's low conductivity values, its value has been drastically increased by Fe-doping. The results demonstrated the remarkable cycling performance of the Fe:LTO/rGO composite as well as a higher capacity compared to LTO/rGO and pure rGO-electrodes. The thermal stability, degradation and weight loss of the sLTO/rGO in the temperature range between 20 °C and 800 °C were investigated by thermogravimetry (TG)/DTA. As a conclusion, it can be stated that, increasing the ionic conductivity by Fe-doping drastically increases the hybrid capacity of the SC electrodes.

155 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: It is found that high spin Fe(3+) ions are substitutionally incorporated at the Zn(2+) in the tetrahedral-core sites and in pseudo-octahedral surface sites in ZnO, and its presence promoted the formation of additional single charged oxygen vacancies, zinc vacancies, and more oxygen-ended polar terminations at the nanoparticle surface.
Abstract: The actual role of transition metals like iron in the room temperature ferromagnetism (RTFM) of Fe doped ZnO nanoparticles is still an unsolved problem. While some studies concluded that the Fe ions participate in the magnetic interaction, others in contrast do not believe Fe to play a direct role in the magnetic exchange interaction. To contribute to the understanding of this issue, we have carefully investigated the structural, optical, vibrational and magnetic properties of sol-gel synthesized Zn1-xFexO (0 < x < 0.10) nanoparticles. No Fe(2+) was detected in any sample. We found that high spin Fe(3+) ions are substitutionally incorporated at the Zn(2+) in the tetrahedral-core sites and in pseudo-octahedral surface sites in ZnO. Superficial OH(-) was observed in all samples. For x ≤ 0.03, an increment in Fe doping concentration decreased a and c lattice parameters, average Zn-O bond length, average crystallite size and band gap; while it increased the degree of distortion and quadrupole splitting. Undoped ZnO nanoparticles exhibited very weak RTFM with a saturation magnetization (Ms) of ∼0.47 memu g(-1) and this value increased to ∼2.1 memu g(-1) for Zn0.99Fe0.01O. Very interestingly, the Ms for Zn0.99Fe0.01O and Zn0.97Fe0.03O increased by a factor of about ∼2.3 by increasing annealing for 1 h to 3 h. For x ≥ 0.05, ferrimagnetic disordered spinel ZnFe2O4 was formed and this phase was found to become more ordered with increasing annealing time. Fe does not contribute directly to the RTFM, but its presence promoted the formation of additional single charged oxygen vacancies, zinc vacancies, and more oxygen-ended polar terminations at the nanoparticle surface. These defects, which are mainly superficial, altered the electronic structure and are considered as the main sources of the observed ferromagnetism.

129 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: A simple strategy for simultaneous morphology control, defect engineering and photoactivity tuning of semiconductor ZnO by utilizing the unique surfactant properties of graphene oxide (GO) in a liquid phase to fabricate RGO-semiconductor nanocomposites with tunable morphology, defect structure and photocatalytic performance in a system-materials-engineering way.
Abstract: Zinc oxide (ZnO) nanostructured materials have received significant attention because of their unique physicochemical and electronic properties. In particular, the functional properties of ZnO are strongly dependent on its morphology and defect structure, particularly for a semiconductor ZnO-based photocatalyst. Here, we demonstrate a simple strategy for simultaneous morphology control, defect engineering and photoactivity tuning of semiconductor ZnO by utilizing the unique surfactant properties of graphene oxide (GO) in a liquid phase. By varying the amount of GO added during the synthesis process, the morphology of ZnO gradually evolves from a one dimensional prismatic rod to a hexagonal tube-like architecture while GO is converted into reduced GO (RGO). In addition, the introduction of GO can create oxygen vacancies in the lattice of ZnO crystals. As a result, the absorption edge of the wide band gap semiconductor ZnO is effectively extended to the visible light region, which thus endows the RGO-ZnO nanocomposites with visible light photoactivity; in contrast, the bare ZnO nanorod is only UV light photoactive. The synergistic integration of the unique morphology and the presence of oxygen vacancies imparts the RGO-ZnO nanocomposite with remarkably enhanced visible light photoactivity as compared to bare ZnO and its counterpart featuring different structural morphologies and the absence of oxygen vacancies. Our promising results highlight the versatility of the 2D GO as a solution-processable macromolecular surfactant to fabricate RGO-semiconductor nanocomposites with tunable morphology, defect structure and photocatalytic performance in a system-materials-engineering way.

125 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, the reactivity of 0.24μm and 50nm ZnO sample as bulk and nano-sized, respectively, was investigated under various conditions such as changing of microwave power and temperature, different atmosphere and different light exposures.

123 citations

References
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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The semiconductor ZnO has gained substantial interest in the research community in part because of its large exciton binding energy (60meV) which could lead to lasing action based on exciton recombination even above room temperature.
Abstract: The semiconductor ZnO has gained substantial interest in the research community in part because of its large exciton binding energy (60meV) which could lead to lasing action based on exciton recombination even above room temperature. Even though research focusing on ZnO goes back many decades, the renewed interest is fueled by availability of high-quality substrates and reports of p-type conduction and ferromagnetic behavior when doped with transitions metals, both of which remain controversial. It is this renewed interest in ZnO which forms the basis of this review. As mentioned already, ZnO is not new to the semiconductor field, with studies of its lattice parameter dating back to 1935 by Bunn [Proc. Phys. Soc. London 47, 836 (1935)], studies of its vibrational properties with Raman scattering in 1966 by Damen et al. [Phys. Rev. 142, 570 (1966)], detailed optical studies in 1954 by Mollwo [Z. Angew. Phys. 6, 257 (1954)], and its growth by chemical-vapor transport in 1970 by Galli and Coker [Appl. Phys. ...

10,260 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, the authors explore the interrelationships between the green 510 nm emission, the free-carrier concentration, and the paramagnetic oxygen vacancy density in commercial ZnO phosphors by combining photoluminescence, optical absorption, and electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopies.
Abstract: We explore the interrelationships between the green 510 nm emission, the free‐carrier concentration, and the paramagnetic oxygen‐vacancy density in commercial ZnO phosphors by combining photoluminescence, optical‐absorption, and electron‐paramagnetic‐resonance spectroscopies. We find that the green emission intensity is strongly influenced by free‐carrier depletion at the particle surface, particularly for small particles and/or low doping. Our data suggest that the singly ionized oxygen vacancy is responsible for the green emission in ZnO; this emission results from the recombination of a photogenerated hole with the singly ionized charge state of this defect.

3,487 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, the status of zinc oxide as a semiconductor is discussed and the role of impurities and defects in the electrical conductivity of ZnO is discussed, as well as the possible causes of unintentional n-type conductivity.
Abstract: In the past ten years we have witnessed a revival of, and subsequent rapid expansion in, the research on zinc oxide (ZnO) as a semiconductor. Being initially considered as a substrate for GaN and related alloys, the availability of high-quality large bulk single crystals, the strong luminescence demonstrated in optically pumped lasers and the prospects of gaining control over its electrical conductivity have led a large number of groups to turn their research for electronic and photonic devices to ZnO in its own right. The high electron mobility, high thermal conductivity, wide and direct band gap and large exciton binding energy make ZnO suitable for a wide range of devices, including transparent thin-film transistors, photodetectors, light-emitting diodes and laser diodes that operate in the blue and ultraviolet region of the spectrum. In spite of the recent rapid developments, controlling the electrical conductivity of ZnO has remained a major challenge. While a number of research groups have reported achieving p-type ZnO, there are still problems concerning the reproducibility of the results and the stability of the p-type conductivity. Even the cause of the commonly observed unintentional n-type conductivity in as-grown ZnO is still under debate. One approach to address these issues consists of growing high-quality single crystalline bulk and thin films in which the concentrations of impurities and intrinsic defects are controlled. In this review we discuss the status of ZnO as a semiconductor. We first discuss the growth of bulk and epitaxial films, growth conditions and their influence on the incorporation of native defects and impurities. We then present the theory of doping and native defects in ZnO based on density-functional calculations, discussing the stability and electronic structure of native point defects and impurities and their influence on the electrical conductivity and optical properties of ZnO. We pay special attention to the possible causes of the unintentional n-type conductivity, emphasize the role of impurities, critically review the current status of p-type doping and address possible routes to controlling the electrical conductivity in ZnO. Finally, we discuss band-gap engineering using MgZnO and CdZnO alloys.

3,291 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors performed a comprehensive first-principles investigation of point defects in ZnO based on density functional theory within the local density approximation (LDA) as well as the $\mathrm{LDA}+U$ approach for overcoming the band-gap problem.
Abstract: We have performed a comprehensive first-principles investigation of native point defects in ZnO based on density functional theory within the local density approximation (LDA) as well as the $\mathrm{LDA}+U$ approach for overcoming the band-gap problem. Oxygen deficiency, manifested in the form of oxygen vacancies and zinc interstitials, has long been invoked as the source of the commonly observed unintentional $n$-type conductivity in ZnO. However, contrary to the conventional wisdom, we find that native point defects are very unlikely to be the cause of unintentional $n$-type conductivity. Oxygen vacancies, which have most often been cited as the cause of unintentional doping, are deep rather than shallow donors and have high formation energies in $n$-type ZnO (and are therefore unlikely to form). Zinc interstitials are shallow donors, but they also have high formation energies in $n$-type ZnO and are fast diffusers with migration barriers as low as $0.57\phantom{\rule{0.3em}{0ex}}\mathrm{eV}$; they are therefore unlikely to be stable. Zinc antisites are also shallow donors but their high formation energies (even in Zn-rich conditions) render them unlikely to be stable under equilibrium conditions. We have, however, identified a different low-energy atomic configuration for zinc antisites that may play a role under nonequilibrium conditions such as irradiation. Zinc vacancies are deep acceptors and probably related to the frequently observed green luminescence; they act as compensating centers in $n$-type ZnO. Oxygen interstitials have high formation energies; they can occur as electrically neutral split interstitials in semi-insulating and $p$-type materials or as deep acceptors at octahedral interstitial sites in $n$-type ZnO. Oxygen antisites have very high formation energies and are unlikely to exist in measurable concentrations under equilibrium conditions. Based on our results for migration energy barriers, we calculate activation energies for self-diffusion and estimate defect-annealing temperatures. Our results provide a guide to more refined experimental studies of point defects in ZnO and their influence on the control of $p$-type doping.

2,865 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Vlasenko and Watkins as mentioned in this paper showed that the oxygen vacancy VO is not a shallow donor, but has a deep e(2+∕0) level at ∼10eV below the conduction band.
Abstract: The electronic properties of ZnO have traditionally been explained by invoking intrinsic defects In particular, the frequently observed unintentional n-type conductivity has often been attributed to oxygen vacancies We report first-principles calculations showing that the oxygen vacancy VO is not a shallow donor, but has a deep e(2+∕0) level at ∼10eV below the conduction band The negative-U behavior that causes the 1+charge state to be unstable is associated with large local lattice relaxations We present a detailed configuration coordinate diagram, which allows us to provide a detailed interpretation of recently reported ODEPR (optically detected electron paramagnetic resonance) measurements [L S Vlasenko and G D Watkins, Phys Rev B 71, 125210 (2005)]

1,941 citations