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Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1021/ACS.ENERGYFUELS.0C03751

Investigation of Island/Single-Core- and Archipelago/Multicore-Enriched Asphaltenes and Their Solubility Fractions by Thermal Analysis Coupled with High-Resolution Fourier Transform Ion Cyclotron Resonance Mass Spectrometry

04 Mar 2021-Energy & Fuels (American Chemical Society)-Vol. 35, Iss: 5, pp 3808-3824
Abstract: Despite extensive research, the molecular-level chemical characterization of asphaltenes, a highly aromatic solubility fraction of petroleum, remains an analytical challenge. This fraction is relat...

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Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1039/D1CS00048A
Abstract: Asphaltenes comprise the heaviest and least understood fraction of crude petroleum. The asphaltenes are a diverse and complex mixture of organic and organometallic molecules in which most of the molecular constituents are tightly aggregated into more complicated suprastructures. The bulk properties of asphaltenes arise from a broad range of polycyclic aromatics, heteroatoms, and polar functional groups. Despite much analytical effort, the precise molecular architectures of the material remain unresolved. To understand asphaltene characteristics and reactivity, the field has turned to synthetic model compounds that mirror asphaltene structure, aggregation behavior, and thermal chemistry, including the nucleation of coke. Historically, molecular asphaltene modeling was limited to commercial compounds, offering little illumination and few opportunities for hypothesis-driven research. More recently, however, rational molecular design and modern organic synthesis have started to impact this area. This review provides an overview of commercially available model compounds but is principally focused on the design and synthesis of structurally advanced and appropriately functionalized compounds to mimic the physical and chemical behavior of asphaltenes. Efforts to model asphaltene aggregation are briefly discussed, and a prognosis for the field is offered. A referenced tabulation of the synthetic compounds reported to date is provided.

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Topics: Asphaltene (56%)

5 Citations



Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1021/ACS.ENERGYFUELS.1C01994
02 Sep 2021-Energy & Fuels
Abstract: In the last decades, the production and demand of plastics has drastically increased, with severe environmental impact. Concerning climate change and the idea of a circular economy, waste incinerat...

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2 Citations


Posted ContentDOI: 10.33774/CHEMRXIV-2021-2TSD1-V2
21 Jun 2021-ChemRxiv
Abstract: The production and demand of plastics has drastically increased, with severe environmental impact. Waste incineration is not favored, and efficient recycling strategies are needed. Pyrolysis is a promising approaches but the nature of the residual char is not fully understood. To explore the value of this feedstock, thermal analysis with mass spectrometric detection is deployed. With soft photoionization, we were able to identify alkenes, dienes, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, which were emitted at four distinct mass loss events. Resonance-enhanced multiphoton ionization allows selectively addressing the aromatic constituents. Interestingly, we found an enrichment of UV-stabilizers, such as benzophenone, within the macromolecular nature. High-resolution mass spectrometry addressing the isobaric complexity and pyrolysis gas chromatography was used for structural elucidation. We hypothesize island- and archipelago-type structural motives comparable to asphaltenes but with almost no heteroatoms. The in-depth chemical description of plastic pyrolysis coke will be valuable knowledge in reactor design and material science.

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Topics: Pyrolysis (53%), Char (53%), Mass spectrometry (52%)

1 Citations



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Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1021/EF900975E
19 Jan 2010-Energy & Fuels
Abstract: Asphaltenes, the most aromatic of the heaviest components of crude oil, are critical to all aspects of petroleum use, including production, transportation, refining, upgrading, and heavy-end use in paving and coating materials. As such, efficiency in these diverse disciplines mandates proper chemical accounting of structure−function relations of crude oils and asphaltenes, the vision of petroleomics (Asphaltenes, Heavy Oils and Petroleomics; Mullins, O. C., Sheu, E. Y., Hammami, A., Marshall, A. G., Eds.; Springer: New York, 2007). Indeed, the molecular characterization of asphaltenes is required as well as the detailed understanding of the hierarchical colloidal structures of asphaltenes and petroleum. With great prescience, Professor Teh Fu Yen and co-workers proposed a hierarchical model of asphaltenes to account for many of their characteristics known at that time (Dickie, J. P.; Yen, T. F. Macrostrucutres of asphaltic fractions by various instrumental methods. Anal. Chem. 1967, 39, 1847−1852). This m...

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Topics: Asphaltene (52%)

783 Citations


Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1021/EF990225Z
23 Mar 2000-Energy & Fuels
Abstract: Fluorescence depolarization measurements are used to determine the size of asphaltene molecules and of model compounds for comparison Mean molecular weights of roughly 750 amu with a range of roughly 500−1000 amu are found for petroleum asphaltenes A strong correlation is established between the size of an individual fused ring system in an asphaltene molecule and the overall size of this corresponding molecule, showing that asphaltene molecules have one or perhaps two fused ring systems per molecule Subtle differences in molecular size are found for different virgin crude oil asphaltenes and for a vacuum resid asphaltene Coal asphaltene molecules are found to be much smaller than petroleum asphaltenes The molecular sizes of resins and asphaltenes are found to form a continuous distribution

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Topics: Asphaltene (64%)

741 Citations


Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/S0926-860X(00)00842-5
Abstract: Catalyst deactivation is usually inevitable, although the rate at which it occurs varies greatly. This article discusses the causes of deactivation and the influence on reaction rate. Methods for minimising catalyst deactivation, by tailoring catalyst properties and/or process operations, are presented, as well as reactor configurations suitable for the regeneration of deactivated catalysts. Alkane dehydrogenation is used as an example to demonstrate the variety of engineering solutions possible.

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Topics: Catalyst poisoning (64%)

572 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1073/PNAS.0805069105
Alan G. Marshall1, Ryan P. RodgersInstitutions (1)
Abstract: Each different molecular elemental composition—e.g., CcHhNnOoSs—has a different exact mass. With sufficiently high mass resolving power (m/Δm50% ≈ 400,000, in which m is molecular mass and Δm50% is the mass spectral peak width at half-maximum peak height) and mass accuracy (<300 ppb) up to ≈800 Da, now routinely available from high-field (≥9.4 T) Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry, it is possible to resolve and identify uniquely and simultaneously each of the thousands of elemental compositions from the most complex natural organic mixtures, including petroleum crude oil. It is thus possible to separate and sort petroleum components according to their heteroatom class (NnOoSs), double bond equivalents (DBE = number of rings plus double bonds involving carbon, because each ring or double bond results in a loss of two hydrogen atoms), and carbon number. “Petroleomics” is the characterization of petroleum at the molecular level. From sufficiently complete characterization of the organic composition of petroleum and its products, it should be possible to correlate (and ultimately predict) their properties and behavior. Examples include molecular mass distribution, distillation profile, characterization of specific fractions without prior extraction or wet chemical separation from the original bulk material, biodegradation, maturity, water solubility (and oil:water emulsion behavior), deposits in oil wells and refineries, efficiency and specificity of catalytic hydroprocessing, “heavy ends” (asphaltenes) analysis, corrosion, etc.

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Topics: Petroleomics (70%), Mass (58%), Mass spectrometry (55%) ... read more

501 Citations