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Journal ArticleDOI

Investigation of poly(o-anisidine)-SnO2 nanocomposites for fabrication of low temperature operative liquefied petroleum gas sensor

19 Dec 2011-Journal of Applied Physics (American Institute of Physics)-Vol. 110, Iss: 12, pp 124501
TL;DR: In this article, a poly(o-anisidine)-tin oxide (POA-SnO2) nanocomposites have been investigated for the fabrication of low temperature operative (100 °C) liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) sensor.
Abstract: Poly(o-anisidine)-tin oxide (POA-SnO2) nanocomposites has been investigated for the fabrication of low temperature operative (100 °C) liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) sensor. The POA-SnO2 nanocomposites have been synthesized through an in situ chemical polymerization of o-anisidine in presence of SnO2 nanoparticles. The POA-SnO2 nanocomposite shows better LPG sensing properties than that of pure POA. The nanocomposite with 50 wt. % SnO2 exhibits an excellent LPG sensing characteristics at the operating temperature of 100 °C such as higher relative gas response (∼23.47% to 3.4% of LPG), extremely rapid response (∼6 s), fast recovery (∼33 s), good reproducibility, and remarkable selectivity. The application of POA-SnO2 nanocomposites for fabrication of the LPG sensor was demonstrated.
Citations
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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, the authors reviewed the recent developments of conductivity type of gas sensors for various SnO 2-based composites, including carbon nanomaterials, and other materials.

104 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, a polythiophene (PTP) coated SnO 2 nano-hybrid particles have been synthesized using an ultrasound assisted in situ oxidative polymerization of thiophene monomers.
Abstract: Polythiophene (PTP) coated SnO 2 nano-hybrid particles have been synthesized using an ultrasound assisted in situ oxidative polymerization of thiophene monomers. Reference experiments have also been performed in the absence of ultrasound to clearly illustrate the effect of ultrasonic irradiations. FTIR results show broadening and shifting of peaks toward lower wave numbers, suggesting better conjugation and chemical interactions between PTP and SnO 2 particles. Due to strong synergetic interaction between the SnO 2 nanoparticles and polythiophene, this hybrid nanocomposite has the potential application as chemical sensors. It has been observed that PTP/SnO 2 hybrid sensors could detect liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) with high sensitivity at room temperature. PTP/SnO 2 hybrid composite containing 20 wt% SnO 2 showed the maximum sensitivity at room temperature. The sensing mechanism of PTP/SnO 2 hybrid nanocomposites to LPG was mainly attributed to the effects of p–n heterojunction between PTP and SnO 2 .

60 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, a room temperature chemical method was used to surface coat PbS nanoparticles onto CdS nanowires to get high surface area nano-heterojunction, which was exposed to sense liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) at room temperature (27°C).
Abstract: Room temperature chemical method was used to surface coat PbS nanoparticles onto CdS nanowires to get high surface area nano-heterojunction. This high surface architecture was exposed to sense liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) at room temperature (27 °C) which is an advantage to adsorb and de-adsorb LPG molecules easily by penetrating from top to bottom. At room temperature, the formed nano-heterojunction exhibited gas response more than 60% upon 1200 ppm exposure to of LPG with faster response and recovery time as 120 and 105 s, respectively. The formed device showed stable response of 93% for 10 days.

37 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, anionic dye and anionic surfactant directed chemical oxidation method was used to synthesize polypyrrole (PPy) nanotubes and nanorods.
Abstract: In light of spectroscopic and electrical investigations, ammonia gas sensing mechanism in polypyrrole (PPy) nanotubes/nanorods has been discussed. For improvement in the gas sensing properties of PPy and its surface to volume ratio, nanotubes and nanorods have been synthesized by anionic dye and anionic surfactant directed chemical oxidation method. The gas sensing behavior of the prepared samples has been tested by measuring the change in electrical resistance of the samples in ammonia environment. Scanning electron microscopic investigations have confirmed the synthesis of PPy nanotubes having diameter ∼80–90 nm and length ∼1.5–2.0 μm and the PPy nanorods with diameter ∼150–200 nm and length ∼15–20 μm. The chemical analysis and the confirmation of synthesis of PPy were carried out by Fourier transform infrared and Raman spectroscopic techniques. Better sensitivity against ammonia has been observed in PPy nanorods. For the first time with the help of Raman spectroscopic investigations, the mechanism of gas sensing has been discussed in detail.

32 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, a simple chemical route has been employed to grow interconnected nanobeads of CdO having necklace like structure through air annealing of cadmium hydroxide nanowires.

30 citations

References
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Journal ArticleDOI
Noboru Yamazoe1
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors demonstrated that the sensing characteristics of a semiconductor gas sensor using SnO2 can be improved by controlling fundamental factors which affect its receptor and transducer functions.
Abstract: It is demonstrated that the sensing characteristics of a semiconductor gas sensor using SnO2 can be improved by controlling fundamental factors which affect its receptor and transducer functions. The transducer function is deeply related with the microstructure of the elements, i.e., the grain size of SnO2 (D) and the depth of the surface space-charge layer (L). The sensitivity is drastically promoted when D is made comparable to or less than 2L, either by control of D for pure SnO2 elements or by control of the Debye length for impurity-doped elements. On the other hand, the receptor function is drastically modified by the introduction of foreign receptors on the surface of SnO2. In the particular cases of Pd and Ag promoters, the oxides (PdO and Ag2O) formed in air interact with the SnO2 surface to produce an electron-deficient space-charge layer, and this contributes much to promoting the gas sensitivity. For a test gas having a specific reactivity, such specificity can be utilized for exploiting gas-selective receptors, as exemplified by CuOSnO2 and La2O3SnO2 elements, which detect H2S and ethanol gas respectively very sensitively.

1,534 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
07 Mar 2007-Sensors
TL;DR: In this article, a review of gas sensors fabricated by using conducting polymers such as polyaniline (PAni), polypyrrole (PPy) and poly (3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT) as the active layers has been reviewed.
Abstract: The gas sensors fabricated by using conducting polymers such as polyaniline (PAni), polypyrrole (PPy) and poly (3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT) as the active layers have been reviewed. This review discusses the sensing mechanism and configurations of the sensors. The factors that affect the performances of the gas sensors are also addressed. The disadvantages of the sensors and a brief prospect in this research field are discussed at the end of the review.

1,333 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
01 Jun 2010-Sensors
TL;DR: The nature of the gas response and how it is fundamentally linked to surface structure is explored and Synthetic routes to metal oxide semiconductor gas sensors are discussed and related to their affect on surface structure.
Abstract: Metal oxide semiconductor gas sensors are utilised in a variety of different roles and industries. They are relatively inexpensive compared to other sensing technologies, robust, lightweight, long lasting and benefit from high material sensitivity and quick response times. They have been used extensively to measure and monitor trace amounts of environmentally important gases such as carbon monoxide and nitrogen dioxide. In this review the nature of the gas response and how it is fundamentally linked to surface structure is explored. Synthetic routes to metal oxide semiconductor gas sensors are also discussed and related to their affect on surface structure. An overview of important contributions and recent advances are discussed for the use of metal oxide semiconductor sensors for the detection of a variety of gases—CO, NOx, NH3 and the particularly challenging case of CO2. Finally a description of recent advances in work completed at University College London is presented including the use of selective zeolites layers, new perovskite type materials and an innovative chemical vapour deposition approach to film deposition.

1,189 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, a non-lithographic deposition process was used to form single polymeric nanowire chemical sensors, with diameters on the order of 100 nm, which were deposited on gold electrodes.
Abstract: We have used a nonlithographic deposition process to form single polymeric nanowire chemical sensors. Oriented polyaniline nanowires, with diameters on the order of 100 nm, were deposited on gold electrodes. The devices showed a rapid and reversible resistance change upon exposure to NH3 gas at concentrations as low as 0.5 ppm. The well-defined single-wire geometry allows for the characterization of the wire material and the device response. The response times of nanowire sensors with various diameters correspond to radius-dependent differences in the diffusion time of ammonia gas into the wires. The nanowire deposition process, utilizing a scanned microfabricated electrospinning source, presents a general method for interfacing polymeric nanowire devices with microfabricated structures.

728 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The gas experiments presented confirm good sensing properties, the possibility to use dopants and catalyser such in thin film gas sensors and the real integration in low power consumption transducers of single crystalline nanobelts prove the feasibility of large scale manufacturing of well-organized sensor arrays based on different nanostructures.

701 citations